The End Of Fossil Fuels - Our Green Energy

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.

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Free Power Secrets

The Free Power Secrets program, developed by Reggie Hamel is a complete step-by-step guide showing you everything you need to know in order to start powering your car, tractor, truck, or anything else that has a motor on homemade alcohol fuel by the end of the week. You'll get video and PDF guides that will teach you step-by-step how to setup your own consistent gas source in the comfort of your home. It doesn't matter if you've never tried DIY projects before. Everything you need to learn can be find in this guide. You get access to a step by step free power secrets guide and video tutorials that allow you to make your own fuel for less than 70 cents a gallon. Although the system is simple and easy to implement, it may not be easy for everyone to do this, especially if you don't get the raw materials for alcohol production regularly. Therefore results may vary from case to case.

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Fossil Fuel Combustion

In general, fossil fuel combustion results in the dispersion of a wide range of heavy metals, which can include Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, As, Sb, Se, Ba, Cu, Mn, U, and V, over a very large area, although not all these elements are present in significant concentrations in all types of coal and petroleum. The metals accumulate in the coal and petroleum deposits as they formed and are either emitted into the environment as airborne particles during combustion or accumulated in the ash which may itself be transported and contaminate soils or waters or may be leached in situ. The combustion of petrol (gasoline) containing Pb additives has been the largest source of this metal in this environment and has affected soils over a high proportion of the earth's terrestrial surface. Pb is emitted in the exhaust of vehicles running on Pb containing petrol as aerosol particles 0.01-0.1 mm in diameter, but these primary particles can cluster to form large particles (0.3-1 mm). These particles comprise mainly...

Current and Future Outlook for Biofuels

The demand for biofuels is increasing as the supply of crude oil diminishes. The pollution generated from the conventional gasoline is far greater than that of bio-derived fuels, and this is clearly observable when visiting Brazil, a pioneer in bioethanol production and infrastructure. As biofuels are renewable, the greenhouse gas emissions are significantly reduced compared to crude oil derived fuels. The volatility in the price of crude oil has become a problem for many countries and with the price set to rise over the years, many countries could shift to higher targets of biofuel blending.

Current Myths Regarding Biofuel

Increasing uncertainty in global energy production and supply, environmental concerns due to the use of fossil fuels, and high prices of petroleum products are considered to be the major reasons to search for alternatives to petrodiesel. For instance, Lean (2007) claimed that the global supply of oil and natural gas from the conventional sources is unlikely to meet the growth in energy demand over the next 25 years. As a result of this cognition, biofuels are considered to be sustainable alternatives to petroleum products. Because few are accustomed to questioning the first premise of any of these conclusions, even the ardent supporters of the petroleum industry find merit in this conclusion. Considerable funds have been spent in developing biofuel technology, and even the mention of negative impacts of food (e.g., corn) being converted into fuel was considered to be anti-civilization. It is assumed that biodiesel fuels are environmentally beneficial (Demirbas 2003). The argument put...

Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel

The use of alternative fuels in the transportation sector is the best short- and medium-term options to lower urban pollution and our current dependence on oil. From the currently available alternatives, natural gas (NG) is clearly the more advantageous one due to its environmental friendly behavior, and because it is a truly and effective alternative to oil-derived fuels 1 .

Alternative Fuels Alcohols Ethers and Esters

For environmental and supply reasons, attention is turning to the development of cleaner-burning alternatives to hydrocarbon fuels, especially to power vehicles. Some of these alternatives are, at least in principle, renewable in the sense that their production could be sustained indefinitely into the future without resulting in the accumulation of additional carbon dioxide. In the material that follows, we discuss the nature and properties of the major contenders for alternative fuels. In a later section, we take a longer-range viewpoint and consider hydrogen, the ultimate fuel of the future. The alternative fuels for vehicles fall into three classes alcohols, ethers, and esters. Because they all contain some oxygen, they generally produce a little less energy per liter than do gasoline and diesel fuel. However, their oxygen content results in low emissions of many air pollutants. NOx emissions from these organic liquids are also lower than from pure gasoline because the flame...

Problems with Biodiesel Sources

The main feedstocks of biodiesel are vegetable oils, animal fats, and waste cooking oil. These are the mono alkyl esters of fatty acids derived from vegetable oil or animal fat. The fuels derived may be alcohols, ethers, esters, and other chemicals made from cellulosic biomass and waste products, such as agricultural and forestry residues, aquatic plants (microalgae), fast growing trees and grasses, and municipal and industrial wastes. Subramanyam et al. (2005) reported that there are more than 300 oil-bearing crops identified that can be utilized to make biodiesel. Beef and sheep tallow, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, canola oil, coconut oil, olive oil, soybean oil, cottonseed oil, mustard oil, hemp oil, linseed oil, microalgae oil, peanut oil, and waste cooking oil are considered potential alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production (Demirba 2003). However, the main sources of biodiesel are rapeseed oil, soybean oil, and, to a certain extent, animal fat, with rapeseed accounting...

