Water protection and management

The Water Act regulates the legal status of water and water estate, the methods and conditions of water management (water use, water protection, regulation of watercourses and other water bodies and protection from adverse effects of water), the method of organizing and performing water management tasks and functions, basic conditions for carrying out of water management activities; powers and duties of Government administration and other Government bodies, local authorities and other legal subjects and other issues of importance to water management (http://en.gmo.hr/index.php/zakonska_regulativa/ hrvatski_zakoni).

The Clean Water Act (CWA, 1972) formerly known as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, intended to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. To accomplish that objective, the act aimed to attain a level of water quality that ''provides for the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, and wildlife, and provides for recreation in and on the water'' by 1983 and to eliminate the discharge of pollutants into navigable waters by 1985. The CWA has five main elements (1) a system of minimum national effluent standards for each industry, (2) water quality standards, (3) a discharge permit program that translates these standards into enforceable limits,

Table 13 US legislation (title, main points, comments) dealing with labeling and packaging

Title

Main points

Comments

Fair Packaging

• Unfair and deceptive packaging

Amendments

and Labeling

and labeling: scope of prohibition

• 1992 (The quantity

Act (1967)

• Requirements of labeling,

disclosure on labels

placement, form and contents of

of consumer

Statement of Quantity,

commodities be

Supplemental Statement of

expressed in both

Quantity

the metric system

• Annual reports to Congress

and the customary

inch/pound system

of measurement)

Biotech Food

• The biotech labeling example

Labeling

illustrates three observations

(1999)

• Labeling requirements are

established by USDA for meat and

poultry and by FDA for all other

food products.

Biotech Labeling

• Labeling of biotechnology food

Guidance

products

(2001)

• Words using in labeling

Labeling Food

• Genetically engineered food is

(2004)

becoming the rule

• The new label, reflecting the

definition that organic farmers

themselves pushed for will certify

that organic food, in addition to

being grown without pesticides,

contains no genetically engineered

ingredients.

Source: Adapted from [2].

Source: Adapted from [2].

(4) provisions for special problems such as toxic chemicals and oil spills and (5) a revolving construction loan program (formerly a grant program) for publicly owned treatment works (POTWs).

According to Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA, 1974) the term ''primary drinking water regulation'' means a regulation which (a) applies to public water systems, (b) specifies contaminants which, in the judgment of the Administrator, may have any adverse effect on the health of persons, (c) specifies for each such contaminant either a maximum contaminant level, if, in the judgment of the Administrator, it is economically and technologically feasible to ascertain the level of such contaminant in water in public water systems or if, in the judgment

Table 14 US Acts (main points and comments) related to water protection and management

Title

Main points

Comments

Clean Water Act (CWA) (1972)

Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (1974)

The CWA was established to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the nation's waters.

The CWA sets goals to eliminate discharges of pollutants into navigable water, protect fish and wildlife, and prohibit the discharge of toxic pollutants in quantities that could adversely affect the environment.

It seeks to protect sources of the nation's drinking water and to protect public health to the maximum extent possible, using proper water treatment techniques.

SDWA establishes national primary drinking water standards based upon maximum contaminant levels, and establishes state management programs to enforce the standards.

Amendment • The CWA was reauthorized in 1987.

Amendment • 1996

(Amendments to the SDWA)

Source: Adapted from [2].

of the Administrator, it is not economically or technologically feasible to so ascertain the level of such contaminant, each treatment technique known to the Administrator which leads to a reduction in the level of such contaminant sufficient to satisfy the requirements of this section and (d) contains criteria and procedures to assure a supply of drinking water which dependably complies with such maximum contaminant levels, including accepted methods for quality control and testing procedures to insure compliance with such levels and to insure proper operation and maintenance of the system, and requirements as to the minimum quality of water which may be taken into the system and siting for new facilities for public water systems. The main points and comments of CWA and SDWA are given in Table 14.

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