Waste Exchange Network Recycling Industry

This is the most important category within the waste sector to develop a new industry within the existing industries and should be developed in cooperation with the mother industries to guarantee sustainability. Promoting this category will enhance not only the conservation of natural resources to approach cradle-to-cradle concept and the protection of the environment, but also will disseminate the culture of waste industry within the industrial communities and decision makers. This promotion will lead to the end of construction of any new disposal facilities such as landfills or incinerators. The italicized word cooperation mentioned before is very important to guarantee a continuous supply of raw materials (wastes) and reach sustainable development. This industrial category should be located any where between the waste generators to minimize the transportation cost. The most famous examples of waste integration category are the new industries established within Kalundborg industrial estate in Denmark. New industries joined Kalunbork Industrial Estate (eco-industrial park) based on the waste of the core industries as a byproduct as shown in Figure 1.34. They ended up with the following added new industries:

• Gyproc —plasterboard production: Asnaes power station "mother company" installed a desulfurization unit to remove sulfur from its flue gases, which allows it to produce calcium sulfate (gypsum). This is the main raw material in manufacturing of plasterboard at Gyproc. By purchasing synthetic "waste" gypsum from Asnaes power station, Gyproc has been able to replace the natural gypsum that is imported from Spain.

Igneous Rock Concept Map Answers
FIGURE 1.34 Waste exchange network recycling industry, Kalundborg Industrial symbiosis in 2000. (Source: Laura Saikkuu, "Eco-Industrial Parks: A Background Report for the Eco-Industrial Park Project at Rantasalmi," Finland: Publications of Regional Council of Etela-Savo, 2006.)

• Fish farm — consists of 57 fish ponds: Asnaes Power Station started fish farming to solve the problem of thermal pollution generated from the cooling water. The seawater used to cool the condenser of the thermal power plant was utilized to develop an artificial fish farm; the fish grew faster in such a warm temperature.

• Fertilizer: Regulation in Denmark placed significant restriction on the discharge of organics into the sea. Since Novo Nordisk (main company) used to mix the industrial sludge (organic) with wastewater and discharge it to the sea, it found out the most cost-effective way for sludge disposal is to convert it into fertilizer and give it to the nearby farmers.

• Cement company — Aalborg Portland and road paving: Asnaes Power Station (main company) using coal as a fuel source and produced a huge quantity of ash to be landfilled. Asnaes Power Station started to sell fly ash to cement factories to reduce the cost of waste disposal in landfill and gain money for further development. They built Ash silo with an unloading facility to accomplish this duty.

• Kemira — a sulfuric acid producer: Statoil refinery process the oil and separate the sulfur from the oil to produce high quality fuel. Statoil refinery begins selling sulfur to Kemira in Jutland. Excess gas from the operations at the Statoil refinery is treated to remove sulfur, which is sold as raw material for the manufacturing of sulfuric acid at Kemira.

Another subcategory can also be fitted within this category to use the waste of one plant as one of the raw material to be replaced for another plant. The waste generated from iron and steel industry, such as water-cooled slag and air-cooled slag, can be used to replace natural resources as:

• Grinding water-cooled slag produced from iron and steel industry discussed before to be mixed with raw cement to produce a special type of cement

• Cutting air-cooled slag produced from iron and steel industry discussed before to be used as an aggregate in flexible pavement or interlocks to enhance the properties and reduce the use of natural resources

Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable.

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