Example Alkenes from Petroleum Fractions and from Bioethanol

The method outlined in Section 5.3.2 is used in the following to assess the economic perspective for producing low- boiling alkenes from bioethanol instead of from petroleum fractions. Biomass-based ethanol can be used in this way as raw material for chemical products, especially to produce polymers. The procedure outlined should be helpful for identifying advantageous situations to replace naphtha steam cracking by dehydration of bioethanol, as well as to any feedstock and process technology by other feedstocks process technologies. It was applied for a comparison of different biofuels in a recent overview of synthetic hydrocarbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass 17 . If more detailed investment and operating cost figures are available, the resulting production cost estimates become more accurate. Steam cracking of naphtha

Bioethanol and Chemical Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass

Renewable Lignocellulosic Biomass

Lignocellulosic biomass is mainly constituted of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin and is available in various forms. In future, lignocellulose-containing substrates will be an interesting option for the production of ethanol and other chemicals. Energy sources obtained from lignocellulosic sources belong to the so-called second generation of biofuels. In contrast to first-generation biofuels as biodiesel from rape seed oil or ethanol from sugarcane or wheat, second-generation biofuels will not be in direct competition with the production of food or animal feed. Possible sources for lignocellulosic feedstocks (Table 5.8) can be, for example, wood residues, agricultural wastes, fast- growing energy crops like switch grass with high yields per hectare, or even municipal solid wastes. The so - called biorefineries should not only be able to produce biofuels but a broad range of products useful as precursors for bulk and fine chemicals and new industrial polymers. Currently, bioethanol...

The Current Process of Biodiesel Production

Recently (Chhetri and Islam 2008b) detailed the process involved in biodiesel production. Conventionally, biodiesel is produced either in a single-stage or a double-stage batch process or by a continuous flow type transesterification process. These are either acid catalyzed or base catalyzed processes. The acids generally used are sulfonic acid and sulfuric acid. These acids give very high yields in alkyl esters, but these reactions are slow, requiring high temperatures above 100 C and more than three hours to complete the conversion (Schuchardt 1998). Alkali catalyzed transesterification is much faster than acid catalyzed transesterification, and all commercial biodiesel producers prefer to use this process (Ma and Hanna 1999). The alkalis generally used in the process include NaOH, KOH, and sodium methoxide. For an alkali-catalyzed transesterification, the glycerides and alcohol must be anhydrous because water changes the reaction, causing saponification. The soap lowers the yield...

Bioethanol

Biofuels have been drawing considerable attention recently due to the disadvantages of fossil fuels (e.g., emissions of greenhouse gases, unsustainable supply), which produce large amounts of C02 during a combustion process. Among the liquid biofuels, ethanol has the major contribution in the transportation sector. Lignocellulosic biomass contains 40-60 of cellulose and 20-40 of hemicellulose, two thirds of which are polysaccharides that can be hydrolyzed to sugars and then fermented to ethanol. Ethanol can be easily burned in today's internal combustion engines to substitute gasoline. The worldwide gasoline use in the transportation industry is about 1,200 billion liters year (Martinot 2005). The total ethanol production as of 2004 is approximately 32 billion liters year. Brazil is the leading country in using ethanol as transportation fuel. There is a huge gap between gasoline use and the supply of ethanol as a substitute for gasoline in the current market. Ethanol is being produced...

Biodiesel

Considerable attention has been paid to develop biodiesel as a replacement for petrodiesel in order to reduce environmental problems. Despite the fact that renewable resources such as vegetable oil produce biodiesel, the pathway of conventional biodiesel is similar to that of petrodiesel. The use of excessive heat, chemicals, and catalysts adds toxicity to the resulting biodiesel, which makes the process expensive and highly unsustainable and creates adverse impacts on the environment. Various additives used for biodiesel production inhibit the formation of sediments and other insolubles, making the biodiesel even worse. The formation of sediment or gum can result in operational problems with plugging and fouling at the end-use equipment. A recent EPA (2002) report indicates that even though biodiesel has less toxic pollution compared to petroleum diesel, the combustion of biodiesel still produces toxic emissions similar to those of petrodiesel, such as benzene, acetaldehyde, toluene,...

Fossil Fuels Coal

The main fossil-fuel reserve is coal, which is available in abundance in many regions of the world, including developing countries, and which is cheap to mine and transport. Five countries the United States, Russia, China, India, and Australia have 75 of the world's coal reserves. At today's rate of consumption, coal reserves are estimated to last another 200 years, much longer than oil or gas (see below). Indeed, some observers believe the world will return to a greater reliance on coal as the major fossil fuel later in this century. The 2100 coal-fired power plants in the world are collectively responsible for about a third of all anthropogenic C02 emissions. Currently, coal produces about half the electric power in the United States and 80 of that in China. The heat produced in the combustion of the fossil fuel is used to generate high-pressure steam, which in turn is used to turn turbines and thereby produce electricity. As discussed below, however, the ratio of C02 to energy...

Biofuels

Carriers The World

Driven by the boost of biofuels worldwide, a large number of LCA studies has been carried out on this group of biobased products. Biobased fuels are generally assessed in comparison to petrochemical fuels, where the reference products are gasoline, diesel, and natural gas. In addition, process chains for several biofuels are compared to each other, differing in technology and raw materials. Results are reported for fuel production only (well-to-tank analysis), or including fuel efficiency and emissions for vehicle use (tank-to-wheel analysis) -the first resulting in a functional unit per energy content of the fuel, whereas the latter is specified per distance of transportation. Also a functional unit per area of land used is reported frequently. Results of studies on biofuels are of interest also beyond the scope of the transportation sector, as compounds like ethanol or plant oils may also serve as intermediates to be used in future green chemistry. Biofuels comprise so-called...

Biodiesel Toxicity

The toxicity of biodiesel is measured by the fuel toxicity to the human body and by the health and environmental impacts due to exhaust emission. Tests conducted for acute oral toxicity of a pure biodiesel fuel and a 20 blend (B20) in a single-dose study on rats reported that the LD50 of pure biodiesel, as well as B20, was found to be greater than 5000 mg kg (Chhetri et al. 2008). Hair loss was found on one of the test samples in the B20. The acute dermal toxicity of neat biodiesel tested for LD50 was greater than 2000 mg kg. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (2002) studied the biodiesel effects on gaseous toxics and listed 21 Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATs) based on that study. MSATs are significant contributors to the toxic emissions and are known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects. Of the 21 MSATs listed, six are metals. Of the remaining 14 MSATs, the emission measurements were performed for the eleven components, namely, acetaldehyde,...

