Thermal Effects During Refueling of the Reservoir

The adsorption of a gas is highly temperature dependent the amount of adsorbed gas decreases with increasing temperature. Therefore, the storage capacity of an adsorptive reservoir decreases with increasing temperature. On the other hand, physical adsorption is an exothermic process the adsorption of a gas releases heat. In the specific case of NG adsorption on activated carbon, there is a significant amount of heat (17 kJ mol) that is released. If the reservoir is quickly charged, the bed...

Results and Discussion

POROUS TEXTURE CHARACTERIZATION The selection of preparation variables during chemical activation with KOH of coals, has allowed obtaining activated carbons with apparent BET surface areas from 1,058 to 3,808 m2 g-1. The synthesised materials and commercial ones cover a broad range of porosities their microporore volume calculated from N2 isotherms (Vjup (N2)) varies from 0 to 1.27 cm3 g-1 and the microporore volume calculated from CO2 isotherms (Vp (CO2)) from 0.18 to 0.72 cm3 g-1....

Practical Aspects

During actual use of a gas mask canister the flow through the activated carbon bed is pulsating, i.e. during inhalation air is drawn through the canister, while during exhalation there is a stand-still of air in the canister. In approval tests for filters mostly a constant flow pattern is applied. The time-averaged gas velocity has to be equal when applying a constant continuous flow or a pulsating flow for a fair comparison of the breakthrough behavior for both cases. Figure 1 shows the...

AqA AqW kTln C ln N

Where AqW is the heat of wetting of the adsorbent. Figure 2. Experimental isotherms of LS (a) and Si-LS (b) adsorption on cellulose (1), titanium dioxide (2), kaolin (3) and calcium carbonate (4). The physical meaning of the parameter AqA is the energy of bonding of adsorbate molecules with adsorbent surface. In accordance with characteristics shown in the Table 2, the solids studied can be classified according to their affinity towards lignosulphonates, in decreasing order Cellulose > TiO2...

State of the

The first predictive equation of the dynamic behavior of the filters was proposed by Bohart and Adams in 1920 1 . In their work, Bohart and Adams 2 developed an equation based on a chemical kinetic model type, that is, assuming that the adsorption kinetic was the controlling step of the process (instantaneous diffusion), for the case of irreversible isotherm and neglecting the accumulation on the fluid phase. The obtained equation can be expressed as 3 where C is the solute concentration at the...

Advantages of Low Pressure Storage

For the NG vehicle to stir up a strong and sustainable interest of the transportation market, it must compete with conventional vehicles in terms of economy, performance and ease of use, because the price of fuel is not the only determining market factor. For this aim to be achievable, the system for storage, distribution, and utilization of NG must be economic, light, compact, and efficient. Natural gas is a gaseous fuel because its main component - methane -cannot be liquified at ambient...

Adsorption Properties Of Functional Silicas Towards Some Toxic Metal Ions In Water Solutions

VALENTIN TERTYKH, LILYA POLISHCHUK, VICTOR YANISHPOLSKII Institute of Surface Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Gen. Naumov Street 17, 03164 Kyiv, Ukraine ELINA YANOVSKA, ARSENTIJ DADASHEV, VALERII KARMANOV Chemistry Department of Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, Ukraine Franko State University, Zhitomir, Ukraine Abstract. Processes of preconcentration of heavy toxic metal ions, such as Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Hg(II), and Mo(VI) on the silica with covalently bound...

New Materials Monoliths

Carbon Monoliths

The protection against chemical warfare agents is based on sorption on activated carbon, both in gas mask canisters as well as in protective clothing. The carbon applied are granulates (mask) or small spheres (clothing). A new development in adsorption processes is the use of monoliths,3 either carbon monoliths or carbon-coated ceramic monoliths. Figure 4 shows a carbon monolith. Monoliths consist of many parallel channels separated by thin walls. The main advantages are low-pressure drop and...

Springer

Published in cooperation with NATO Public Diplomacy Division Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Recent Advances in Adsorption Processes for Environmental Protection and Security AC.I.P. Catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. ISBN 978-1-4020-6804-1 PB ISBN 978-1-4020-6803-4 HB ISBN 978-1-4020-6805- 8 e-book P.O. Box 17, 3300 AA Dordrecht, The Netherlands. www.springer.com 2008 Springer Science Business Media B.V. No part of this work may be...