Aerobic Degradation

Aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons is a long known and well-studied process. Oxidation of medium chain or long chain alkanes by aerobic microorganisms occurs via monoterminal (CH3-CH2-(CH2)n-CH2-CH3 to CH3-CH2-(CH2)n-CH2-CH2OH), biterminal (CH3-CH2-(CH2)n-CH23COOH to HOCH3-CH2-(CH2)n-CH2-COOH) or subterminal (CH3-CH2-(CH2)n-CH2-CH3 to CH3-CH2-(CH2)n-(CH2-CHOH-CH3) pathways as suggested by Berthe-Corti and Fetzner (2002). The enzymes involved in the aerobic degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons...

Plant Tissue Culture

Plant tissue culture has played a crucial role in elucidating the ability of plant cells in detoxification of contaminants. In vitro culture is used as model plant systems to study the responses of plant cells to hazardous compounds, the metabolic processes involved in their degradation and the end products formed. The information obtained from plant tissue culture experiments can be used to direct field trials for phytore-mediation. In contrast to whole plants, in vitro cultures can be...

Role of Microbiologically Rich Compost in Reducing Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

Mehta, Varun Gupta, Shivom Singh, Rashmi Srivastava, Elli Sen, Martin Romantschuk, and A.K. Sharma Abstract Plant abiotic and biotic stress is related to unfavorable and environmental constraints. These stresses represent the principal cause of crop failure, decreasing average yields of major crops by more than 50 . Compost can be considered as a soil conditioner that contributes to soil fertility, structure, porosity, organic matter, water holding capacity and disease suppression....

Genetic Diversity of Enteropathogens in River Narmada

Freshwater biodiversity is an important source of food, income, and livelihood, particularly to rural communities in developing countries. Studies have estimated the economic value of river basins in the billions of dollars (Schuyt 2005). River Narmada is no exception, being an important source of fresh water in the states of Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. The numerous taxonomic, molecular and genetic advances made over the past decade have helped in identification of pathogenic microbes...

Exopolymers Biosurfactants and Other Biomolecules

Prokaryotic microorganisms in nature produce diverse and chemically complex exopolymeric substances (EPS) comprising of a variety of high molecular weight organic molecules viz. polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids along with other non-polymeric constituents of low molecular weight. EPS localized on outer bacterial cell surface mediate exchange of nutrients and essential metal ions with surrounding environments and also play important role in cell adhesion, formation of...

Comparative Analysis of Situation of Biomedical Waste Management in India with Other Countries

On analysing the situation in other countries, Indian policies, regulations and implementation found to lack in many of the aspects. Some of them could be summarised below 1. As the Rule notifies notwithstanding anything contained in the Motor Vehicles Act, 1989, the untreated bio-medical waste shall be transported only in such vehicle as may be authorized for the purpose by the component authority as specified by the Government. The Rules do not specify what type of transport vehicle needs to...

Metallothioneins and Other Protective Mechanisms

An important protective mechanism used by cells in response to a variety of stress is the expression of heat shock genes. These proteins are present in highly conserved forms in all organisms studied including bacteria, plant and animals. Metallothioneins are low molecular weight proteins or polypeptides (6,0008,000 Da) which bind metal ions in metal thiolate clusters. These polypeptides are abundant in cysteine residues (cys) and often possess a characteristic pattern of 'S' containing amino...

Role of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria in Arsenic Remediation

Groundwater extraction and treatment is the most widespread method for treatment of groundwater with elevated arsenic levels (US EPA report 2002). Although removal of dissolved arsenic from extracted groundwater in the treatment systems is usually effective, these systems generally cannot accomplish in situ decrease of groundwater arsenic on reasonable time scales (Voudrias 2001 Keimowitz et al. 2007). Therefore, alternate intervention strategies, such as in situ remediation, are of potential...

Exploitation of Bacteriophages in Various Water Systems

Water Systems (river, lake, pond, and swimming tanks) containing diverse group of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa and metazoan parasites, even when treated with chemical agents, continue to create serious health problems. Radiation, one of the most efficient water treatment procedures, is very expensive for practical implementation, in case of developing countries. Alternatives such as biocontrol agents may prove effective at such levels. There are reports in which phages have been used...