Gaseous Constituents Of The Atmosphere

Table 2-1 shows the constituents of clean, dry air near sea level. Usually, the atmosphere also contains water vapor and dust, but these occur in amounts that vary widely from place to place and from time to time. Carbon dioxide, the fourth constituent on the list, has, as we shall see, been increasing in concentration during this century, mostly through the burning of fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum products. The concentrations given in Table 2-1 are estimated global averages for 1989 some of the trace constituents, like methane, have also been increasing in concentration, as noted later (see Section 3.3.3 and Figure 3-14). Although oxygen is a very reactive gas, its concentration is presently constant in our atmosphere this implies a dynamic equilibrium involving atmospheric oxygen. It is well known that photosynthesis in green plants adds large amounts of oxygen to the atmosphere during daylight hours. Although oxygen may also be produced in other ways, the amounts are much...

Introduction to Renewable Resources in the Chemical Industry

Processes in the chemical industry are historically based on fossil resources. During industrial revolution, energy sources like peat and such renewable biomasses as wood were substituted by coal and later on by natural gas and petroleum oil. The latter has been, until now, the main resource for raw materials and the energy supply for the private sector. Due to its very beneficial properties in terms of chemical synthesis processes, only a minor proportion of approximately 10 of this plentiful resource is used for such purposes, whereas 90 is utilized for energy and transport. With regard to the increasing population and energy demand and oil consumption of developing countries, the limited availability of crude oil, and financially motivated trading operations, the price of oil rises steadily and reached a peak of nearly 150 USD per barrel in 2008. It is assumed that most of the known so -called supergiant oil-fields cross the oil-peak, which comes along with a decrease in the...

Carbon Nanotubes in Energy Conversion and Storage

Global warming and depletion of natural energy resources are the current major concerns and are anticipated to become increasingly serious in near future (Smalley 2005). The abnormal climate shift and increasing rate of natural disasters occurring worldwide are clear signs of environmental degradation from global warming, in which the combustion of fossil fuels has been identified as the main culprit contributing to the global warming effects. In effort to limit the utilization of fossil fuels and to meet the ever-increasing energy demands of society, scientists are seeking for clean alternative renewable and sustainable energy sources. Potential candidates to substitute conventional fossil fuels include solar, wind, tidal, water, geothermal, and hydrogen energies, where extensive research has recently been carried out on these energy sources. In the past decade, nanotechnology with CNTs material has introduced revolutionary developments in several energy applications ranging from...

Use of Natural Resources and Releases to Air and Water and Waste Generation

The chemical industry is a major energy user (7 percent of world energy use in 1998) (IEA, 2000), and yet it contributes only 4 percent of overall emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion (IEA, 1999). However, when compared to other industries (e.g., pulp and paper contributes just 1 percent), the chemical industry in OECD17 countries is a major industrial emitter of CO2. Over the last 15 years,

Supply chain management

Another crucial factor in the development of sustainable chemistry is managing logistic processes within and between (chemical) companies in an optimal way. Obviously, technical innovations, such as process and product improvement and the replacement of fossil fuels with renewable raw materials, can deliver an important contribution to sustainability. However, the benefits of these innovations can be easily undone by an inefficient organization of the supply chain, both within a company and between different companies. To put it bluntly, a production process improvement that reduces CO2 emissions by 20 can easily be undone if twice as many kilometers must be completed to deliver this product to the customers. Notwithstanding the evidence of logistic optimization, examples of major inefficiencies in the organization of logistics processes between companies (for example, large quantities of identical products are transported in both directions between chemical clusters) or within firms...

The Most Serious Problems

In 2005, Jared Diamond published his book 'Collapse How societies choose to fail or succeed' 17 . In this work, Diamond identifies four major issues that lead to the collapse of societies. The first issue comprises destruction and loss of natural resources (e.g. destruction of natural habitats, aquacultures, biodiversity loss, erosion and soil damage), the second ceilings on natural resources (e.g. fossil fuels, water, photosynthesis ceiling), the third harmful things that we produce and move around (e.g. toxic man-made chemicals, alien species, ozone hole) and the fourth comprises population issues (e.g. population growth, impact of population on the environment). We need to go green if we want to sustain ourselves.

Implications of a Knowledgebased Sustainability Analysis

Scientific link between global warming and fossil fuel production and utilization. In solving Equation 3.10, one will encounter a set of non-linear equations. These equations cannot be linearized. Recently, Moussavizadegan et al. (2007) proposed a method for solving non-linear equations. The principle is to cast the governing equation in engineering formulation, as outlined by Abou-Kassem et al. (2006) whose principles were further elaborated in Abou-Kassem (2007). The total energy consumption in 2004 was equivalent to approximately 200 million barrels of oil per day, which is about 14.5 terawatts, over 85 of which comes from fossil fuels (Service 2005). Globally, about 30 billion tons of C02 is produced annually from fossil fuels, which includes oil, coal, and natural gas (EIA 2004). The industrial COz produced from fossil fuel burning is considered solely responsible for the current global warming and climate change problems (Chhetri and Islam 2007). Hence, burning fossil fuels is...

YanJu Liu l2 Qing Jun Liu1 and Hui Ding1

This paper will review the status of soil contamination, its risks and sources in the beginning. Human activities broke the soil balance with low background toxic metal level, and shrank the area of agricultural soil globally. Both essential and unessential metals ruin the balance of the ecosystem, with increasing economic loss and human health damage. Soil pollution was caused not only by naturally generated mechanisms including earthquakes, volcanic eruption, but also by anthropogenic inputs such as industrial development, fossil fuel burning, mining, metallurgy, electroplating, waste disposal, long-term application of sewage sludge, fertilizer application, etc.

