Well Development

Practically all well-drilling methods, and especially the rotary drill method, cause smearing and compaction or cementing of clay, mud, and fine material on the bore hole wall and in the crevices of consolidated formations penetrated. This will reduce the sidewall flow of water into the well and, hence, the well yield. Various methods are used to remove adhering mud, clay, and fines and to develop a well to its full capacity. These include pumping, surging (valved surge device, solid surge device, pumping with surge device, air surge), and fracturing (explosives, high-pressure jetting, backwashing). Adding a polyphosphate or a nonfoaming

FIGURE 1.8 Pitless adapters. ((a) Courtesy Martin Manufacturing Co., Ramsey, NJ. (b) Courtesy Williams Products Co., Joliet, IL. (c) Courtesy Herb Maass Service, Milwaukee, WI.)
Snaitar Well Cap
FIGURE 1.9 Sanitary expansion well cap.
FIGURE 1.10 Improved well seal.
FIGURE 1.11 Insulated pumphouse. (Source: Sewage Disposal and Water Systems on the Farm, Extension Bulletin 247, University of Minnesota Extension Service, revised 1956. Reproduced with permission.)

detergent can also aid in removing adhering materials. The well development operation is continued until the discharge becomes practically clear of sand (5 ppm or less). Following development, the well should be tested to determine the dependable well yield. The well is then disinfected and the log completed.

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