Role of Compost to Combat Stresses

Compost amendment to soil is mostly considered as a way to improve the soil fertility and physical structure, as it helps in stabilization of the aggregated framework which may reduces erosion and runoff process (Bresson et al. 2001 Barzegar et al. 2002 Innerebner et al. 2006). Furthermore, it increases the amount of vital nutrients and soil organic carbon (Filcheva and Tsadilas 2002). Utilization of compost also stimulates the soil micro flora and fauna, particularly in degraded and arid...

Various Forms of Phytoremediation

Depending on the type of contaminant present, phytoremediation treatments can be diverse (Doty 2008). Metals uptaken by plants cannot be metabolized but instead are translocated to the harvestable regions viz. stems and leaves from where they can be removed by harvesting those parts or they may be volatilized (Doty 2008). The harvested parts are finally treated as hazardous wastes or the metals are recovered as ore (Sadowsky 1999). Removal of contaminants from the soil via roots and...

Sources of Cyanide and Nitriles 25231 Soil

The contamination of soil with cyanide is usually in the form of iron cyanide complexes Fe(CN)6 3- and Fe(CN)6 4- is generally found at several types of industrial sites. The hazards for human health or the environment posed by such sites are mostly linked with the chemical behaviour and mobility of complexed cyanide in soil. This behaviour is probably dominated by equilibrium with prussian blue, Fe4(Fe(CN)6) 3 which is sparingly soluble under acidic conditions and limits dissolved cyanide...

Application of Carbonic Anhydrase in Carbon Sequestration

The greenhouse effect occurs naturally providing a habitable climate. Atmospheric concentration of some of the gases that produce the greenhouse effect are increasing due to human activities and world's climate scientist believe this is an instrumental cause for global warming. Over one third of the human induced greenhouse gases come from the burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity nuclear power plants do not emit these gases (Sathaye et al. 2006) . The unpredictable warming of the...

Advantages and Limitations of Phytoremediation

Compared to other clean-up approaches, phytoremediation has several advantages. The method is cheap, being ten times less expensive than conventional non-biological strategies (Chappell 1998). Phytoremediation requires low installation and maintenance costs, involving only the use of fertilizers and watering to maintain plant growth. Cleaning up of contaminated sites using standard strategies is expensive. 6.0-8.0 billion is spent per annum to remediate waste sites in the USA alone whereas on a...

Bioremediation of Inorganic Pollutants 471 Heavy Metal

Heavy metals are the main group of inorganic contaminants and a considerable large area of land is contaminated with them due to mining, industry, agriculture and defense activities. Although metals are present naturally in the earth's crust at various levels and many metals are essential for cells (e.g. copper, iron, manganese, nickel, zinc), all metals are toxic at higher concentrations. Specifically, any metal (or metalloid) species may be considered a contaminant if it occurs where it is...

Elucidating the Metabolic Pathways Involved in Biodegradation

Hundreds of xenobiotic compounds, hundreds of enzymes, hundreds of reactions, hundreds of interlinked pathways and add to this environmental conditions (aerobic or anaerobic, nutrient availability, moisture and other factors) making biodegradation in principle a complex process but to keep it simple all reactions have one aim to follow and that is, mineralization into simple components, whatsoever the compound may be. Thermodynamic feasibility, chemical equilibrium, reaction dynamism and many...

And Their Significance in Metal Bioremediation

Bacterial metallothionein genes bmtA from Anabaena PCC 7120, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida encoding metallothionein that bind multiple zinc and copper ions with high affinity have already been cloned. Thiol modification demonstrates that cystein coordinates zinc in all these proteins and participates primarily in metal homeostasis. Bacterial isolates with this specific protein accumulate very high intracellular levels of metals without any deleterious effects on cell physiology...

Shrimp Waste Contributes to Environmental Pollution

Chitin Application

Processing of large bulk of fish, shrimp and other aquatic organisms produces a corresponding large bulk of by-products and wastes. Much of these wastes are made into various value-added products, while considerable quantities are discharged as the processing effluents with large volume of waters used in processing. Fish and shrimp processing effluents are very high in biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, fat-oil-grease, pathogenic and other microflora,...

Metal Accumulation and Detoxification by Cyanobacteria

Heavy metals are considered to be major environmental pollutant and are regarded to be cytotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic, prominent source contributing to contamination of soil are geogenic and anthropogenic, which includes, mining, smelting, disposal of municipal and industrial wastes, pesticides and automobile exhaust. Heavy metal ions are of two types essential and non essential. The essential metal ions are required at trace level above certain concentration, the status of these heavy...

