Immunosensors are a specific case of biosensors, and they constitute the most advanced technologies based on the binding properties of antibodies. In this context, nanotechnology, miniaturization, multi-sensor array development and, especially, biotechnology arise as fast-growing areas that will have a marked influence on the development of new immuno-sensing strategies in the near future.

A biosensor is defined by IUPAC as a self-contained integrated device that is capable of providing specific quantitative or semi-quantitative analytical information using a biological recognition element (biochemical receptor), which is retained in direct spatial contact with a transduction element. In the special case of immunosensors, the biochemical receptor is an antibody.

This type of device combines the principles of solid-phase immunoassay with physicochemical transduction elements (electrochemical, optical, piezoelectric, evanescent wave and surface plasmon resonance (SPR)). In this section most relevant transduction principles coupled to immuno-affinity properties used in food analysis applications will be summarized.

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