Problems

19.1 What is hardness in water and by what is it caused?

19.2 For what reasons is hardness in water undesirable?

19.3 What is a precipitate sometimes formed in water upon boiling?

19.4 What are the "Standard Methods" procedures for measuring hardness?

19.5 Discuss the principles involved in the EDTA titrimetric method of measuring hardness,

19.6 What is the difference between permanent and temporary hardness?

19.7 Why might we wish to know how much of the hardness in water is caused by magnesium and how much by calcium?

19.8 A water has the following analysis:

Cation

mg/L

Anion

mg/L

Na*

20

cr

40

K+

30

HCOj"

67

Caî+

5

CO|-

0

Mg2+

10

sor

5

Sr2+

2

no3-

10

What is the total hardness, carbonate hardness, and noncarbonate hardness in mg/L as CaC03?

19.9 A water has the following analysis:

Cation

mg/L

Anion

mg/L

Na+

30

er

60

K+

S

HCOi

45

Caï+

36

cor

I

Mgî+

12

sor

60

Si2*

1

NOj"

2

What is the total hardness, carbonate hardness, and noncarbonate hardness in mg/L as CaCOj?

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