Homemade Organic Fertilizer Recipe

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas

In this information you will find recipes and techniques that work to: Protect your house and lawn with special indoor and outdoor Shock Treatments: Ants, Snails, Slugs, Roaches, Fleas, Earwigs, Cockroaches, Silverfish, Beetles, Termites and Webworms. Say good-bye to those annoying yellow spots. Learn the secret to keep your grass greener in water restricted areas and in hot weather. Treat your lawn with a deworming concoction. (learn how and why you must do it once a year) Use effective Natural Insecticides (it's now time to learn what they are and how to use them. in the years to come, only natural insecticides will be permitted by cities!) Avoid serious plant, pet and child health problems caused by toxic commercial products. Protect yourself and your family against the nile virus in 1 minute. Kill ants and destroy the entire colony in 3 days or less. Kill harmful insects while fertilizing your soils.

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas Summary

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Production of Fertilizers

Looking to the large amounts of feather waste generated by growing poultry industries scientists have also find application of processing this waste as organic fertilizer. The poultry waste generated as poultry feed can also be applied for organic farming as a semi-slow-release nitrogen fertilizer (Hadas and Kautsky 1994 Choi and Nelson 1996). Feather contains some amounts of fat approximating to as much as 12 of its dry weight. Fat content of feathers have been reported to hinder its colonization by the microorganisms (Baxter and Trotter 1969 Pugh and Evans 1970 Deshmukh et al. 1981). Above reports also indicated the need of fat extraction from the poultry feathers to make the microbial processes more quick and economical. Narsimharao Koundamudi and his colleagues suggested a process of feather treatment for extraction of fat from chicken feather meal using boiling water and processing it to biodiesel which is estimated to generate approximately 593 million gallons of biodiesel...

Industrial and organic Fertilizers

Most of the nitrate contamination documented in groundwater in regional aquifers is attributed to excessive use of fertilizers (inorganic and animal waste) in agricultural areas. Sometimes nitrate contamination in production wells can be associated to old agricultural practices in recharge areas. Since agricultural practices could have changed from an intense use of industrial fertilizers to a more intensive use of organic fertilizers (manure) or vice versa, it is quite difficult, based only on nitrate concentration data, to identify the sources of nitrate in contaminated aquifers. Several studies have used 15N analysis to evaluate sources of nitrate in areas where industrial fertilizers and animal waste (manure and sewage) were or are potential sources of nitrate (Kreitler and Jones 1975 Kreitler 1979 Kreitler and Browning 1983 Wassenaar 1995 Panno et al. 2001 Wassenaar, Hendry, and Harrington 2006). One of the key aspects of nitrate studies in groundwater is the understanding of the...

Phosphatic Fertilizers

Recently, much attention has been directed to the entry of toxic metals into the human food chain. The application of inorganic fertilizers to plants is considered one of the routes that could allow toxic metals to enter the food chain. An analysis of 74 samples of commercial fertilizers involving 20 samples of phosphatic fertilizers (monoammonium phosphate, diammonium phosphate, and triple superphosphate), 11 samples of liquid fertilizers, 31 samples of water-soluble multiple-nutrient fertilizers, and 12 samples of solid multiple fertilizers marketed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia revealed that the concentrations of heavy metals varied according to the type of fertilizer (Table 16.3). In all of these types of fertilizer, the heavy metal present at the greatest concentration was Cr. The cadmium content ranged from

Fertilizer Effects

Increased fertilization of crops was a major force behind agricultural intensification and the Green Revolution. It was only after the synthesis of ammonia from atmospheric nitrogen was discovered in 1909 by Fritz Haber, and scaled up to industrial production in 1913 by Carl Bosch that nitrogen could be produced as urea and various nitrate forms of fertilizer.40 This did not happen at a global level until after two world wars and many years of agronomic research had determined what rates of fertilizer to apply for optimal yields. Nitrogenous fertilizer has been analogized to fossil fuel where food is to nitrogen as energy is to carbon.41 Plant growth rates had always been limited by nitrogen availability as natural sources of nitrogen, biofixation by bacteria symbiotic with legumes, atmospheric deposition and recycling of plant residues and manure, could only supply half of the global demand for Figure 9.2 World consumption of total and nitrogenous fertilizers in agriculture....

Chemical and Colloidal Properties

The term heavy metal refers to any metallic chemical element that has a relatively high density and is toxic or poisonous. Heavy metals are at least five times as dense as water, and light metals have densities that are lower than this. Examples of light metals include sodium, magnesium, and potassium. Examples of heavy metals include mercury, cadmium, thallium, lead, copper, aluminum, arsenic, chromium, and mercury. Fertilizers contain lead and arsenic. Pesticides contain lead, arsenic and mercury. Sewage sludge contains cadmium, arsenic and lead. Irrigation water can transport dissolved metals to agricultural fields, where metals such as cadmium can be incorporated into plants. Copper occurs naturally in soil and plants. It occurs in rocks, soil, water, sediments, and air. Its average concentration in the soil is about 50 parts copper per million parts (ppm) soil. Lead is by far the most the most common contaminant of soils. Lead is virtually a permanent resident in soil. Organic...

Soil Plant Relationships of Heavy Metals 131 Soil Plant System

The major interrelationships affecting the dynamics of heavy metals between the soil and the plant are shown in Fig. 1.1. The soil-plant system is an open system subject to inputs, such as contaminants, fertilizers, and pesticides, and to losses, such as the removal of metals in harvested plant material, leaching, erosion, and vitalization.

Isotopic Results to Date

Isotopic ratios of Cl and O were recently reported for a variety of different perchlorate salts of laboratory, commercial and military origin as well as for several natural perchlorate samples and fertilizers derived from the Atacama Desert of Chile (Sturchio et al., 2006 B hlke et al., 2005). Additional samples obtained from road flares, fireworks, chlorate herbicides, bleach, propellants, and other materials are presently being collected and analyzed as part of a DoD Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) project (Hatzinger et al., 2008). Current data from isotopic analyses reveal that the 37Cl 35Cl isotope ratio in naturally occurring perchlorate is consistently and significantly lower than that of man-made perchlorate (Figure 4.1). Based on analyses to date, the mean S37Cl value (+standard deviation) for synthetic perchlorate is 0.6 + 1.0 o (n 18) compared to -12.6 + 2.0 o for natural perchlorate (n 6) (Sturchio et al., 2006 unpublished data from Hatzinger...

Increasing Production

Conventional plant breeding has traditionally been an important way of maximizing arable production. Selective breeding enabled the domestication of crop plants during the early stages of agriculture around 10 000 years ago. During the Green Revolution of the mid- 20th century, plant breeding radically altered the most widely used cereal plant cultivars. Major selective breeding programs resulted in higher allocation of carbon to seeds, more efficient use of artificial fertilizers, Application of artificial fertilizers has also led to major increases in crop yield. Since 1965, nitrogen fertilizer use has seen a 6.87-fold increase and phosphorus a 3.48 - fold increase 11 . However, these increases are not without significant environmental impacts. More than half of all the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen in world is the direct result of fertilizer production for agriculture 12 . The production of inorganic nitrogen fertilizers results in release of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide...

Bioremediation Strategies

Controlled studies suggest that optimum rates of degradation could be sustained by retaining high, nontoxic, renewable concentrations of nutrients within the interstitial pore water (Lee and others 1997 Venosa and others 1996). The feasibility of adding inorganic nutrients on a periodic basis has been demonstrated in field trials as a means of sustaining elevated nutrient concentrations within the sediments for effective bio-remediation (Lee and Levy 1989b, 1991 Venosa and others 1996). The advantages of inorganic agricultural fertilizers as bioremediation agents include low cost, availability, and ease of application. Field and laboratory beach microcosm studies now suggest that concentrations of nitrate-N for optimal biostimulation should be between 1.0 and 2.5 mg l-1 (Bragg and others 1994 Du and others 1999). Although these elevated nutrient concentrations within the interstitial waters in shorelines can be maintained by periodic additions of nutrients, it is not the most...

Cleaning Up Oil Spills

Bioremediation, a different approach to cleaning oil spills, was also investigated for the removal of oil from the beaches in Prince William Sound. Fertilizers were sprayed on the oily beaches to enhance the growth of the oil-eating bacteria that occur in the natural environment. The fertilizer consisted of essential nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus compounds that are present in only small amounts in the sea, mixed with emulsifying agents to solubilize the oil. These nutrients together with the carbon of the petroleum provide an environment in which petroleum-consuming bacteria can thrive. Inipol EAP 22, a mixture of oleic acid, lauryl phosphate, 2-butoxyethanol, urea, and water, appeared to be effective in enhancing the rate of loss of oil from beaches. In some instances a two- to fivefold increase in the rate of biodegradation of the oil was observed, and there was a marked improvement in the appearance of the treated beaches in comparison to control areas where no Inipol...

