Significance Of Chloride

Chloride in reasonable concentrations is not harmful to humans. At concentrations above 250 mg L it gives a salty taste to water, which is objectionable to many people. For this reason a secondary standard of 250 mg L for chloride in drinking water has been set by the U.S. EPA, the same value contained in the WHO guidelines. In many areas of the world where water supplies are scarce, sources containing as much as 2000 mg L are used for domestic purposes without the development of adverse...

Computer Methods For Solving Equilibrium Problems

The chemical equilibrium problems presented in this chapter are relatively simple ones involving only a few species and equilibrium expressions. They have been solved using equilibrium constants, mass balances, charge balances, and sometimes proton conditions, and spreadsheets or by making simplifying assumptions and generating quadratic equations or by drawing log concentration diagrams. However, for more complex problems where many species are involved (say more than 15 to 20), where several...

Significance Of Carbon Dioxide And Mineral Acidity

Acidity is of little concern from a sanitary or public health viewpoint. Carbon dioxide is present in malt and carbonated beverages in concentrations greatly in excess of any concentrations known in natural waters, and no deleterious effects due to the carbon dioxide have been recognized. Waters that contain mineral acidity are so unpalatable that problems related to human consumption are nonexistent. Acid waters are of concern because of their corrosive characteristics and the expense involved...