A

Accelerator mass spectrometry

DNA damage measured using, 161 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-DNA adducts detected using, 146 Acrylonitrile, 372 Activin, 401

Adenomatous polyposis coli, 175 Aflatoxin biomarkers of exposure, 10 characteristics of, 307-308 hepatitis B virus and, 310-311 molecular epidemiology of, 308-310 p53 tumor suppressor gene mutations, 311-314 Aflatoxin B1

description of, 309, 435 ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction mapping of, 150 liver cancer and, 150, 435, 439 Aflatoxin-albumin adduct levels, 311, 315 Aflatoxin-nucleic acid adduct, 310 Ah receptor background, 358

cell proliferation regulated by, 359-360 description of, 358 gene transcription, 358-359 ligand-activated, 359 polychlorinated biphenyls mediated by, 511

signal transduction pathway of, 358-360 Akwesasne background, 508 history of, 508 industrial plants in, 508 location of, 509

polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in air, 515-516

drinking water, 514 fish, 512-514 health effects, 518-519 health problems associated with, 510 humans, 516-518 overview of, 510 sediments, 512 soil, 512 sources of, 508 vegetables, 514 water, 512 Task Force on the Environment, 519-522

university-community relationships, 519-522

Allele cancer susceptibility, 74-75 CYP2D6*1, 46 definition of, 40 DNA repair genes, 70 genotypic distribution, 42 PON1, 47 PON1*3, 47

rolling circle amplification for in situ discrimination of, 330 XRCC1, 71-72 Antibodies, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-DNA adducts detected using, 146 Anti-7ß,8a-dihydroxy-9a,10a-epoxy-

7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]-pyrene, See BPDE Antiestrogen drugs raloxifene, 132-133 tamoxifen, See Tamoxifen toremifene, 132 Antioxidants anticarcinogenic potential of, 366, 373 ascorbate, 374-375

nitrones, 375-377 a-tocopherol, 374-375 APE1, 71 Arctic description of, 28 environmental resources of, 28 metal contamination in, 297-299 methylmercury exposure biomarkers, 236-237 Arrays, future of, 330-331 Arsenic aqueous levels of, 296 carcinogenetic potential of, 374 dietary amounts of, 256 disorders associated with, 374 drinking water levels correlated with urinary arsenic concentrations, 251-258

health effects of environmental exposure to, 258 toenail accumulation of causes of, 251 studies of, 251-258 urinary arsenic levels correlated with, 251-258 urinary concentrations of arsenic species, 250-251 characteristics of, 257 description of, 249-250 drinking water arsenic concentrations correlated with, 251-258 exposure biomarker use of, 250 toenail arsenic concentrations correlated with, 251-258 Aryl hydrocarbon receptor, 47-48 Asbestos exposure biomarkers for, 33 fibrosis caused by, 33 Ascorbate, 272, 374-375 Astrocytomas, 372 Autofluorescence, 557, 559 Autoradiography, 416-417

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