Global Energy Scenario

The global energy consumption share from different sources is shown in Table 5.1. The analysis carried out by EIA (2006a) shows that oil remains the dominant energy source followed by coal and natural gas. It is projected that nuclear energy production will also increase by more than two times by the year 2030. Renewable energy sources, such as biomass, solar, and hydro, will not increase significantly compared to the total energy consumption. Renewable energy sources supply 17 of the world's primary energy. They include traditional biomass, large and small hydropower, wind, solar geothermal, and biofuels (Martinot 2005).

Potential Raw Materials

Sources 7 , and the US Department of Energy has performed a thorough evaluation of likely high-value biological chemicals 5 . The key findings of these two research programs are shown in Table 3.1. Direct use of agricultural products as raw materials is rare. The majority of the chemical building blocks identified by these projects are derived from agricultural products using either chemical processes or microbial fermentation. Consequently, the primary raw materials required from agriculture are starch, sugars, and oils. These generic substances can then be used to manufacture a wide variety of more useful chemical products. In some cases, multiple products may be produced from a single agricultural feedstock. For example, glycerol is a by-product of the transesterification of plant oils during biodiesel production.

Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming

Energy production and use are considered major causes of greenhouse gas emissions. The emission of greenhouse gases, particularly C02, is of great concern today. Even though C02 is considered one of the major greenhouse gases, production of natural C02 is essential for maintaining life on Earth. Note that all C02 is not the same and plants do not accept all types of C02 for photosynthesis. There is a clear difference between old C02 from fossil fuels and new C02 produced from renewable biofuels (Dietze 1997). The COz generated from burning fossil fuel is an old and contaminated C02. Because various toxic chemicals and catalysts are used for oil and natural gas refining, the danger of generating C02 with higher isotopes cannot be ignored (Islam 2003 Chhetri et al. 2006a). Hence, it is clear that C02 itself is not a culprit for global warming, but the industrial C02 that is contaminated with catalysts and chemicals likely becomes heavier with higher isotopes and plants cannot accept...

Nuclear Energy and Global Warming

Nuclear energy has also been promoted as one of the clean alternatives to reducing the pressure on fossil fuel resources. A recently held summit of a group of eight industrial nations (G8) has also endorsed nuclear energy as non-carbon. Based on the current trend of nuclear power development, EIA (2006a) indicates that nuclear power will not take the major share of global energy supply during its projected period by 2030. As stated previously, there are several problems with nuclear power very high initial costs for building nuclear power plants, the expensive enrichment process, the environmental impacts during mining, milling, and operations, and it poses a great threat for the safety of the communities close to the power plants. Nuclear power is promoted as a solution to global warming based on the consideration that C02 is not emitted from the power plant. However, considerable fossil fuels are used during mining, milling, fuel enrichment, manufacturing, and plant and equipment...

Energy Demand in Emerging Economies

Asia has emerged as the prospective biggest consumer of energy. In India and China, both characterized by the largest population and highest economic growth rate, the demand of energy is dramatically increasing. According to Kuroda (2006), over the last 10 years China grew at an average annual rate of 9.1 and India at a rate of 6.3 . Most forecasters see continued rapid growth in these countries in the years ahead - likely 8-9 in China and 7-8 in India. The projection of the Asian Development Bank showed an estimated average GDP growth of 6.6 across the developing economies of Asia and the Pacific, which is said to continue in the coming years. In order to maintain this economic growth, the developing countries need large amounts of energy, especially electrical energy to run the industrial operations. Butler (2005) reported that the Chinese economy grew by 49 between 1999 and 2004. China increased its oil import from 2003 by 990,000 barrels a day in 2004. Similar consumption patterns...

Renewable vs Nonrenewable No Boundary as Such

The demand of fossil fuel, such as oil, coal, and natural gas, will still be significant in the next several decades. Figure 5.16 shows that as the natural processing time increases, the energy content of the natural fuel increases from wood to natural gas. The average energy value of wood is 18 MJ kg (Hall and Overend 1987) and the energy content of coal, oil, and natural gas are 39.3MJ kg, 53.6MJ kg, and 51.6MJ.kg, respectively (Chhetri and Islam, 2008). Moreover, this shows that renewable and non-renewable energy sources have no boundary. It is true that solar, geothermal, hydro, and wind sources are being renewed at every second based on the global natural cycle. Fossil fuel sources are solar energy stored by the trees in the form of carbon, and due to temperature and pressure they emerge as coal, oil, or natural gas after millions of years. Biomass is renewed from a few days to a few hundred years (as a tree can live up top several hundred years). These processes continue...

Carbon Nanotubes for Energy Storage

Energy is the integral part of human life since ancient time. In recent years, the world energy consumption has been increasing at a much faster rate due to growing population, modern lifestyle and rapid industrialization. Fossil fuels, nuclear power, wind energy, solar energy is some of the primary sources of energy. From the beginning of industrialization, humankind has been consuming natural resources without thinking about the environmental impact and possible consequences of their exhaustion. A major effect of using fossil fuels is global warming, which causes hundreds of deaths in warm climate countries, increasing levels of sea water worldwide which threatens seaside cities and numerous other natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, forest fires and so on. At this point we have to think which way to choose stop the exhaustion of resources, accelerate the transition to renewable energies or continue consuming fossil fuels and accelerate the world toward a disastrous end. We...