Biological Remediation Processes

Over the last decade a unique group of organisms has been identified that evolved to grow by the anaerobic reductive dissimilation of perchlorate and produce chloride as the final end product (Coates and Achenbach, 2004). Many DPRB are now available as pure cultures (Romanenko et al., 1976 Stepanyuk, 1992 Malmqvist et al., 1994 Rikken et al., 1996 Wallace et al., 1996 Bruce et al., 1999 Coates et al., 1999b Herman and Frankenberger, 1999 Michaelidou et al., 2000 Coates et al., 2001 Okeke et al., 2002 Zhang et al., 2002) and much has been revealed of the nature of this unique metabolism and the organisms involved (Coates and Achenbach, 2004). These organisms appear to be ubiquitous in nature and have been isolated from numerous environments including both pristine and contaminated soils, waters and sediments (Romanenko et al., 1976 Stepanyuk, 1992 Malmqvist et al., 1994 Rikken et al., 1996 Wallace et al., 1996 Bruce et al., 1999 Coates et al., 1999b Michaelidou et al., 2000 Waller et...

Evaluation of longterm changes in management practices

Reducing nitrate contamination in regional aquifers. Since the 1990s, agricultural nutrient beneficial management programs started to be implemented with the aim of reducing the environmental impact of agricultural nutrients on groundwater and surface water quality. Few studies have been performed to evaluate the long-term ability of BMPs to reduce nitrate contamination in groundwater. A recent study illustrates the use of multiple isotopes and geochemical tracers, including 15N and 18O, to evaluate the efficiency of BMPs in the Abbotsford-Sumas regional sand and gravel aquifer, which is used as a water supply for over 100,000 people in southwestern British Columbia, Canada, and Washington State, USA (Wassenaar, Hendry, and Harrington 2006). Several studies have shown widespread nitrate contamination in the aquifer and many wells exceed the drinking water standards for nitrate (Wassenaar 1995, Mitchell et al. 2003). A previous isotope study performed in 1993 showed that the aquifer...

Some Applications of Complexing

As discussed in Chapter 7, with low cost and no apparent toxicity, phosphates received extensive use in detergent formulations until the 1970s, with typically 35-50 of the detergent formulations being sodium tripolypho-sphate. Since phosphate is an essential nutrient and an effective fertilizer, extensive increases in the growth of algae in freshwater systems and consequent increase in biological oxygen demand (Section 7.2.5) and eutrophication were ascribed to detergents entering the waters through waste discharge. As a result, phosphates were banned in home detergents in many areas, including much of the United States and Canada, although it now appears that this was an overreaction.

Nitrate Contamination Detected by Depth Profiles

Pickens et al. (1978) worked on nitrate contamination in wells drilled in a shallow sandy aquifer. An NO3 plume was detected in carefully sampled depth profiles (section 7.3), as shown in Fig. 16.1. The contamination was attributed to extensive use of nitrate fertilizers.

Thorough One Time Investigation of Every Station

From this will be concluded special ions and components to be analyzed in specialized laboratories (e.g., ions included in relevant fertilizers, relevant pesticides, local landfill and sewage effluents, and industrial wastes all of which may be site specific). This stage of the investigation is crucial because

Heavy Metals in Soils and Sludge

HM levels in agricultural soils have been found to be increasing this is attributed to phosphate fertilizer, agrochemicals application, and atmospheric deposition (Jones, 1991 Billet, Fitzpatrick, and Cresser, 1991 Hovmand, Tjell, and Mosbaek, 1983) This, in turn, has led to the increased uptake of HMs by plants, as reported for the pea, radish, and lettuce crops, which were found with increased levels of Cd due to the phosphate fertilizers used (Reuss et al ., 1978) In agricultural soils within Europe, it is estimated that there has been a 10 to 15 increase in the concentration of the heavy metals Cd, Pb, and Hg during the twentieth century, due to factors such as those mentioned previously (McBride, 1995) This increase, however, is very small as compared with the increase in HMs observed after the application of biosolids in agricultural lands and resulting in increased uptake of heavy metals by plants, as indicated by the large number of publications found in the literature...

Future Perspectives

Decomposition methods of keratinic waste like incineration or chemical treatments (Onifade et al. 1998) are rather expensive or environment-polluting. In contrast, Present day biotechnology offered an environmentally sound two stage fermentation system for conversion of keratinic waste into a useful product, biohydrogen (Balint et al. 2005). A keratin-degrading Bacillus strain (Perei et al. 2000) was used to obtain fermentation product which was rich in amino acids and peptides and subsequently used as major nutrient source for an anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon, Thermococcus litoralis, which produced hydrogen gas as a physiological byproduct. Besides T. litoralis, E. coli and Caldicellusiruptor saccharolyticus capable of producing hydrogen were also examined but neither of them could utilize the keratin hydrolysate for biohydrogen production (Balint 2006) . The application of keratinase as a detergent additive has also been suggested (Gupta and Ramnani 2006). Another field of...

Genetic Engineering to Improve Phytoremediation

And 120 per acre were reported in 1996 and 1997 (James 1997). However, these increases in total yield, impressive as they are in terms of their economic and environmental value, will have a limited impact for global food supply. In fact, most of the developments in transgenic crops are aimed either at reducing production costs in agricultural areas that already have high productivity levels, or at increasing the value added to the final product by improving, for instance, oil quality. This trend has been used by developed countries to limit the production of key products, like cereals, meat, and dairy products due to the reductions in the international prices of these products, and also to reduce the intensive use of fertilizers and pesticides because of their harmful effects on the ecosystem. At a global level, a more effective strategy would be to increase productivity in tropical areas, where an increase in food production is required and where crop yields are significantly lower...

Earthworm Heavy Metal Relationships and Accumulation and Detoxification of Heavy Metals by Earthworms

Although heavy metals exist lithologically in the ground, their concentrations in soil increase through various industrial emissions (Cemek and Kizilkaya 2006), commercial fertilizers, (Karaca et al. 2002) and sewage sludges (Kizilkaya and Bayrakl 2005). Depending on soil characteristics, heavy metals accumulated in food chain and this affects soil life and especially biological-biochemical reactions negatively (Kizilkaya and Askin 2002 Kizilkaya et al. 2004 Karaca et al. 2010b). The earthworms are used as a cursor when assessing the effects of heavy metals on various ecosystems. Heavy metals influence earthworm life by killing (Fitzpatrick et al. 1996 Neuhauser et al. 1985 Spurgeon and Hopkin 1995 Kizilkaya et al. 2009,) or inhibiting their growth (Khalil et al. 1996 Van Gestel et al. 1991), cocoon production (Ma 1988 Spurgeon and Hopkin 1996), and activity (Siekierska and Urbanska-Jasik 2002).

Biodesulfurization Of Gasoline

Canada's Prime West Energy Inc. expects to begin using sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms to process sour gas and cut sulfur emissions in 2004 at its facility at Valhalla in Alberta (7). The company plans to use the Shell-Paques process to purify its natural gas. This process was developed by Shell Global Solutions International and Paques BV. The Shell-Paques process is designed to achieve at least 99.8 sulfur recovery. This gas treatment technology uses sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms to convert hydrogen sulfide to solid, fertilizer-grade sulfur. Besides reducing emission, this process

Alkalinity in Wood Ashes

Clark 1986 Cognitive Model Panic

Because of the presence of carbon dioxide in the fire gases, many of these minerals are converted to carbonates (Dunn 2003). The major components of wood ash are potassium carbonate potash and sodium carbonate soda ash. From a chemical standpoint these two compounds are very similar. From the 1700s through the early 1900s, wood was combusted in the United States to produce ash for chemical extraction. Wood ash was mainly used to produce potash for fertilizer and alkali for the industry. On an average, the burning of wood results in about 6-10 ashes. Ash is an alkaline material with a pH ranging from 9-13 (Rahman et al. 2006), and due to its high alkalinity characteristics, wood ash has various applications in different sectors as an environment-friendly alkaline substance.

International Landmark Environmental Inc Aminoplast Capillary Technology Abstract

The International Landmark Environmental, Inc., Aminoplast Capillary Technology (ACT) is an absorbent product for hydrocarbon and petroleum-based liquids. It can be used for contamination in soil or on surfaces, including liquid surfaces because the material is hydrophobic (will not absorb water) and floats. According to the vendor, ACT also has bioremediative characteristics, acting as a slow release fertilizer, encouraging microbe growth for the break down of toxic waste liquids.

Nitrogen Ammonia Nh3 Nitrite No2 And Nitrate No3

Solubility Curve

The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to other chemical forms is called nirogen fixation and is accomplished by a few types of bacteria that are present in water, soil, and root nodules of alfalfa, clover, peas, beans, and other legumes. Atmospheric lightning is another significant source of fixed nitrogen because the high temperatures generated in lightning strikes are sufficient to break N2 and O2 bonds making possible the formation of nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen oxides created within lightning bolts are dissolved in rainwater and absorbed by plant roots, thus entering the nitrogen nutrient sub-cycles, (see Figure 3.5). The rate at which atmospheric nitrogen can enter the nitrogen cycle by natural processes is too low to support today's intensive agricultural production. The shortage of fixed nitrogen must be made up with fertilizers containing nitrogen fixed by industrial processes, which are dependent on petroleum fuel. Modern large-scale farming has been called a method for...

