S

Scorpion primers, 328 Semen analyses, 394-396 Sensitivity, 8 Sialyltransferase, 220 Signal transduction Ah receptor, 358-360 reactive oxygen species mediation of, 377-379 Silurana tropicalis, 347-348, 350 Single nucleotide polymorphisms, 51-52,

57-58, 68 Sister chromatid exchanges, 277 Skin cancer incidence of, 163

sunlight-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and, 150 Smoke, cigarette carcinogens in metabolic activation of, 111-112 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 143 types of, 109-111 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'deoxyguanosine formation by, 114 DNA adducts analysis of, 113-114 aromatic, 116

biomarkers of lung cancer, 114-115 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of, 113 ethnicity and, 117 exposure to smoking and, 116 factors that affect, 110, 116-120 formation of, 111-112 gender and, 117-118 lung cancer and, 112-113 metabolic polymorphisms and, 118 mutagen sensitivity and, 119-120 quantitation of, 113 smoking status and, 116-117 surrogate tissue, 114-115 free radicals in, 111 gender effects, 117-118 genetic factors and, 110

organs affected by, 114 oxidant levels in, 115 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in, 110-111

reactive oxygen species in, 111 Sparteine, 46-47 Specificity, 8

Sperm, See also Male reproductive health analyses of, 394-396 biomarkers of function, 396-397 chromatin structure assays, 399 chromosomal abnormalities in, 398 differentiation of, 399 DNA damage, 400 maturation of, 391, 399 morphologic evaluations, 395 motility assessments, 395-396 viability of, 395-396 Steroidogenesis, 416 SupF system clustering analysis, 193-198 description of, 185-186 materials and methods for, 186-188 spectra, 193-198

spontaneous mutations, 193-198 ultraviolet light-induced mutations, 188-193 Susceptibility, biomarkers of benefits of, 21 definition of, 6-7, 21, 432 determinants, 433 development of, 439-440 DNA repair capacity, 84 epidemiology application of, 30 familial, 66 functions of, 6-7, 357 genetic susceptibilities identified using, 21-23

health care concerns, 22 inflammation as, See Inflammation legal effects, 22 mercury exposure in brain, 230-231 in kidney, 228-229 research of, 439-440 schematic diagram of, 357 social issues associated with, 21-22 tort claim effects, 22

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