Chapter

Basic Concepts from Organic Chemistry 212

5.1 Introduction 212 Aliphatic Compounds

5.2 Hydrocarbons 216

5.3 Alcohols 222

5.4 Aldehydes and Ketones 227

5.5 Acids 231

5.6 Esters 235

5.7 Ethers 236

5.8 Alkyl Halides and Other Halogenated Aliphatic Compounds 237

5.9 Simple Compounds Containing Nitrogen 242

5.10 Cyclic Aliphatic Compounds 245

5.11 Mercaptans or Thioalcohols 245 Aromatic Compounds

5.12 Introduction 246

5.13 Hydrocarbons 247

5.14 Phenols 251

5.15 Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketones, and Acids 254

5.16 Simple Compounds Containing Nitrogen 256 Heterocyclic Compounds

5.17 Heterocyclic Compounds 258

5.18 Dyes 260

The Common Foods and Related Compounds

5.19 General 260

5.20 Carbohydrates 260

5.21 Fats, Oils, and Waxes 266

5.22 Proteins and Amino Acids 269 Detergents

5.23 Detergents 275

5.24 Soaps 275

5.25 Synthetic Detergents 276 Pesticides

5.26 Pesticides 279

5.27 Chlorinated Pesticides 279

5.28 Organic Phosphorus Pesticides 281

5.29 Carbamate Pesticides 282

5.30 s-Triazines 283

5.31 Biological Properties of Pesticides 283

5.32 Pharmaceutically Active and Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals 284

Behavior of Organics in the Environment and in Engineered Systems

5.33 Introduction 288

5.34 Fate of Organics 289

5.35 Structure- and Property-Activity Relationships 303 Problems 307

References 313

CHAPTER 6

Basic Concepts from Biochemistry 315

6.1 Introduction 315

6.2 Enzymes 316

6.3 Cofactors 318

6.4 Temperature Relationships 318

6.5 pH 321

6.6 Major and Trace Elements 322

6.7 Biodégradation 322

6.8 Biochemistry of Carbohydrates 324

6.9 Biochemistry of Proteins 325

6.10 Biochemistry of Fats and Oils 326

6.11 General Biochemical Pathways 328

6.12 Energetics and Bacterial Growth 336

6.13 Novel Biotransformations 339

6.14 Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering 345

6.15 Biochemistry of Humans 352 Problems 355 References 359

CHAPTER 7

Basic Concepts from Colloid Chemistry 360

7.1 Introduction 360

7.2 Colloidal Dispersions in Liquids 364

7.3 Colloidal Dispersions in Air 373 Problems 375

References 375

CHAPTER 8

Basic Concepts from Nuclear Chemistry 376

8.1 Introduction 376

8.2 Atomic Structure 377

8.3 Stable and Radioactive Nuclides 379

8.4 Atomic Transmutations and Artificial Radioactivity 385

8.5 Nuclear Reactions 387

8.6 Nuclear Fission 388

8.7 Nuclear Fusion 390

8.8 Use of Isotopes as Tracers 390

8.9 Effect of Radiation on Humans 394 Problems 396 References 397

PART 2

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Healthy Chemistry For Optimal Health

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