Fundamentals of Chemistry for Environmental Engineering and Science

CHAPTER 1

Introduction 3

1.1 Water 4

1.2 Wastewater and Water Pollution Control 5

1.3 Industrial and Hazardous Wastes 6

1.4 Air Pollution and Global Environmental Change 7

1.5 Summary 9

chapter 2

Basic Concepts from General Chemistry 10

2.1 Elements, Symbols, Atomic Weights, Gram Atomic Weights 10

2.2 Compounds, Formulas, Formula Weights, Gram Molecular Weights, Mole, Equivalent Weights, Equivalent 11

2.3 Avogadro's Number 13

2.4 Valency, Oxidation State, and Bonding 13

2.5 Nomenclature 16

2.6 Chemical Equations; Weight Relationships and Conservation of Mass and Charge 17

2.7 Oxidation-Reduction Equations 18

2.8 Metals and Nonmetals 24

2.9 The Gas Laws 24

2.10 Solutions 27

2.11 Equilibrium and Le Chatelier's Principle 29

2.12 Activity and Activity Coefficients 30

2.13 Variations of the Equilibrium Relationship 32

2.14 Ways of Shifting Chemical Equilibria 42

2.15 Amphoteric Hydroxides 45 Problems 46 References 51

chapter 3

Basic Concepts from Physical

Chemistry 52

3.1 Introduction 52

3.2 Thermodynamics 52

3.3 Vapor Pressure of Liquids 63

3.4 Surface Tension 64

3.5 Binary Mixtures 66

3.6 Solutions of Solids in Liquids 69

3.7 Membrane Processes: Osmosis and Dialysis 71

3.8 Principles of Solvent Extraction 74

3.9 Electrochemistry 76

3.10 Chemical Kinetics 86

3.11 Catalysis 96

3.12 Adsorption 97 Problems 106 References 112

Contents

CHAPTER 4

Basic Concepts from Equilibrium Chemistry 114

4.1 Introduction 114

4.2 Limitations of Equilibrium Calculations 114

4.3 Ion Activity Coefficients 116

4.4 Solution to Equilibrium Problems 118

4.5 Acids arid Bases 121

4.6 Buffers 160

4.7 Buffer Index 162

4.8 Complex Formation 164

4.9 Solubility of Salts 174

4.10 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 190

4.11 Computer Methods for Solving Equilibrium Problems 198

Problems 199 References 211

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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