Modern Agriculture and Pest Forcing 931 The Pesticide Connection

Following the publication of Silent Spring, there was considerable examination by entomologists into the role that pesticides had played in crop failures and ecological crises worldwide. Cotton in particular came under scrutiny as pesticides were implicated in multiple destructive pest outbreaks. The pattern of pesticide-related pest problems in cotton led Smith22 to identify five phases of cotton production that had been observed on different continents, all ending disastrously. The pattern described began with low input cotton production during the subsistence phase'', but eventually proceeded to the exploitative phase'' through intensification measures, such as the addition of fertilizers or development of irrigation systems for constant water delivery. As Smith22 saw it, the investment of capital during the exploitative phase required protection from pests that would otherwise diminish yield and cut into profits. Thus, the intensive use of pesticides to the virtual exclusion of...

Land Application of Shellfish Waste

Stakeholderanalyse Fertilizers There are a number of fertilizers at present in existence that are formed from seafood waste. A number of methods are employed to produce fertilizers including composting, rendering, drying at high temperatures and digestion. The seafood is broken down into its liquid and solid phases, which produces a nutrient rich fertilizer (Knuckey et al. 2004). Another important method for the bioconversion of seafood waste is the application of proteolytic organism or proteases. Since chitin is relatively inert to chitinases, the deproteinized waste can be used for the recovery of other VAP. The cheap protein hydrolysate can be utilized as a source of carbon for the production of chitinases and for the recovery of chitooligosaccharides. Pseudomonas aeruginosa K187 produced chitinases and proteases when grown on squid pen wastes and produced chitooligosaccharides and biofertilizers after 5 days of fermentation as reported by Wang et al. (2010) . An anaerobic spore forming...

Environmentally Balanced Industrial Complexes

Environmentally balanced industrial complexes are a selective collection of compatible industrial plants located together in one area complex to utilize the waste of one plant as the raw materials for another plant with minimum transportation and storage facilities. This category will reduce the overall production cost significantly because it eliminates waste treatment cost, reduces raw material cost substituted by waste, minimizes storage facility and transportation cost as well as reducing pollution and protects the environment. A number of EBICs were investigated and proposed to produce zero waste out of such complexes, such as sugarcane complexes, tannery complexes, textile complexes, pulp and paper mill complexes, fertilizer-cement complexes, fossil fuel power plant complexes, steel mill fertilizer-cement complexes, cementlime, and power plant complexes.55

Biosurfactant and Bioaugmentation An Economical Perspective

Biostimulation using oleophilic fertilizer and biosurfactant-producing organisms Bioaugmentation and biostimulation using hydrophobic fertilizer as N and P source along with release mineral fertilizer Biostimulation using forced aeration and nutrient for 3.8 days) Biosurfactant single phase microemulsion Biostimulation using oleophilic fertilizer biosurfactant Biostimulation using fertilizers (urea and di-ammo-nium phosphate) and surfactant moisture content and temperature amendments Biostimulation of manure oily sludge-contaminated soil with biosurfactant

Sources of Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil

Contamination of soils with heavy metals has mainly resulted from industrial activities, such as the mining and smelting of metalliferous ores, electroplating, gas exhausts, energy and fuel production, fertilizer and pesticide application, and the generation of municipal waste, fly ash, etc. As well as these anthropogenic activities, geogenic activities can also contaminate groundwater and soil with heavy metals such as arsenic and selenium. However, the human influence on heavy metals in soils is demonstrated dramatically by the highly elevated levels of metals that now characterize the soils in urban areas and around major industries (Adriano 1986). Most of these metals are delivered via the atmosphere. The median values reported for the atmospheric fallout of heavy metals in urban areas of North America are 160 g ha-1 yr-1 for copper, 910 for lead, 18 for cadmium, and 3,200 for zinc (Jeffries and Schneider 1981). The values for urban areas of Europe are 320 for copper, 400 for...

Green Boric Acid Powder Lubricant

To be 23 MPa, and its coefficient of friction has been measured to be less than 0.02 in ambient environments. These values are very similar to the more commonly used and synthetic-based molybdenum disulphide, which has a measured shear strength value of 24 MPa. Two other important characteristics of boric acid for use as a lubricant are that it is readily available and environmentally safe. In its solid form, boric acid is a weakly acidic white powder that is soluble in water (about 27 wt in boiling water and about 6 at room temperature), soft, ductile, stable, free flowing, and easily handled. It is very inexpensive, as finely ground technical grade boric acid powder ( 99 pure) is commercially available for less than US 4.5 per kilogram. The Environmental Protection Agency has established that boric acid is benign 10, 47 and the Clean Water Act does not classify it as a pollutant. In fact, a dilute water solution of boric acid is also commonly used as a mild antiseptic and eyewash....

Challenges of Modeling Sustainable Petroleum Operations

Process is a challenge because the conventional characterization of matter does not make any provision for separating sustainable operations from unsustainable ones. This description is consistent with Einstein's revolutionary relativity theory, but does not rely on Maxwell's equations as the starting point. The resulting equation is shown to be continuous in time, thereby allowing transition from mass to energy. As a result a single governing equation emerges. This equation is solved for a number of cases and is shown to be successful in discerning between various natural and artificial sources of mass and energy. With this equation, the difference between chemical and organic fertilizers, microwave and wood stove heating, and sunlight and fluorescent light can be made with unprecedented clarity. This analysis would not be possible with conventional techniques. Finally, analysis results are shown for a number of energy and material related prospects. The key to the sustainability of...

The Potential of Some Cultivated Plants in Phytoremediation of Uranium

Picture Corn And Its Parts

Chernozem is between the neutral and alkali type of soil. Soil is well provided with affordable and accessible phosphorous, potassium, and a lot of humus medium provided with the total nitrogen. Pseudogley soil has a lot of acidic qualities without lime, medium qualities provided with affordable and accessible phosphorous potassium, and poor qualities with humus and medium provided with the total nitrogen. Plastic pots were filled with 3 kg of the soil, which was homogenized before seeding compounding with NPK fertilizer, 13 13 15, in the amount of 800 kg ha, to ensure equable supply of the plants with most important nutrients. Two series were made in different time intervals in the following variations Eight plant species were investigated with the aim of determining whether and what differences in uranium content can be found among the cultivated plant species i.e.tehir cultivars. All plant species, i.e. their cultivars, were planted on deposit during the last decade of April during...

Heavy Metals Biosorption by Vermicomposts

Humic Acid Metal Complexation

At present there are only a few studies regarding the treatment of wastewaters containing heavy metals by vermicompost. The efficiency of vermicompost for removing heavy metals from aqueous solutions or industrial effluents has not been studied in detail except to mention a few and namely Jordao et al. (2002), Pereira and Arruda (2003), Carrasquero Duran et al. (2006), Jadia and Fulekar (2008), Urdaneta et al. (2008) and Jordao et al. (2009). Those researchers found that metal concentrations in the purified effluents were below the maximum values established for waste discharges by the prevalent local standards. They also reported that the vermicompost residues obtained from the metal retention process could be applied as a fertilizer to agricultural lands. In their review of vermicomposting and vermicompost, Sharma et al. (2005) have given a comprehensive description of vermicompost, and the main their main conclusions are discussed in the following section. Epigeic earthworm Eisenia...

Dr Odjegba Adaptation

Sharma (1993) observed a significant reduction in height of wheat (cv. UP 2003) when sown in sand with 0.5 M sodium dichromate in a glasshouse experiment after 32 and 96 days. A significant reduction in height of Sinapis alba at a level of 200 or 400 mg kg-1 of Cr in soil along with N, P, K and S fertilizers was reported by Hanus and Tomas (1993). Very recently, a reduction in stem height at various concentrations (10, 20, 40 and 80 ppm) of Cd and Cr have been reported in Dalbergia sissoo seedlings compared to the control (Shah et al. 2008). (Vajpayee et al. 2001). According to Zurayk et al. (2001), combined effect of salinity and Cr(VI) caused a significant decrease in the dry biomass accumulation of Portulaca oleracea. Cauliflower (cv. Maghi) when cultivated at 0.5 mM Cr(VI) showed restricted dry biomass production (Chatterjee and Chatterjee 2000). The effect of Cr(VI) on biomass production (Kocik and Ilavsky 1994) in sunflower, maize and Vicia faba grown in soil with Cr(VI)...

Toxins and Their Types

In addition, organic toxins such as petroleum products are toxic even at low concentrations. The examples of biodegradable pollutants include domestic and agricultural residues, petroleum products, urine and fecal matter and sewage water (Cunningham et al. 1996 Kazuya et al. 1999 Aboul-Kassim and Simoneit 2001). In contrast, non-biodegradable toxins cannot be broken down into simple and harmless products by living organisms even over long time period. These include inorganic fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides (DDT), heavy metals (nickel, mercury, copper, lead, aluminum, arsenic etc.), salts (NaCl), oxides of nitrogen and sulphur (NO2 and SO2) and cyanides (Van der Werf 1996 Misra and Mani 1991 Sigel et al. 2005). Unfortunately, these toxins persist in the environment for a long period of time and prove harmful to the organisms once they enter in the food chain. Therefore, the removal of these toxins from the environment is much more difficult as compared to...