Sources of PAHs in the Environment

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of organic compounds consisting of two and more than two fused benzene rings. PAHs are naturally present in the fossil fuel. However, the increased level of PAHs in the environment over the last few decades is due to the huge increment in production and use of petroleum and petroleum products. Point sources of PAHs originate from accidental discharges during production, transportation and disposal of petroleum and its products and industrial processes such as, liquefaction and gasification of coal and waste incineration. Creosote and coal tar, which are by-products of coking, are rich source of PAHs containing 85-90 of it (Cerniglia 1992). At contaminated sites, PAHs are often present along with other contaminants, such as, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylene) compounds, aliphatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals. Depending on the source of contamination, the level of PAHs in soil has been found to range from 1 to 300 lg...

Other Biogenic Residues

Vacuum distillation allows fractionating CTO into a rosin acid-rich component, known as tall oil rosin (TOR) and a fatty acid rich component, known as tall oil fatty acids (TOFAs). TOR is industrially used as adhesives additive and emulsifying or binding agent, for example, 15, 42 - The TOFA fraction which is rich in oleic and linoleic acid - 15 is regarded as a potential vegetable oil replacement for the production of biofuels and oleochemicals. However, sufficient purification is challenging. In Europe, TOFA still containing a rosin acid content is currently produced in Scandinavia as intermediate for the production of alkyd resins, dimer acids, soaps or coatings, for instance 41 .

Reversing Global Warming The Role of Technology Development

This section discusses a series of techniques used to reduce industrial C02. Besides emitting a toxic C02 when burned, fossil fuels have incomplete combustion in an oil water mixture. A heat exchanger is designed to trap the heat from the flue gas that is utilized for water heating. As all the particulates are trapped, the C02 emitted is a clean and natural C02 that is an essential feedstock for plant photosynthesis. The particulates trapped may be used as paint material. This can also be an excellent source of nanomaterial for industrial application. This technology offers solutions for the production of a natural form of COz that is readily synthesized by plants. The other emissions, such as methane and oxides of nitrogen, are not harmful, unlike those emitted from petroleum based fuels. The production of green bio-diesel and bio-ethanol discussed earlier is a key element in the production of natural C02. Only non-toxic chemicals and catalysts are used in the processes to produce...

Bio and Bioinspired Catalysts

White biotechnology (biotechnology applied to industrial processes) and bioca-talysis are a key element to improving traditional chemical technology. They can, in principle, reduce pollution and waste, decrease the use of energy, raw materials and water, lead to better quality food products, and create new materials and biofuels from waste. In fact, the ability of enzymes to catalyze organic reactions in the moderate pH range of 4-9 at reasonable temperatures (usually 10-50 C), and without extremes in pressure or the addition of metals, can provide an environmentally acceptable method for many reactions that otherwise require highly acidic or alkaline environments, high energy inputs for heating or toxic metal catalysts. However, the drawbacks of biocatalysis are underestimated. These consist of problems of mixing and mass heat transfer (and related energy costs), the cost of separation (even if recent advances in integrating biocatalysis with membranes have reduced these costs), the...

Plans to Reduce Auto Emissions in Urban Centers

Several approaches are available to improve the quality of air in areas of high population density. Reformulated gasolines that have lower volatilities and use additives such as MTBE and ethanol to reduce CO emissions will probably be used. A catalytic converter that catalyzes the degradation of pollutants when the car is first started probably be mandated, as well. Alternative fuels, low-emission fuels such as natural gas, will be used in fleets of cars like taxis that operate in cities. In California in 1998, there was a requirement that 2 of all vehicles sold have zero tailpipe emissions. This percentage is mandated to

Facility Location Planning and Determining the Logistical Structure of a Renewable Raw Material Utilization Chain

The logistical conditions concerning harvesting and transport also play an important role, both, in the integration as well as the greenfield scenario. The needed amounts for feedstock have to be harvested and collected. Especially for wood, not every possible source is suitable as catchment area. Steepy hillsides, unsufficient road infrastructure or nature protection areas are exemplary reasons for this. After collection the renewable resources have to be transported to the plant site and the products have to be distributed. This requires enormous transport amounts as plant sizes of 400 000 up to more than 2 000 000 tons of renewable resources (dry matter) are often envisaged when speaking of biorefiner-ies or biofuel production plants. A BtL concept based on a capacity of 750 000 tons dry biomass, for example, wood chips with 50 water content, that is, 1500000 tons with 50 water content, would lead to more than 68 000 truck loads per year or nearly 190 truck loads per day.-...

Environmental Impacts Issues

From fossil fuels, which are gradually becoming depleted. The production process itself involves energy consumption and further resource depletion. During production, emissions are released into the water, air, or soil. Emissions of concern include heavy metals, chlorofluorocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxides, and dust. Wastewater, bearing solvent residues from separation processes and wet scrubbers, enter in the food chain. The residual monomer in products and small molecules (plasticizers, stabilizers) slowly release into the environment, for example, by leaching slowly into water. These emissions have effects, such as ozone depletion, carcinogenicity, smog, acid rain, etc. Thus, the production of plastic materials can have adverse effects on ecosystems, human health, and the physical environment.

Removing C02 from the Atmosphere

In another proposal, carbon dioxide from a power plant would be used to grow vast amounts of algae, which then could be used as fuel for combustion. Several prototype facilities of this kind have been constructed. The exhaust from small power plants is led through clear tubes in which fast-growing algae are produced in an aqueous environment using sunlight to drive photosynthesis. The algae harvested from the process are dried for combustion or converted into biodiesel and ethanol fuels (see Chapter 8).

