Immunoassay Formats

Immunoassays may be carried out according to different formats. Figure 3 shows the most widely used.

Competitive assays are the most common and can be performed in different ways, such as the analyte and the tracer competing for a limited number of binding sites (direct), or the analyte and the immobilized ligand (antigen) competing for a limited number of binding sites (indirect).

Non-competitive immunoassays are also performed in sandwich-type immunoassays, in which the analyte is recognized by two different antibodies.

Figure 3 Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay formats.
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