Windrow Forming And Turning

Windrow Formation

Comments similar to those for bed construction pertain to windrow composting and bio-pile construction, except that for windrows there is no added complication of installing piping runs for aeration. Mixing can be done during windrow formation. For example, if wood chips are to be used for bulking, and the soil-to-chips volume ratio has been calculated, then the wood chips can be laid out on the windrow bed along with, say, pellet NPK fertilizer, then the moist soil, and any additional heat-generating organic material, and the windrow turner will mix them together while forming the windrow.

Phytoremediation A Potential Tool of Bioremediation

Sebertia Acuminate

Field study using chicken fertilizer and 1 1 soil and mine waste Soil acidification, due to the oxidation of metallic sulphides in the soil, increases heavy metal bioavailability but liming can control soil acidification also, organic materials generally promoted fixation of heavy metals in non-available soil fractions. Revegetation of mine tailings usually requires amendments of phosphorus, even though phosphate addition can mobilize arsenic (As) from the tailings. Leachates and uptakes of As were found to be higher with an organic fertilizer amendment than superphosphate, particularly in combination with barley 148 .

Biochemical Composition of Wool

Wool is an extremely complex, natural, and biodegradable protein fiber that is both renewable and recyclable. It has a built-in environmental advantage because it is a natural fiber grown without the use of any herbicides and fertilizers. Wool fibers grow in small bundles called staples, which contain thousands of fibers. Wool fiber is so resilient and elastic that it can be bent and twisted over 30,000 times without danger of breaking or being damaged (Canesis 2005). Every wool fiber has a natural elasticity that allows it to be stretched by as much as one third and then still spring back into place.

Eco Chains in China The Guitang Group

The annual total production of the complex includes sugar (150,000 tons), raw sugar (300,000 tons), pulp (150,000 tons), paper (200,000 tons), alcohol (10,000 tons), cement (330,000 tons), alkali (35,000 tons) and fertilizer (30,000 tons) (Guitang Group 2004). In the late 1990s the secondary products accounted for 40 of company revenues and nearly as large a portion of profits and taxes paid. Process residue from the mushroom base to use on sugarcane fields as natural fertilizer

How Did Perchlorate Become Such A Problem 121 Perchlorate Properties and Behavior in the Subsurface

Perchlorate was also used unknowingly for several decades, because it is a constituent of natural caliche deposits that are high in nitrate content, particularly nitrate ores found in the deserts of Chile. We now know that perchlorate is produced naturally, and it can persist for thousands of years under arid conditions (Dasgupta et al., 2005). The Chilean nitrate ores were first imported into the United States in 1857, and were used for black powder production (ITRC, 2005). They also were widely used as fertilizers, starting in the early 1900s (Aziz et al., 2006).

Sustainable Chemical Approach

This reaction shows that if ethylene from a source (natural or otherwise) is oxidized, it will convert to ethylene oxide. The introduction of water to ethylene oxide will change it to ethylene glycol. The principal argument put forward here is that if no artificial product (e.g., catalysts that don't exist in natural environment) is added to the left hand side of the equation, then the resulting ethylene oxide and, eventually, the ethylene glycol will not be detrimental to the environment. This is equivalent to organic farming, in which natural fertilizers and pesticides are used.

Molybdenum Mo CAS 7439987 Background

Molybdenum metal is used in the manufacture of special steel alloys and electronic apparatus. Molybdenum salts are used in the manufacture of glass, ceramics, pigments, and fertilizers. The use of fertilizers containing molybdenum is the single most important anthropogenic input to the aquatic environment. Other contributions to the aquatic environment come from mining and milling of molybdenum, the use of molybdenum products, the mining and milling of some uranium and copper ores, and the burning of fossil fuels. Fresh water usually contains less than 1 mg L molybdenum. Concentrations ranging between 0.03 and 10 jg L are typical of unpolluted waters. Levels as high as 1500 j.g L have been observed in rivers of industrial areas. The average concentration of molybdenum in nished drinking w ater is about 1 to 4 J.g L.

Solid Waste Disposal And Recycling

Rotary Kiln Incinerator

Biodegradable organic materials have beneficial effects when applied to agricultural land, in part as fertilizer because of their N, P, and K content (although this is typically relatively low), but mostly in terms of improving soil quality Composting involves the interaction of the organic substrate with the organisms in the presence of water and oxygen to produce heat, carbon dioxide, and the decomposed organic materials. Conditions such as substrate composition, aeration, and moisture content affect the process and need to be well controlled to give a good quality product and to ensure operation of a large-scale plant. As with recycling, sorting is necessary to avoid contamination with nondegradable materials. Size reduction, particularly of waste wood, branches in yard waste, and so on, is necessary. The C N ratio of the substrate strongly affects the rate, and nitrogen-rich materials may have to be added to act as fertilizer. The consistency of the material must allow air to...

Sources of Soil Contamination

Ecosystems have been polluted with diverse kinds of chemicals which are released by various human and natural activities. Excessive levels of inorganic fertilizer related chemicals introduced into soil, such as ammonia, nitrates, phosphates which accumulate there or lead to contamination of water courses and air, have resulted in noteworthy environmental damage. Metals such as lead, arsenic, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel and mercury are continuously being added to our soils through various agricultural activities such as agrochemicals usage and long-term application of urban sewage sludge in agricultural soils, industrial activities such as waste disposal, waste incineration and vehicle exhausts. All these sources cause accumulation of metals and metalloids in our agricultural soils and pose serious threat for biota and human health (Forstner 1995). Sites contaminated by heavy metal include battery disposal areas, burn pits, chemical disposal areas, contaminated marine sediments,...

Metal Content of Plants

Water-holding capacity can be improved, for example, by the use of hydrogels applied simultaneously with the inoculum. This saves the inoculum from removal by wind. The application of inorganic fertilizers should be replaced by compost or manure. The use of sewage sludges might be a good choice, but a corresponding increase of toxicity (e.g., Cu) may appear. Moreover, optimization of the fertilizer dosage must be performed with respect to the development of the subterranean microbial consortia. Restoration can also be enhanced by additional inoculations of appropriate symbiotic and saprophytic rhizosphere microorganisms isolated from HM soils.

Potential Industrial Complexes

Diagram Paper Mill Complex

Schematic diagram of environmentally balanced phosphatic fertilizer cement industrial complex. Steel Mill coke and gas and fertilizer plants Steel mill fertilizer cement plants complex Digested Sludge-40 Tons Filter Cake-36 Tons as Fertilizer -Fertilizer-16,360 kg Fertilizer (NH3) Fertilizer (NH3) 1.248.6 lb day Fertilizer Reuse 1.4 lb day

Ion Chromatography of Environmentally Significant Anions

Dentist Equipment

The need to determine the prevalence of common anions like phosphate (P043 ), nitrate (N03 ), or fluoride (F ) isn't immediately clear. The biospheric significance of these ubiquitous ions is not as obvious as is, for example, the presence of PCBs, pesticides, or toxic metals like lead, mercury, or cadmium. These ionic components are important because they give an indication of the relative reduction-oxidation potential in an aqueous sample taken from an environment such as a stagnant lake (P04 ), or of the contamination of groundwater from fertilizer runoff (N03 ), or of whether municipal water supplies need to be supplemented with fluoride (F ) for the health of children's teeth. Although these charged ions can be detected by widely available ultraviolet detectors common in most high-performance liquid chromatographic systems (Janos and Aczel, 1996), a more sensitive means of detection involves ionic conductivity. This chromatographic method is called ion chromatography with ionic...

Magnesium Mg CAS 7439954 Background

Magnesium is used in the textile, tanning, and paper industries. Lightweight alloys of magnesium are used extensively in molds, die castings, extrusions, rolled sheets and plate forgings, mechanical handling equipment, portable tools, luggage, and general household goods. The carbonates, chlorides, hydroxides, oxides, and sulfates of magnesium are used in the production of magnesium metal, refractories, fertilizers, ceramics, explosives and medicinals.