Demand for Integrated Assessment and Planning Methods for Renewable Raw Material Logistic Chains

As a consequence, a wide variety of methodologies come into play for an integrated assessment. Potential analyses for single raw materials or utilization pathways have been carried out with geographic information systems (GIS) (see e.g., 71, 72 ). Basically, these analyses combine statistical data (e.g., rainfall, productivity, land use) with spatial information. As a result potentials of different raw materials are presented on maps. Further studies include aspects of facility location planning, for example, for bioethanol (see 73 ) or BtL plants (see 74 ). GIS-based analyses are also used in facility location planning, for example, for bioethanol plants 73 or BtL plants 74 . Additionally operations research provides a large toolset for the mathematical characterization, formulation, and solution of facility location planning problems and supply chain design. Overviews can be found, for example, in 76, 77 . Examples for applications to the industrial valorization of renewable raw...

Energy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the Future Growth in Energy

Since the Industrial Revolution, the rate of emission of C02 to the atmosphere has climbed hand-in-hand with the expansion of commercial energy use, since so much of the latter (currently 78 ) is obtained from fossil-fuel sources. Barring an unforeseen, massive development of nuclear energy or renewable fuels or carbon sequestration, CO, emission rates are expected to match commercial energy production rate increases as the developing world undergoes industrialization and as the economies of developed countries continue to expand. Indeed, a 2003 assessment by the European Union predicts that, over the first three decades of this century, carbon dioxide emissions will rise globally by an annual average of 2.1 , due to a 1.8 annual increase in energy usage. The fraction of fossil-fuel energy obtained from coal is expected to increase over this period due to higher and higher prices for oil and natural gas as they become more scarce thereby increasing the carbon intensity of the fuel...

Inorganic Gaseous Pollutants

Sulfur oxide emission results from the combustion of sulfur-containing fossil fuels such as coal and oil. The sulfur content of coal ranges from 0.3 to 7 and the sulfur is in both organic and inorganic forms, while in oil the sulfur content ranges from 0.2 to 1.7 and its sulfur is in an organic form. The most important sulfur compound in coal is iron disulfide (FeS2) or pyrite. When heated at high temperatures, pyrite undergoes the following reactions

Research and Development Potential

5.5 Case Studies Lignocellulose as Raw Material and Intermediates 113 Table 5.10 Limitations and R& D potential in producing bioethanol from lignocellulose. All considerations for the use of lignocelluloses for the production of bioethanol or other platform chemicals should include the overall mass and energy balance as well as the availability through the year and the transportation needed. Regarding a study of IEA OECD 2010 9 , there is no additional land available in the short term and only 10 of global forestry and agricultural residues are assumed to be available for biofuel or platform chemical production. Therefore, there will always be a direct competition of bioethanol or other platform chemicals production with food production even if so-called plant waste material is used as the real limitation is the arable land available.

Thailand General Situation

And requirements for switching from two-stroke to three-stroke motorcycle engines. The control program of the Ministry of Industry's Department of Industrial Works, which has jurisdiction for industry control suffers from inadequate enforcement measures, and tends to enforce correction measures only in situations with very severe public complaints. The worst single major air pollution problem in Thai history resulted in massive emissions of SO2 from a major power generating facility (Mae Moh) in northern Thailand, which generates power by burning of peat with high sulfur content, resulting in a major control effort by the Pollution Control Department (assisted by U.S. EPA), but even with this, plentiful public complaints continue. This record has given fossil fuel power production in Thailand a very bad image, and made it difficult to gain acceptance of proposed new plants, even for plants burning clean coal with proper controls. It is the public's belief that these will be more Mae...

Outline of Ongoing Research Activities of the Marine Ecology Research Institute Mainly Regarding Thermal Issues in Japan

Most fossil fuel and all nuclear power plants in Japan are located at the seaside and employ the once-through cooling system. The water pollution control law of Japan lists heat discharge as one of its regulation targets. However, no law, regulation, or guideline for heat discharge has been enacted so far in Japan. Issues concerning the temperature rise of water between the intake and discharge at power plants and the structural design of intake and discharge facilities have been settled by an agreement between power companies and local governments under the guidance of national agencies, including the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency.

Marine Thermal Issues in Which MERI Has Been Involved

Most fossil fuel and all nuclear power plants in Japan are located at the seaside and employ the once-through cooling system. Impacts of thermal discharge (intake and discharge of cooling water) have been a public concern, and several studies, therefore, were conducted to elucidate power plant impacts on marine fishery resources and marine organisms in the 1970s-1990s (Kiyono and Shinshima 1982 Kinoshita 1985 Yamamoto et al. 1991 Marumo et al. 1992 Tsuchida 1995). Since no serious damage to local fishery resources because of power plant operations has been observed or reported so far, recent public concern has focused on impacts on the marine ecosystem and its preservation. With the possible global warming, however, thermal impacts on fishery resources again have become one of the major public issues. The following are the marine thermal and power plant operation issues and the relating ongoing research projects to which MERI has given higher priority

Manmade 14C Dilution and Addition

Since the industrial revolution of the early nineteenth century, large amounts of fossil fuels (oil, coal, gas) have been combusted, causing an increase of about 10 in the concentration of atmospheric CO2. This added fossil CO2 was devoid of 14C and, correspondingly, lowered the 14C 12C ratio in the air by about 10 .

Energy Consumption Modeling

Seasonal variation for energy consumption was an important factor in the PAH emission inventory. An approximately five-fold variance for the hottest months in comparison to the coldest months in Asia was assumed by Streets et al. (2003). Similar high seasonal variation was assumed in other emission inventory research (Liousse et al. 1996). Some of the emission sources in China, exhibit wide seasonal variations, such as residential combustion of biofuel and coal, open burning of agricultural wastes, and wildfires. The variations for residential combustion can be attributed primarily to space heating. Because of the need for heating in winter in northern China, energy for residential consumption increases in winter. Open burning of straw was more concentrated in May, June, and July in China, especially in June over the North China Plain (Fu et al. 2007). Wildfires, as natural emission sources of PAHs, are subject to strong influence of seasonal weather conditions. For example, in 2002,...