Biosurfactant Assisted Bioaugmentation Laboratory Scale Studies

Feasibility studies are a prerequisite for any planned intervention that usually revolves around screening, followed by tailoring of a competent microbial formula for a particular site. The initial screening selection step usually based on the metabolic potential of the microorganism and also on essential features to enable the cells to be functionally active and persistent under the desired environmental conditions. The best approach for selecting competent microbes is primarily based on the...

Effect of Bt Toxin on Nontarget Organisms

Any deleterious effect of the Bt toxin on any life forms, directly or indirectly, other than the target pest is of primary concern. The persistence of the toxin in the natural resources including land and water or the transfer of the genes coding for the toxin from a transgenic plant to a wild variety needs to be tightly kept under a check. In Fig. 20.4, the flow chart illustrates two main pathways (self-sustaining populations or introgression of genes) for how an introduced organism, such as a...

Bioaugmentation

If the performance of on-going biological processes in bioreactors or polluted sites can be improved by application of indigenous, wild type or genetically engineered microorganisms (GEM), the process can be termed as bioaugmentation. For engineering remediation genes, two main approaches can be followed gene introduction and gene alteration. In the first case, specific remediation genes are introduced into plasmids or the chromosome of the target microorganism. The most straight forward way is...

Biosorption Mechanisms by the Yeast Cell

The mechanism involved in metal sorption is complicated and not fully understood. Several factors affect the mechanism of biosorption. These include the type of biomass, status of biomass (living or dead), metal-solution chemistry and environmental conditions. Recently, several reviews describing the mechanisms involved metal biosorption have been published (Volesky and May-Philips 1995 Wang and Chen 2006. Alluri et al. 2007. Gadd 2009) . Metals interact with living as well as dead microbial...

Harmful Effects of Chemical Disinfectants

There is wide spread potential for human exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water because everyone drinks, bathes, cooks and cleans with water. Chlorine can cause eye, nose, stomach problems and sinus irritation when ingested via drinking water. Inhalation of chlorine leads to asthma, showering of Chlorinated water can magnify the effects of chlorine inhalation, due to the enclosed nature of shower stalls. In 1976, the U.S. National Cancer Institute Published results showing...

Microbial Methylation and Demethylation for Arsenic Remediation

Methylation is the process in which certain species of fungi and bacteria methylate inorganic arsenic species to form methylarsenicals (Rodriguez 1999). The methyla-tion of arsenic occurs via alternating reduction of pentavalent arsenic to trivalent arsenic and subsequent addition of a methyl group. After their formation, methylar-senicals are released from the microbe as a gaseous product (Fig. 22.2), this is called as biovolatization. From a bioremediation perspective, several species of soil...

Bioremediation of Arsenic from Contaminated Groundwater

22.5.7.1 Microbial Redox Reactions for Arsenic Remediation Microbial arsenate metabolism was first identified by Green (1918). Green isolated an arsenate reducer, Bacterium arenreducens. and an arsenite oxidizer Bacillus arsenoxydans. The microbiological oxidation of As(III) to As(V) can impact the mobility and speciation of arsenic in the environment. The process has been known for many years and more than 30 strains representing at least nine genera have been reported to be involved,...

Introduction

Water is an important and vital part that plays an important role in the surrounding environment and in the life of living things. Water covers nearly 75 of the earth's surface. Drinking ample amount of water is necessary for good health. Now-a-days water resources are becoming limited due to contamination problems. Unfortunately, life threatening bacterial pathogens, toxic chemicals, contaminate water that we drink and use for various purposes, thus can be responsible for significant health...

ARGs in Environmental Gene Pool Table

2.3.1.1 ARGs Related to Tetracycline Tetracycline-resistant bacteria were found to emerge in the environments with the introduction of tetracycline (Dancer et al. 1997). There have been at least 38 different tetracycline resistance (tet) genes and three oxytetracycline resistance (otr) genes characterized to date (Roberts 2005 Thompson et al. 2007) . These genes include 23 genes, which code for efflux proteins (efflux pump mechanism), 11 genes for ribosomal protection proteins (target...

Bioremediation of Cyanide and Nitrile Contaminated Sites

In situ application of microbes in removal of hazardous compounds to remediate the contaminated soil water is gaining importance in as it is cost-effective and ecof-riendly and requires lesser energy input. The bacterium or consortium of bacteria that are involved in the degradation of the hazardous compound occur naturally at the site. Cyanide can be degraded into simpler substances by microorganisms in the wastewater, piles and in the soil. Many bacterial and fungal species are capable of...