Global Efficiency of Biomass Energy

Global Efficiency

It is conventionally reported that combustion of wood in traditional stoves has relatively low efficiency in the ranges of 10-15 (Shastri et al. 2002). While efforts have been made to improve on this efficiency, most authors missed the most important point regarding this efficiency analysis. The traditional efficiency calculation is based on the local efficiency considering only the fuel input and heat output in the system itself. This method does not consider the utilization of byproducts such as, the fresh COz which is essential for the plant photosynthesis, use of exhaust heat for household water heating using a heat exchanger, use of ash as surfactant for enhanced oil recovery, fertilizer and good sources of natural minerals such silica, potassium, sodium, calcium, and others. This analysis is typical of modern engineering calculations that fail to include factors beyond those with immediate implications. In Chapter 7,

Results and Discussion

Sewage sludge at As-Samra Wastewater Treatment Ponds WTPs, the largest waste stabilization ponds in Jordan, was investigated for the concentrations of macro- and micro-elements, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) for dry and wet sludge types (Batarseh 2011). The results showed that the sewage sludge is contaminated with low levels of trace metals. Furthermore, dry sludge characterized with higher concentration levels of trace elements than for wet sludge. Despite the fact that none of the trace metals concentration exceeded the guidelines threshold concentration for sludge to be applied for agricultural land, however, environmental relevant concentrations of PAHs were detected ranging from 62 to 70 (g g-1 for dry sludge and from 35 to 47 (g g-1 for wet sludge. These results were indicative an environmental risk for sewage sludge in Jordan to be reused as organic fertilizers without any further treatment. Although, high

Utilization of Phytoremediation ByProducts

Includes the generation of revenue by extracting saleable heavy metals produced by the plant biomass ash, also known as bio-ore. Combustion and gasification are the most important routes to the organized generation of electrical and thermal energy. Recovery of the energy in biomass by burning or gasification could help make phytoextraction more cost-effective. Thermochemical energy conversion best suits the phytoextraction biomass residue because it cannot be utilized in any other way as fodder and fertilizers. Combustion is a crude method of burning the biomass, but it can be done under controlled conditions, allowing the volume of biomass to be reduced to 2-5 of the original mass, and then the ash can be disposed of properly (Raskin et al. 1997 Bridgwater et al. 1999). It is not wise to burn the metal-bearing hazardous waste in the open, as the gases and particulates released into the environment may be detrimental also, while the volume is reduced, the heat produced in the process...

New Raw Materials for White Biotechnology

Although white biotechnology in general does not require feedstocks from genetically modified plants (GMPs), synergies between white and green biotechnologies are discussed to deliver feedstocks which allow a more cost-effective production of biobased chemicals 2 . The development of so-called energy plants, optimal for the production of biofuels and chemicals by common breeding methods, will take at least one decade. Therefore extensive research and development on GMP with altered agronomic properties, for example, resulting in increased yield or reduced need for pesticides, irrigation, or fertilizer as well as on GMP with biomass tailored in such a way that it is more amenable to conversion to fermentable sugars is done in the United States. In Europe, presently, it is a controversial issue what the role of green biotechnology and its interplay with white biotechnology could and should be.

Shrimp Waste Contributes to Environmental Pollution

Chitin Application

Chitinous waste produced commercially from sea food processing is a major environmental threat. Demineralisation and deproteination require large amounts of acid and soda and, thus, a lot of fresh water. The de-acetylation of chitin to generate chitosan requires even larger amounts of soda and, in addition, a lot of energy to heat the process. Alternative ways of chitin isolation and chitosan generation are required to extract these biopolymers without undue environmental stress. In the fishing industry, crab shells have always been treated as common waste, which, at best, was considered suitable for livestock feed or was used in agriculture as an inexpensive, natural nitrogen fertilizer. The effectiveness of crab shells as fertilizer has gained importance in present day agriculture due to the fact that the shells are broken down by enzymes, and the acetylglucosamine units of chitin hinder the development of fungi and nematodes in soil (Jaszkowski 2001). The possible utilization of...

Testing and Selection of Bioremediation Agents

After actual field operations (Mearns and others 1997 Prince 1993), although the possibility of a future incident still exists. As an example, oxygen depletion and production of ammonia from excessive applications of a fish-bone meal fertilizer during one field experiment caused detrimental effects that included toxicity and the suppression of oil degradation rates (Lee and others 1995b). For safety assurance, future operational guidelines should include ecotoxicological-monitoring protocols. DNA analysis may be used to determine population shifts within functional microbial groups as a means to assess stress effects or changes in oil biodegradation potential after bioremediation treatment (Grossman and others 2000). Stable carbon (513C) and nitrogen (515N) isotopes have been used to monitor changes in trophic interactions after the application of bioremediation agents in the cleanup of oil residues from the Exxon Valdez spill (Coffin and others 1997). Evidence for the transfer of...

Advantages and Limitations of Phytoremediation

Compared to other clean-up approaches, phytoremediation has several advantages. The method is cheap, being ten times less expensive than conventional non-biological strategies (Chappell 1998). Phytoremediation requires low installation and maintenance costs, involving only the use of fertilizers and watering to maintain plant growth. Cleaning up of contaminated sites using standard strategies is expensive. 6.0-8.0 billion is spent per annum to remediate waste sites in the USA alone whereas on a global level, the cost is as high as 25-50 billion (Glass 1999 Tsao 2003) . Excavation, transport, soil washing, extraction, pumping and treating contaminated water, addition of reactants like hydrogen peroxide and potassium permanganate and incineration are some of the basic steps of engineering methods for clean-up which lead to the huge cost and also damages the environment (Hannink et al. 2002 Doty 2008). As a result, contaminated commercial properties are often left untreated in the USA...

Agricultural and Horticultural Materials

Impurities in fertilizers Cd, Cr, Mo, Pb, U, V, and Zn Most agricultural and horticultural soils in technologically advanced countries are regularly amended with fertilizers and many also receive organic manures (usually based on livestock feces and urine) and lime. Typical ranges of heavy metal concentrations found in these materials are given in Table 1.2 (Kabata-Pendias and Pendias 1992 Webber et al. 1984).

Problems with Biodiesel Sources

Because the pathway is not considered in conventional analysis, the role of the source or the processes involved is not evident. If the pathway were to be considered, it would become evident that biodiesel derived from genetically modified crops cannot be considered equivalent to biodiesel derived from organically grown crops. Recently, Zatzman et al. (2008) outlined the problems, much of which are not detectable with conventional means associated to genetic engineering. While genetic engineering has increased tangible gains in terms of crop yield and the external appeal of the crop (symmetry, gloss, and other external features), it has also added potential fatal, unavoidable side effects. In the context of honeybees, the most important impact of GE is through direct contact of genetically altered crops (including pollen) and through the plant-produced matters (including even organic pesticide and fertilizers). A series of scholarly publications have studied the effects of GE products...

Soil Pollution and Heavy Metals

The primary sources of metal pollution are the burning of fossil fuels, mining and smelting of metalliferous ores, downwash from power lines, municipal wastes, fertilizers, pesticides and sewage 8 . The danger of heavy metals is aggravated by their almost indefinite persistence in the environment. Although some metals are essential for life (i.e., they provide essential cofactors for metalloproteins and enzymes), at high concentrations they can act in a deleterious manner by blocking essential functional groups, displacing other metal ions, or modifying the active conformation of biological molecules 9 . In addition, they are toxic for both plants and microorganisms. In fact, many metals affect directly various physiological and biochemical processes causing reduction in growth, inhibition of photosynthesis and respiration, and degeneration of main cell organelles 10 . Some metals are accumulated in roots (especially Pb), probably due to some physiological barriers against metal...

Anthropogenic Sources Of Heavy Metals

Heavy metals are released into the environment by many human activities. They are also used in a large variety of industrial products, which in the long term have to be deposited as waste. Heavy metal release into the environment occurs at the beginning of the production chain, whenever ores are mined, during the use of products containing them, and also at the end of the production chain. Table 6 gives an overview on the multiple uses and products, which contain heavy metals. The natural sources are dominated by parent rocks and metallic minerals, while the main anthropogenic sources are agricultural activities, where fertilizers, animal manures, and pesticides containing heavy metals are widely used, metallurgical activities, The ever growing world population requires intensive land use for the production of food, which includes repeated and heavy input of fertilizers, pesticides, and soil amendments. Fertilizers are added to the soil in order to provide additional nutrients to...

Sustainable Use Of Wastewater And Sludge In Jordan Residues Of Persistent Organic Pollutants A Review

Water scarcity is the most important natural constraint to Jordan's economic growth and development. Jordan has very limited water resources which are classified among the lowest per capita worldwide. Two thirds of our water resources are currently used for agriculture therefore, wastewater reuse is one of the priorities listed on the Jordanian water strategy for the year 2020 as an alternative water resource to meet agricultural water demand. However, with the realization of sustainable development, the wastewater reuse, which contains valuable nutrients, is becoming a key issue and a suitable water resource for irrigation purposes. Wastewater and sludge are considered the most realistic environmental sink for toxic organic and inorganic chemical pollutants produced from domestic and industrial sources. In addition to trace metals, it is worth mentioning that the impact of chemical pollution caused by the conventional priority organic pollutants, which displays persistence...

Cultivation and Harvesting for Selected Types of Renewable Raw Materials 4311 Agricultural Production

Harvesting Process Four Steps

Tillage and Sowing Before a new crop can be sown on a harvested field the acre has to be prepared by different mechanical operations. Burying of crop residues, loosening, aeration, mixing of soil and fertilizer, mechanical weed control, and seedbed preparation are achieved by the use of specific tools, first and foremost ploughs, but also harrows, field cultivators, rollers, and other devices. How and when these measures are performed depends on the type of soil and the crop rotation, that is, on the previously grown crop and the actual crop to be sown. Cultivation-Fertilization, Irrigation, and Crop Protection Although the metabolism of a field crop is based on sunlight, carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, nutrients from the soil and groundwater as well as precipitation, addition of nutrients usually increases the yield and supports soil recreation. Fertilization is therefore an important step in agricultural production. Essential nutrients for plants are nitrogen, potassium,...

