Concurrent with the evolution of environmental engineering practice, analytical methods have been developed to obtain the factual information required for the resolution and solution of problems. In many cases different methods were proposed ; for the same determination, and many of them were modified in some manner. As a result, analytical data obtained by analysts were often in disagreement. In cases involving litigation, judges often found it difficult to evaluate evidence based upon analytical methods. In an attempt to bring order out of chaos, the American Public Health Association (APHA) appointed a committee to study the various analytical methods available and published the recommendations of the committee as "Standard Methods of Water Analysis" in 1905. Since that time, the scope of "Standard ! Methods" has been enlarged to include wastewaters, and the American Water . Works Association (AWWA) and the Water Environment Federation (WEF) have ; become collaborators in its preparation. The twentieth edition appeared in 1998.1
"Standard Methods" as published today is the product of the untiring effort of -j hundreds of individuals who serve on committees and subcommittees, testing and j improving analytical procedures for the purpose of selecting those best suited for | inclusion in "Standard Methods." Evidence that is obtained by qualified analysts | based upon methods recommended in "Standard Methods" is normally accepted in j the courts of the United States without qualification.
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