Xiaolangdi Resettlement

Sanitation Improvements The World Bank project for resettlement of families displaced by the major Xiaolangdi dam on the Yellow River completed in year 2001160 gave careful attention to provisions of (1) use of wells for water supply, with protection from surface contamination, for all homes in the more than 60 resettlement villages, together with use of elevated water storage tanks, which served the very useful purpose of enabling ready disinfection of the supply using hypochlorite powder, plus periodic monitoring of chlorine residuals in selected house/public building taps, (2) provisions for handwashing by students leaving toilets (See see "School Sanitation"), (3) managing solid wastes from houses by furnishing routine pickup, storage in protected storage sites (to prevent public access, especially by children), transfer to landfill sites using sanitary landfill techniques, again fenced off from the public, (4) careful attention to provision of adequate town drainage plus planning for discharge of the drainage outside the town without flooding downstream areas. Unfortunately, the Chinese resettlement authority opted for use of dry toilets in the homes, instead of use of pour-flush toilets (to enable washing on exit), which could have been used, considering that all homes received piped water supply. Otherwise, these homes actually had sanitation facilities at the "semiurban" level, far better than those in the towns that the resettlers come from.

Household Excreta Management The World Bank project of the late 1990s for resettling villagers displaced by the Xiaolangdi dam on the Yellow River160 included an estimate of the relative values of household excreta management systems for protecting public health, which is summarized in Figure 4.20. This compares the performance of (1) dry latrine toilet systems,

(2) dry toilets with one receiving pit, (3) dry toilets with two pits, and (4) pour-flush toilets with two receiving pits, and shows that the pour-flush systems should be utilized whenever feasible. The pour-flush/two-pit systems not only permits washing before leaving the toilet, but also the water content in the receiving pit greatly speeds up sludge stabilization, so that the sludge removed (usually taken for use as fertilizer for crops), is very much safer for handling than dry pit sludge.

Village Environmental Officers (VEOs) The overall environmental program already noted for Xiaolandgi resettlement towns included attention not only to the water/sanitation facilities but also attention to all other significant village environmental issues including adequacy of roads, electricity service, clinics, and even the need for planting of trees to furnish aesthetically attractive green areas. To ensure continuing adequate attention to all of these the local governments for all of the resettlement towns, at the World Bank's recommendation, appointed a village environmental officer (VEO) for continuing monitoring of all the various environmental protection activities, with monthly reporting following a standardized format including recommendations to the resettlement program's director on needed improvements81. These officers are included in the upper echelon of the village governmental hierarchy and are paid for their services. An interesting finding is that all of the village chiefs expressed real enthusiasm for using the VEO, and at time of completion of the resettlement construction program, the VEO program was going very well.

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