Manganese removal

Diagram Specie Manganese Versus

However, not only does manganese appear widely in the earth's crust and in organic matter, it has widespread industrial use, particularly in steel manufacture. Thus, the metal's natural environmental occurrence may be enhanced by mining activities and by decomposition of manufactured manganese-containing products, such as steel, fertilizer, fungicide, livestock feed and even unleaded gasoline.

Soil Hydrolase Enzymes To Assess Soil Contamination

Enzymes Soil

Although toluene is not particularly inhibitory to soil hydrolase activities, refined oils can inhibit urease activity. In three soils, inhibition increased in the order kerosene diesel motor oil leaded gasoline, at amendment concentrations of 5 , 10 , and 25 (w w), but only leaded gasoline at 25 resulted in more than 50 loss of urease activity (52). Amendment of soil with jet fuel at rates of 5 and 13.5 reduced the rate of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis (esterase activity) (53). However, if the soil was subjected to a bioremediation treatment (lime, fertilizers, and simulated tillage), FDA hydrolysis increased rapidly and markedly after a 1-week lag period. The reduced activity in the nonremediated soil was attributed to inhibition by jet-fuel degradation products. Inhibition by these fuel products may be caused by the aromatic, and not the aliphatic, components of the hydrocarbon mixtures, and possibly only by benzene (54-56). There are large numbers of pesticides currently...

Xiaolangdi Resettlement

(2) dry toilets with one receiving pit, (3) dry toilets with two pits, and (4) pour-flush toilets with two receiving pits, and shows that the pour-flush systems should be utilized whenever feasible. The pour-flush two-pit systems not only permits washing before leaving the toilet, but also the water content in the receiving pit greatly speeds up sludge stabilization, so that the sludge removed (usually taken for use as fertilizer for crops), is very much safer for handling than dry pit sludge.

The Ultimate for Industrial Waste Reuse The EBIC

For example, settling tank sludge can be rotary dried, pulverized, amended, bagged, and sold as fertilizer to the agricultural industry. Floating matter from this same settling basin can be skimmed and rendered by steam heat treatment to produce, with certain additions, animal feed for this same agriculture industry. We practice both these treatments today to some degree and in a few instances. However, a concerted effort needs to be made to design municipal treatment plants to include industrial production as an integral part of its operation. This also requires a closer collaboration of industrial and municipal services rather than a haphazard afterthought following municipal sewage treatment. The reader is directed to discover solutions of this latter type by reviewing carefully the systems described in Chapter 4. Examples of such major industries are steel mills, fertilizer plants, sugarcane refineries, pulp and paper mills, and tanneries. Cement plants may also produce the ideal...

Use of Legumes for Soil Bioremediation

Interactions between mycorrhizal fungi and rhizospheric microorganisms likely influence the soil bioremediation (Turnau et al. 2006). The legume (Fabaceae)-nitrogen-fixing bacteria symbiosis can play a key role. Legumes can be advantageous for phytoremediation of Trzebionka tailings because the substrate is poor in nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus. Legumes are often the first colonizers of poor and degraded soils (Cardinale et al. 2010). The use of human-introduced fertilizers can have negative effects on plant diversity at the tailings, and such fertilizers would tend to leach out of the poorly absorbing substrate. Recently

Nitrate NO3 CAS 14797558 Nitrite NO2 CAS 14797650 Background see Chapter 3 for a more detailed discussion

The main inorganic sources of contamination of drinking water by nitrate are potassium nitrate and ammonium nitrate. Both salts are used mainly as fertilizers. Ammonium nitrate is also used in explosives and blasting agents. Because nitrogenous materials in natural waters tend to be converted to nitrate, all environmental nitrogen compounds particularly organic nitrogen and ammonia should be considered as potential nitrate sources. Primary sources of organic nitrates include human sewage and livestock manure especially from feedlots.

Colloid Associated Transport and Metal Speciation at Reclaimed Mine Sites Following Biosolid Application

Reclaimed mine sites can be a source of heavy metals, derived either from the original unweathered spoil material or from industrial wastes, fertilizers, fly ash, or biosolids applied during various reclamation stages (Haigh, 1995) . Unoxidized spoil materials can contain copper (Cu), lead (Pb), or zinc (Zn) sulfides (Geidel and Caruccio, 2000), while rock phosphate fertilizers can contain cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and lead (Pb) (Haigh, 1995)

Limitations of Phytoextraction

Phosphorus is another major nutrient, and plant growth increases upon the application of phosphatic fertilizer (Vassil et al. 1998). The addition of such fertilizers, however, can also inhibit the uptake of some major metal contaminants, such as Pb, due to metal precipitation as pyromorphite and chloropyromorphite (Chaney et al. 2000).

Introduction Why Life Cycle Analysis of Biobased Products

Given the above-mentioned generic advantage of biomass, what are the issues of life-cycle analysis The analysis of the life cycle, that is, the process chain from resource extraction, processing, use, and end of life, aims at a comprehensive assessment of environmental impacts of a product. Taking into account the full process chain, the first finding is that obviously the zero-CO2-balance of biobased products is not the whole story crop growing as well as processing and transport of biomass consumes energy, which is either provided by fossil fuels or consumes part of the energy provided by renewable materials themselves. In the end, net reductions of CO2 might be far less than that expected when accounting only for the use of the product. Above this, not only CO2 contributes to the greenhouse effect in the case of biomass, notably the use of nitrogen fertilizers in agriculture results in the release of nitrous oxide (N2O, laughing gas), which is produced by microbial processes in...

Advantages and Applications of Biogas

Reported that, in developing countries, by installing biogas plants, diseases like asthma, lung problems, and eye infections have considerably decreased in the same area when compared to the pre-biogas plant times. Salomon and Lora (2009) estimated the electricity generation potential of biogas from different sources of organic residues, viz., sugar and alcohol industry residues (vinasse), urban solid and liquid wastes (garbage and sewage) and livestock wastes (bovine and swine manure), and described the advantage of biogas production as follows the bio-digestion process can reduce the polluting potential of organic residue discharges with high contents of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and at the same time, it can produce methane and a fertilizer agent as residue . Biogas can be used for the generation of electricity with the help of internal combustion engines, as a fuel in substitution of natural or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), heat generation for incubators and coolers, and as...

Forms of Heavy Metals in Soils

Heavy metals of interest in this chapter according to the main rock types are shown . Anthropogenic sources contributing significantly to the input of heavy metals in soils are fertilizers, pesticides and lime, sewage sludge, animal waste, coal residues, mining and milling wastes, etc . Heavy Metal Content (mg. kg-1 dry wt) of Unpolluted Soils, Sewage Sludges, Fertilizers, Lime, Fly Ash, Animal Manures and Soils Amended with Sewage Sludge Heavy Metal Content (mg. kg-1 dry wt) of Unpolluted Soils, Sewage Sludges, Fertilizers, Lime, Fly Ash, Animal Manures and Soils Amended with Sewage Sludge Sewage sludge Phosphate fertilizers

Heavy Metals Toxicity

The term heavy metals refers to metals and metalloids having densities greater than 5 g cm-3 and is usually associated with pollution and toxicity although some of these elements (essential metals) are required by organisms at low concentrations (Adriano 2001) . Heavy metals toxicity and the danger of their bioaccumulation in the food chain represent one of the major environmental and health problems of our modern society. Primary sources of pollution is from the burning of fossil fuels, mining and melting of metallic ferrous ores, municipal wastes, fertilizers, pesticides, and sewage sludge (Peng et al. 2006) . The most common heavy metals contaminants are cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn).

Theres Something in the

Later I'll drive through neighborhoods surrounding the factories that turn fossil fuel into the ingredients of plastics solvents fertilizers pesticides lubricants synthetic fibers surfactants pharmaceuticals moisture, stain, and flame repellants cosmetics and household cleaning and personal care products. Families in these neighborhoods carry the chemical constituents of these products in their bloodstreams.2 Hospitalization rates in their communities are significantly higher than elsewhere in Canada as are rates of respiratory and cardiovascular disease. People who live here also have notably higher incidences of certain cancers Hodgkin's disease and leukemia than do other Ontario residents.3 It's becoming increasingly clear that these illnesses are related to the thousands of tons of airborne pollutants that circulate through these communities. These chemicals may also impact residents' health in far less overt or acute ways, prompting subtle but significant changes in how genetic...

Microbial Communities

Meanwhile production and trade of PGPR became an important market. Plenty of small biofertilizer enterprises were founded especially in India and China long before the application of PGPR (often combined with mycorrhiza inocula) reached the market for agriculture and gardening elsewhere in the rest of the world. Interestingly, the first biofertilizers (also named bioinoculants) were already applied in the nineteenth century, most notably with nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium species. Owing to the continuous research and development on plant growth promoting properties of microorganisms the biofertilizer market has amazingly grown and was estimated with a volume of 690 million for the USA alone in 2001(de Freitas 2002).