Application in Phytoremediation

Mycorrhiza in association with fast growing trees is a very useful tool in phytoremediation which has been proposed as an environmentally beneficial and cost-efficient treatment technique for the remediation of heavy metal (HM)-contaminated sites in recent years. Such phytoextraction strategies necessitate tolerance and high HM accumulation of the mycorrhiza, because the aim is uptake and concentration of metals from the contaminated environment into harvestable plant biomass. In contrast, phytostabilization may profit from using metal-tolerant mycorrhiza with low HM accumulation, thus focusing on long-term stabilization and containment of the pollutant, without introduction into harvestable biomass. Such an approach would, e.g., allow for production of lignocelluloses for bioethanol or wood for heat production.

BTEX Benzene Toluene Ethyl Benzene Xylene

Solubility and toxicity (Coates et al 2002) . Benzene and toluene are released into the environment through gasoline, petroleum fuels, and industrial effluents of metal, paint, textile manufacture, wood processing, chemical production, and tobacco products. On the other hand, ethylbenzene and xylene contamination has been associated with the manufacture of pesticides, chemicals, detergents, varnishes and paints (Coates et al. 2002 Chakraborty and Coates 2004).

Sustainability Strategy

Sustainable Development is generally understood as not impairing the ability of future generations to enjoy the same or a better standard of living than what is currently enjoyed in developed countries. Environmental sustainability means we aspire to replace our use of nonrenewable or scarce materials with materials that are renewable and more abundant, while reducing our dependence on fossil fuels. We also aspire to take from the environment no more than we return, leaving ecosystems in a healthy state. This requires us to take only raw materials that can be relatively quickly renewed by naturally occurring Earth systems processes and leave only waste that serves as raw materials for industrial or Earth systems processes.

Concluding Remarks

The crude oil pathway shows that a natural process drives the formation of crude oil without any impacts on other species in the world. However, the pathway analysis of refined oil shows that its processes create several environmental impacts on the globe. Refining crude oil involves the application of large amounts of synthetic chemicals and catalysts including heavy metals such as lead, chromium, sulfuric acid, hydrofluoric acid, platinum, etc. Moreover, refining the crude oil emits large amounts of VOCs and toxic air pollutants. Refined oils degrade slower and last in the natural environment for a longer duration, affecting the environment in several ways. Because the refining of fossil fuels emits large amounts of C02, it has been linked to global warming and climate change. Hence, a paradigm shift in conventional engineering practices is necessary in order to reduce the emissions and impacts on the natural environment.

Thermochemical Processing

A method of converting biomass into desired fuels and chemicals is by using thermal gasification or pyrolysis technology. Gasification technology converts various forms of biomass into gaseous mixtures containing hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and carbon dioxide and these molecules can be used as building blocks for a variety of chemicals and fuels. The gasification system depends heavily on the type of feedstock and correct matching is required for optimal results. The technology for large-scale biomass processing and subsequent gas cleaning using advanced catalysts has still not been demonstrated. Furthermore, the conversion of syngas to biofuels via the Fischer-Tropsch reaction has not been demonstrated and further research into catalysis and technology is required - 55 . There are a number of gasification plants around the world which generate electricity such as Guessing, Austria (2 MWe), Lahti, Finland (15 MWe), and Vermont, USA (15 MWe). Cofiring of syngas in existing...

The Carbon Cycle C02 And Carbonates

Estimate of recoverable fossil fuels IPCC estimates of annual perturbations to the natural cycle averaged over the 1980-1989 decade, indicate that a total of 7.1 x 1015 g of C is released by anthropogenic sources 5.5 x 1015g from fossil fuels and cement production, and 1.6 x 1015 g from changes in tropical land use, primarily destruction of forests. Of these emissions, the ocean takes up about 2 x 1015 g of C, Northern Hemisphere forest regrowth takes up another 0.5 x 1015 g, and other terrestrial sinks (increased plant growth from fertilization and other effects) 1.3 x 1015 g. About 3.3 x 1015 g of C is left in the atmosphere. Global atmospheric CO is estimated to amount to between 1400 and 3700 x 1012 g yr, with less than 25 each from biomass and fossil fuel burning and about half from oxidation of other hydrocarbons.

The Size of Future Biorefineries

It seems likely that we will see the development of both small, localized biorefineries that utilize local biomass to satisfy local needs (but may also produce specialty products for export) and larger scale units that are either based on existing infrastructure (typically petrochemical plants, e.g., Rotterdam) or new large -scale biorefinery plants (e.g., cofiring power station, bioethanol production, etc.).

Overview of Different Models of Biorefinery Industry

The global model is characterized by large-scale production, based on massive investments in countries endowed with natural resources (e.g., Latin America for bioethanol). Raw materials are shipped to industrialized countries, where they are processed by biorefineries and converted into biofuel or ethanol. The existence of relevant economies of scale and the massive investments in agricultural inputs in developing countries is the basis of the large scale of biorefineries and blending companies. The final output is traded to industrialized countries. Both the United Nations Environment Program and the EU Energy Policy assert that producer countries could benefit from the creation of new jobs in this sector. However, whether such development will actually happen strongly depends on which type of agrofuel development will be promoted, which detains its control. Decisions concerning the use of natural resources, or infrastructure developments, have the potential to damage a community's...