Biosurfactant and Bioaugmentation An Economical Perspective

Existing non-biological remediation technologies seem to be economically non-viable due to (i) impractical cost (US 750 billion) and time (about 30 years) of physico-chemical processes, (ii) escalating cost estimates (US 30 billion) and hundreds of years of work for organo-metallics, (iii) overburden project estimation of soil Table 28.3 Biosurfactant-aided bioremediation field trials Biostimulation using oleophilic fertilizer and biosurfactant-producing organisms Bioaugmentation and...

Why Biosurfactant

Biosurfactants are gaining prominence by virtue of commercial applicability due to unique attributes like (i) feasible fermentative production using economical renewable resources, (ii) functionality in ppm quantities under extreme conditions (temperature, pH, and salinity), (iii) specificity of application, (iv) potential for tailoring to suit specific applications and (v) better foaming useful in mineral ore processing, besides the above-mentioned attributes. Due to this wide array of...

References

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Land Application of Shellfish Waste

Landfill is the most common method of disposal of shellfish waste since it is rich in organic matter. It has been shown that it is beneficial to the farmers (ADAS UK Ltd 2006) . But it attracts secondary pests like flies and rodents. In addition, the availability of land is also decreasing due to increasing population. Waste is combusted in special combustion plant with additional fuel to ensure complete combustion of materials but there is requirement of energy and no energy harnessing. There...

Pesticide Oil Degradation and Remediation by Cyanobacteria

Many chemicals are released into surface water either as a method of disposal or as a consequence of the technology of the utilization. In particular, the use of pesticide many of which are toxic or contain toxic contaminants, is central to high yields of modern agriculture. Lindane is a toxic compound with potential long term persistence (Meister 1993 Alexander 1994). Anabaena sp.PCC71208 and Nostoc ellip-sosporum co-metabolise lindane. Stimulation of the rate of degradation of lindane by...

Microbial Interactions with Metals

Microorganisms have coevolved along with metals and minerals that constitute the earth crust (Hazen 2008). This long term coexistence (from 3.6 billion years ago) have allowed natural microbial flora to developed strategies to interact and modify these metals and metal bearing minerals sometimes to their benefit (in various metabolic reactions or just for detoxification) or as part of other secondary consequences. Bioremediation of metal pollution strongly relies on complex interplay of...

Environmental Impact of Textile Dyes and Their Toxicity

Dye wastewater from textile and dye based industries is one of the most complex industrial wastewaters to treat. It is known that 90 of reactive textile dyes entering the activated sludge sewage treatment plants discharge into rivers and cause problems such as a reduction in penetration of sunlight in the streams, which is essential for photosynthesis and consequently, the ecosystem of the stream is seriously affected b toxicity to fish and mammals life c inhibition of the activity and the...

Mechanism of Dye Decolorization

The microbial dye decolorization studies have revealed that a two-step mechanism viz the physical adsorption and enzymatic degradation are involved in dye decolor-ization. Knapp and Newby 1999 observed that in many cases adsorption of dye on the microbial cell surface is the primary mechanism of decolorization, while, Young and Yu 1997 , suggested the binding of dyes to the fungal hyphae and physical adsorption and enzymatic degradation by extracellular and intracellular enzymes as reasons for...

Microbial Decolorization 3561 Biodgradation of Dyes

Biological dye removal techniques are mainly based on microbial biotransformation of dyes. As dyes are designed to be stable and long-lasting colorants, they are not easily biodegraded. Many microbes have been isolated which can catalyze anaerobic reductive fission of the azo linkage resulting in formation of colorless aromatic amines. Nevertheless, many researchers have demonstrated partial or complete biodegradation of dyes by pure and mixed cultures of bacteria, fungi and algae Ramalho et...

Biosorption of Dyes 35621 Bacteria

The focus of dye decolorization majorly rely on studying the biodegradation decolorization potential of bacteria and less attention has been given to the dead bacterial biomass for biosorption of dyes Sheu and Freese 1973 Beveridge 1981 Dijkstra and Keck 1996 Hu 1996 Beveridge 1999 Forgacs et al. 2004 . The mode of solute uptake by dead inactive cells is extracellular the chemical functional groups of the cell wall play vital roles in biosorption Vijayaraghavan and Yun 2007a, b Srinivasan and...