Insecticides Prior to the Chemical

Chlorinated Derivatives Tree

To our knowledge, the first documented compendium of insecticide substances is the Egyptian Ebers Papyrus (ca. 1600 BC).6 Another example of historical reports concerning the control of insect pests can be found in ancient Chinese civilizations, where fire was used to destroy plagues of migratory locust (Locusta migratoria manilensis).7 Pre-Roman civilizations already reported the burning of brimstone (sulfur)6 as an insecticide and purifying agent. Such an application was also described by Homer in The Odyssey (ca. 1000 BC). Currently, sulfur (applied as dust, granulated or as a colloidal formulation) is not only used as an insecticide in crops and in indoors applications against mites and some caterpillars, but also as a fungicide and fertilizer.8 Sulfur was not found to cause adverse effects in the environment, and also lacked any remarkable damage against humans.9

The Criterion The Switch that Determines the Direction at a Bifurcation Point

To be posed at the end of a thought process or logical train. It is less understood that the yes or no question cannot lead to a correct answer if the original logical train did not start with a correct first premise and if the full time domain (defining logical train) is not fully considered. Consider the following question. Is whole wheat bread better than white bread One cannot answer this question without knowledge of the past history. For instance, for organic flour (without chemical fertilizer, genetic alteration, pesticide, metallic grinder, artificial heat sources), whole wheat bread is better. However, if the flour is not organic, then more questions need to be asked in order to first determine the degree of insult caused to the natural process and to determine what would be the composition of the whole wheat if all ingredients (including trace elements from grinder, chemical fertilizers, pesticide, heat source, and others) were considered. In this analysis, one must include...

Nitrogen and phosphorus

There is an ambiguity regarding the limitation of petroleum biodegradation by available concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus. Lepetit and Barthelemy (1968) reported that the concentration of available nitrogen and phosphorus in water are severe limiting factors for microbial hydrocarbon degradation. However, Kinney (1968) is of the opinion that nitrogen and phosphorus are not the limiting factors, since microorganisms require nitrogen and phosphorus for their incorporation into biomass and hence the availability of these nutrients is critical as that of hydrocarbon. Colwell et al. (1978) concluded that major oil was degraded slowly in the marine environment probably because of low nitrogen and phosphorus availability. The cultures studies have indicated that the available concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus severely limit the extent of hydrocarbon degradation in the most major oil spills. Rates of nutrient replenishment generally are inadequate to support rapid...

Human effects on regional seas 2 the Gulf of Mexico

The Mississippi river system is one of the largest in the world and drains over 40 of the USA, discharging into the Gulf of Mexico through a large and complex delta near New Orleans (Fig. 6.31). The river system drains intensively farmed areas of the USA and nitrate (NO-) concentrations in the river doubled from the 1960s to the 1980s as a result of increased fertilizer use (Fig. 6.31). Since the 1980s NO- concentrations have remained at this high level (see also Section 5.5.1). Increased diatom growth in the riverwater has caused a decrease in silica concentrations (removed to the diatom skeletons) of more than 30 (see also Section 5.5.1).

Type of information obtained by isotopes

The variations in the abundance of stable isotopes in natural compounds or anthropogenic pollutants can be used in different ways for assessing different types of information. These types can be grouped into at least seven classes. The first possibility is to identify sources of compounds by direct analysis of the compound in a given environment and compare the isotopic abundance to a number of potential sources that have distinct but constant isotope abundances. A prerequisite for this approach is that the concentration of a compound in the environment only changes owing to dilution or phase transfer processes. Hence, its isotopic composition will remain largely constant and thus can be used to elucidate the source of the compound. Preferably, two or three different isotopes are measured, for example 15N and 18O in nitrate, or 2H, 13C, and 37Cl in a chlorinated solvent. For example, one might compare the multi-isotope pattern of hydrogen, carbon, and chlorine in dissolved...

Municipal Solid Waste

Compost Metabolic Pathway

Recycling (material recovery) can provide a cost-effective waste management approach. This technique can help reduce costs for raw materials and waste disposal and provide income from a salable waste as well as protecting the environment. The type of wastes that is separated and can be recycled easily with high benefits including paper and cardboard aluminum cans and tin cans plastics,- textiles, bones and glass. Organic waste or food waste recycling should be treated with special attention because it contains some rejects such as contaminated plastic bags and small pieces of glass, etc. There are many ways to recycle organic waste and convert it into soil conditioner (fertilizer) such as aerobic fermentation (composting), anaerobic fermentation (biogas), vermin composting and co-composting processes. Composting is the most commonly used method to recycle organic wastes from technical, economical, and environmental point of views.

Human Intake of Cadmium

Owing to its similarity to zinc, plants absorb cadmium from irrigation water. The use on agricultural fields of phosphate fertilizers, which contain ionic cadmium as a natural contaminant, and of sewage sludge contaminated with cadmium from industrial releases increases the cadmium level in soil and subsequently in plants grown in it. In the future, cadmium may be removed from phosphate fertilizer before it is sold to the consumer (see also Chapter 16). Soil also receives cadmium from atmospheric deposition. Since cadmium, uptake in plants increases with decreasing soil pH, one effect of acid rain is to increase cadmium levels in food.

Biodegradation And Bioremediation

Degraded in groundwater before migrating to a well for drinking water Will sulfate-reducing microorganisms oxidize methane that is seeping through sediments at the seafloor and prevent volatilization of this greenhouse gas into the atmosphere Will nitrate that runs off of agricultural lands into groundwater be reduced to the harmless nitrogen gas by denitrifying microorganisms There is often a need to assign responsibility for contamination, for example whether a pollutant found downgradi-ent of an industrial site in groundwater is actually originating from this site or from another source Additional areas of interest are whether nitrate contamination originates from the use of chemical fertilizer or application of manure, and whether it can be guaranteed that 95 of the mass of a spilled chemical is removed by a certain remediation technique. Fundamental questions include Is a microbial degradation reaction initiated by a certain biochemical reaction Do the carbon atoms from a certain...

Drinking Water Standards

Discharge from steel metal factories, discharge from plastic and fertilizer factories. Water additive which promotes strong teeth, erosion of natural deposits, discharge from fertilizer and aluminum factories. Runoff from fertilizer use, leaching from septic tanks, sewage, erosion of natural deposits. Runoff from fertilizer use, leaching from septic tanks, sewage, erosion of natural deposits.

The Disposal of Sewage Sludge

The sludge from both the primary and secondary treatment stages of sewage is principally water and organic matter. It can be digested anaerobically, in a process that takes several weeks to complete. Bacteria levels in the sludge are not thereby completely eliminated, but the levels are reduced about a thousandfold. The sludge that remains after this further organic decomposition has occurred and after the supernatant water is removed is sometimes then incinerated or simply dumped into a landfill or into a water body such as the ocean. However, sludge is high in plant nutrients, so about half the sewage sludge in North America and Europe is spread on farm fields, golf courses, and even residential lawns as low-grade fertilizer sometimes called biosolid. some of the increased amounts of heavy metals. Control experiments indicate that vegetables vary greatly in the extent to which they will absorb increased amounts of the metals e.g., the uptake of lead by lettuce is particularly large,...

Soil Degradation and Chemical Farming

The use of anthropogenic compounds, which increase growth (i.e., fertilizers), remove competition (i.e., herbicides), and control insects (i.e., pesticides from here on, this term encompasses herbicides as well), and thus increase yield, albeit at the expense of the ecosystem. The use of pesticides may increase short-term crop yields, however, in the long term, it may cause quite an opposite result. An example of this is that different plants require different nutrients thus the dominance of one plant species will lead to a much larger demand on a certain set of nutrients from the soil. The loss of competition also removes biodiversity from the ecosystem, and hence, can affect the naturally occurring rejuvenation of soils by destroying the relationship between the biota, organic components, and inorganic components not to mention the effects of the mechanization of farming and its impact on soil quality via tilling and compaction, emission of greenhouse gases, spills of associated...

Environmental Significance Of Nitrogen Species

Mandalas Ciles

Wide use of fossil fuels over the past century has resulted in an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide, which acts as a blanket to prevent heat from radiating from the earth, a phenomenon, come to be known as the greenhouse effect, that is increasing the earth's temperature. However, the gaseous oxides of nitrogen also exhibit a greenhouse effect. While carbon dioxide is believed responsible for about 55 percent of the increased changes to the radiative temperature between 1980 and 1990, increased NO, production from fuel and biomass combustion and particularly from denitrification (N20) as a result of increased commercial fertilizer usage is estimated to be responsible for 6 percent of the increase. While the amount of NO* in the atmosphere would appear to be small compared with C02, one molecule of N20 has a heat-trapping ability equivalent to 200 molecules of CO2.

Effects of Different Sources of Heavy Metals on Soil and Sugarcane

The Cd and Ni contents among the sugarcane sites differed Cd was related to the clay content and Ni was related to the OC content of the soil. The cadmium content in cultivated soil was lower than that in uncultivated soil, even after years of applying P fertilizers. The Ni and Cd contents of the sugarcane were much higher than the levels found in topsoils, but there was no significant relationship between either the Cd or Ni content of sugarcane and the chemical properties of the soil. The Zn content of the soil decreased as either its EC or Cl concentration increased. There were no significant differences in Zn content between different sugarcane sites or between cultivated and uncultivated soils.

Properties and Sources of the Toxic Elements

Cd is non-essential element commonly used in the electroplating industry, as a paint stabilizer, color pigment fixer in plastics and in agriculture fertilizers. In non-polluted freshwaters, it has a concentration lower than 1 mg L while in seawater the concentration ranges from 0.04 to 3.0 mg L, Chang (1996).

