Waste Conversion Into Activated Carbon For Heavy Metal Removal From Waste Water

S. LYUBCHIK,1' M. KHODORKOVSKIJ,2 T. MAKAROVA,3 LILIYA TIKHONOVA,4 JOSÉ P.B. MOTA,5 ISABEL FONSECA5*

1 Institute of Physical Organic and Coal Chemistry, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, R. Luxemburg Street 70, 83114 Donetsk, Ukraine

2Russian Scientific Centre of Applied Chemistry, Dobrolubova pt. 14, 197198 St. Petersburg, Russia 3Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, 26 Politechnicheskaya, 194021 St. Petersburg, Russia

4Institute for Sorption & Endoecology, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Gen. Naumova Street 13, 03680 Kiev, Ukraine

5REQUIMTE/CQFB, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal

Abstract. Activated carbons were prepared from co-mingled natural organic waste, comprising 25% sunflower husks, 50% petroleum waste and 25% low-grade bituminous coal. The porous carbon materials were obtained either by direct activation with steam at 1,123 K, or through pre-oxidation stages with binary eutectic Na/K carbonates, followed by carbonization at 623 K in an inert atmosphere, and then steam activation at 1,123 K. The activated carbons prepared from the co-mingled natural organic wastes were used as adsorbents to remove copper (II), cobalt (III), nickel (II), iron (II), and manganese (II) from real multi-component solutions. Batch experiments were carried out to study the kinetics of multi-component, competitive adsorption. The mechanisms of heavy-metal adsorption on activated carbon are discussed.

'To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]

Keywords: waste recovery; activated carbon; polluted water; heavy metals; adsorption

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