ADNA biomarkers

Several assays have been developed that have been used as biomarkers of DNA damage, these include micronuclei assay, sister chromatic exchanges, chromosome aberrations, mutations in the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene, and DNA adducts. However, all but the last approach gives an indirect measure of damage processing. A number of rigorous analytical techniques have been used to analyze the formation and repair of DNA adducts in human samples, primarily human lymphocytes (see Table 11.1). These approaches have been nicely reviewed by Poirer, Santella, and Weston.1 Most of the techniques outlined in Table 11.1 have high sensitivity of 1 adduct in 107-109.

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