Isotopomers and isotopologues

Still, this half-life is at the limit of being a useful environmental tracer, although attempts have been made to study denitrification in soils (Tiedje et al. 1981), or sewage sludge (Kaspar, Tiedje, and Firestone 1981), or to study fertilizer uptake by plants in the field (Gerwing, Caldwell, and Goodroad 1979) by using 13N. However, such 13N-based studies remain unrepeated since they were too costly. Thus, for nitrogen, we are basically left with only the two stable isotopes 14N and 15N, which are very useful for environmental purposes. A similar problem is noted for oxygen there are three stable isotopes (16O to 18O), but the

Wastewater And Water Pollution Control

Historically, the major concern with regard to pollution of surface waters was with their oxygen resources as described. However, in recent decades, an increasing concern is the pollution of surface waters and groundwaters with other pollutants of primarily industrial or agricultural origin. During the past half century, many new chemicals have been produced for agricultural purposes. Some of them are used for weed control, others for pest control. There has also been a dramatic increase in the application of nitrogen fertilizers. Residues of these materials are often carried to watercourses during periods of heavy rainfall and have had serious effects upon the biota of streams. A great deal of research by chemists and biologists has demonstrated which of the materials have been most damaging to the environment, and many products have been outlawed. Continuing studies will be needed, but hopefully new products will be more environmentally friendly and will be kept from general use...

Reference Of Weed Control

Influence of application variables on efficacy of manganese-containing fertilizers applied to peanut. Proc. Am. Peanut Res. and Education Soc. 41 82-83. Jordan, D. L., S. H. Lancaster, J. E. Lanier, P. D. Johnson, J. B. Beam, A. C. York, R. L. Brandenburg, F. R. Walls, S. Casteel, and C. Hudak. 2006. Influence of application variables on efficacy of boron-containing fertilizers applied to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Peanut Sci. 33 104-111. Jordan, D. L., J. F. Spears, and J. W. Wilcut. 2003b. Tolerance of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to herbicides applied postemergence. Peanut Sci. 30 8-13. Jordan, D. L. and A. C. York. 1989. Effects of ammonium fertilizers and BCH 81508 S on

History of the Biopesticide Industry

Numerous enterprises have been active in the field of biopesticide production and marketing. Lisansky (CPL 2006a) listed nearly four hundred companies worldwide which manufactured and or marketed biopesticides (broad definition) between 1980 and 2006. The companies involved in the early period of biopesticides and some of their histories have been presented in papers of Lisansky (1997), Lisansky and Coombs (1994), Rodgers (1993), Starnes et al. (1993), Gelernter (2005), and for nematodes, in papers of Georgis (2002) and Ehlers (2007). More than 200 companies have been active in the last two decades in this field (Harwood et al. 2007) a considerable number remains active to date. In Europe eighty-two manufacturers were identified, and their activities and products have been described in The Biopesticide Companies of Europe (CPL 2006b). The earlier edition of this report (2002) listed just twenty companies. Many different types of companies such as companies primarily active in the...

What Is The Role Of Phytoremediation In The Bioremediation Process

Because the application of bioremediation within a wetland environment generally occurs in the presence of wetland vegetation, we might ask what role the plants, per se, play in the degradation of the oil. Wetland vegetation could reduce oil concentrations in the soil directly by plant uptake as well as indirectly by maintaining a more suitable soil environment for microbial degradation of the oil. Traditional bioreme-diation agents such as fertilizers may act not only to directly stimulate microbial activity but also to increase plant growth and thereby indirectly affect plant-mediated controls on oil removal and degradation in the soil. Wetland plants may accelerate oil degradation by oxidizing the substrate by radial oxygen loss from roots and by root carbon leachates that may kick start the petroleum degraders into action. In the highly reduced soil of wetlands where oxygen may limit microbial activity, one might question whether bioremediation in the absence of plants will be...

Soils and Plant Nutrition

Nitrogen, phosphorus, and or potassium deficiency may limit the microbial decomposition of pollutants in soil. Optimum conditions are achieved at a C N P ratio of 100 10 2. Nitrogen is an important nutrient for plants and soil microorganisms. Ammonium and nitrate in the soil are the N sources that are immediately available to plants. These are produced by the mineralization of organic compounds or are added to the soil as fertilizer. Besides ammonium and nitrate, nitrite may also be present, although usually at very minor levels except in neutral and alkaline soils that have recently been treated with ammonium salts or ammonium-forming fertilizers. Without using very large quantities of fertilizers, it would not be possible to maintain agricultural production at the levels that are currently required. Because of this, Europe, America, and Japan have been using fertilizers for a long time. In Japan, roughly half of the plant food comes from bulky organic manures and...

Nitrogen case studies in groundwater

Concentrations from recharge areas toward the production wells. It is common to have multiple sources of nitrate, including inorganic and organic fertilizers and domestic waste (septic system and lagoon) in areas affected by intense agriculture activities. Aquifers in urban and rural environments can also be impacted by nitrate inputs from the leakage of sewage networks and septic systems. A significant number of studies have applied stable nitrogen isotopes to differentiate inorganic fertilizers versus animal waste, fertilizers versus septic system, and natural soil N versus fertilizers and animal or domestic waste (Kreitler and Jones 1975 Kreitler 1979 Kreitler and Browning 1983 Wassenaar 1995 Panno et al. 2001).

Assessment In Practice

Ethanol production from renewable raw materials requires very large amounts of energy which are, however, predominantly renewable. In the case of sugarcane, the energy supply was assumed to be self-sufficient and to require only small quantities of fossil energy. The demand for fertilizer, transportation, and machinery is approximately 6 MJ kg of ethanol 1. Synthetic ethanol production uses crude oil and natural gas as the carbon source. The process steps refinery, steam cracker for ethylene production, and actual synthesis consume 62 MJ of fossil energy per kg of ethanol. In terms of C02 emissions, biotechnological production has major advantages bioethanol acts as a C02 sink, with sugarcane even more than for grain.

Behavior of REE in plants

Uptake of REE into plants has been studied on a series of different plant species. REE are part of many fertilizers and their uptake into plants is governed by factors like plant species, growing season, environmental factors and geochemistry availability of REE in soil - in turn influenced by soil microbes (Aidid 1994 Wang et al. 1997). Zhang et al. (2002) suggested that there is no significant fractionation of REE from soil to root, when studying various plants in a granite weathering zone in China. REE are connected to the water-soluble fraction of soil, however, fractio-nation during transport through the plant occurs as a result of active uptake and delivery of anions into xylem vessels (Zhang et al. 2002). Aidid (1994) studied the abundance and distribution of REE in Pelthophorum pterocarpum and Impatiens balsamina. For P. pterocarpum, they found increasing accumulation of REE with age controlled by the available amount of REE in soil. For I. balsamina, a stronger enrichment of...

Treatment of Real Wastewaters

Lazarova and Spendlingwimmer (2008) compared the removal of pharmaceuticals like diclofenac and ibuprofen in urine or yellow waters by membrane separation methods and electrochemical oxidation in a batch pilot plant with a reactor equipped with graphite electrodes. Nano-filtration allowed the separation of both pharmaceuticals from yellow waters, but with the disadvantage of losing part of urea, a valuable product as a nitrogen fertilizer. In contrast, the electrochemical oxidation was more useful because it destroyed the compounds without loss of urea. Finally, the higher

Formulations Of Inorganic Nutrients

Trogen and phosphorus, but limited stimulation with either one singly. Subsequent studies have shown the need for nitrogen and phosphorus as the primary nutrient additions in bioremediation. Nearly always, the supply of potassium, sulfur, magnesium, calcium, iron, and trace elements is greater than the demand (10). Common commercial NPK fertilizers are used, but the influence of potassium is often ignored. primarily to support biosynthesis (NH4+ and N03 ) or as an alternative electron acceptor to oxygen (N03 ). It is commonly applied in the form of urea, any ammonium salt, or ammonium nitrate. Bacteria readily assimilate all of these, but care would have to be taken in a bioremediation regarding ammonium salts, as they also exert an oxygen demand. Activated sludge has been suggested to be a useful source of nitrogen for PAH biod gradation in soils (152). Slow-release forms of nitrogen allow persistent biostimulation with less chance of water pollution with nitrates. Dried blood acts...

Phosphatebased techniques

Apatites occur commonly in soils and sediments and are the principal mineral components of phosphate rock, which serves as the raw material in all phosphate fertilizers. Sedimentary phosphorite is one of the primary sources of phosphate rock ( 80 worldwide) and can be obtained readily and inexpensively. The principal phosphate mineral in sedimentary phosphorites is carbonate fluoroapatite, which is microcrystalline and differs in composition from pure synthetic apatites because of extensive and complex ion substitutions in apatite structure 124 , Geochemical studies have indicated that a variety of trace elements are enriched in apatites. It was found that the metals adsorbed remain in the apatite structure indefinitely with little subsequent desorption, rendering the apatite minerals as natural collectors for metals and radionuclides 125 .