Potential Effects of the Global Model

On the one hand, there is some evidence supporting the existence of public benefits (such as avoiding carbon emissions, ensuring environmental protection, and security of energy supply at national level). On the other hand, there are strong concerns about the negative implications associated with large- scale production of agrofuels and bioenergy. In this respect, bioenergy has often been associated with overexploitation of natural resources and health hazards. An example of this analysis is presented in Costa and Foley 24 in which it is claimed that while the Brazilian biofuel industry has provided numerous socioeconomic benefits, it has also contributed to agriculture-induced environmental degradation. This study predicts that the deforestation of the Amazon basin will escalate with growing amounts of virgin rainforest being cleared for farmland. In this regard, Charles et al. 25 highlight that greater soil degradation also emerges and the distilling process that converts...

Potential Effects of the Local Model

Social Aspects Environment and health issues can be considered as a primary importance for local communities. Usually, small-scale biomass production systems result in local health benefits, either as a result of better wood stove design for people living in rural areas, as a consequence of avoiding emissions of sulfur dioxide or particles when biomass replaces coal in modern power plants, or, even more, as a result of reduced pollution by using biofuels for those living in the many urban centers 23 .

Multinational Agreements

Success of the Montreal Protocol, environmentally conscious leaders soon sought a similar agreement for controlling global warming gases, especially carbon dioxide. Extensive scientific evidence has led to near-consensus on the fact that humans are rapidly contributing to global warming by their unrestricted use of fossil fuels. Important data sets include the CO2 monitoring data from Mauna Loa and long-term (tens of thousands of years) data from the Vostok ice core monitoring project. Even the U.S. Department of Defense recognizes climate change as a threat to national security (Environmental Science and Technology, 2004b). Among the numerous voices calling for action, perhaps one of the most convincing groups is the usually conservative insurance companies, who realize the future potential for economic disaster. Predictions of not acting soon include increased ocean levels, shifting ocean currents, warmer atmospheric temperatures (especially at the poles), more dramatic and...

Releases To The Environment

The combustion processes can be divided into two categories, large systems and small systems. Municipal waste incineration (Bonafanti et al. 1990 Brna and Kilgore 1990 des Rosiers 1987 Hutzinger and Fiedler 1989 Siebert et al. 1987 Tiernan et al. 1985 Tong and Karasek 1986), incineration of industrial and hazardous wastes (des Rosiers 1987 Muto et al. 1991), and power plants with fossil fuels (des Rosiers 1987 Hutzinger and Fiedler 1989) are examples of large systems. Small combustion systems include home heating and fireplaces (Clement et al. 1985 Safe 1990a), household waste incineration (Harrad et al. 1991a), automobile exhaust (Ballschmiter et al. 1986 Marklund et al. 1987), and medical waste incineration (des Rosiers 1987 Glasser et al. 1991 Lindner et al. 1990). Incineration of industrial and hazardous wastes that produce CDFs include wastes containing PCBs (Choudhury and Hutzinger 1982 Hutzinger and Fiedler 1989 Sedman and Esparza 1991), polychlorinated...

Effects of Environmental Particles

The adverse health effects of air pollution have been recognised throughout much of recorded time (Table 1). Burning of fossil fuels in towns and cities, where there is little mixing of air, during periods of cold weather has been associated with the generation of smogs consisting mainly of sulfur dioxide and particles. Particles or particulate matter (PM) represent a part of the air pollution cocktail present in ambient air, which also comprises gases such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, etc. Particulate material in ambient air is measured as the mass of particles collected using the PM10 or PM25 sampling conventions.5 The adverse health effects of PM10 are seen at the levels that pertain in the UK

Rendering C02 Injection Sustainable

Global COz utilisation potential based on the existing fossil fuel infrastructure and the reliability of associated technologies (Tilley 1997). At present, about 3 of the global oil production comes from EOR. Herzog et al. (1993) have mentioned that underground disposal of carbon dioxide has been identified as one of the high priority areas for research related to global climate change. The major obstacle to the disposal of C02 underground is the necessity to separate COz from flue waste gases. Capturing C02, its disposal, and utilisation have significant challenges to overcome, and the existing technology is considered to be prohibitively expensive. The cost effectiveness for such separations can be achieved by eliminating gas separation, such as through gas re-injection into the sub-surface formations from gas processing plants. Chakma (1996) emphasised that the cost may be acceptable when applied in combination with other measures. It is believed to be too early to predict the...

Crude Oil And Refined Products

Crude oil is a fossil fuel, the result of the burial, diagenesis, and catagenesis of ancient biomass (63, 159). The average age of commercially important crude oils is about 100 million years (71 was laid down between 180 and 85 million years ago 159 , during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods). It is generally accepted that aquatic algae, albeit usually with some terrestrial material, gave rise to petroleum, while terrestrial plants gave rise to the great coal reserves of the world. The oldest commercially valuable oils are from source rocks from the Ordovician period (486 million years old), while others are as young as the late Tertiary period (a few million years old). Unusual conditions, such as those at the Guaymas hydrothermal vent site, can even result in the formation of petroleum from biomass that is only approximately 1,000 years old (146), but they do not seem to give rise to commercially significant amounts of oil.

Radiocarbon In The Environment

Human activities also may cause a decline in atmospheric 14C concentrations. Although not as dramatic and immediate as atmospheric additions of radiocarbon caused by nuclear bomb testing between 1961 and 1962, the burning of fossil fuels has decreased the radiocarbon signal in the troposphere by adding large quantities of ancient, radiocarbon-free CO2 (Figure 11.7 Key 2001). CO2 exchange with the oceans also decreases 14CO2 content in the atmosphere. Currently the concentration of radiocarbon in the atmosphere is decreasing due to the moratorium of nuclear bomb testing and continued fossil fuel use, which in turn causes a decrease in the radiocarbon content of living flora and fauna in equilibrium with the atmosphere. FIGuRE 11.6 The location-dependent increase in atmospheric 14CO2 due to the addition of 14C-bomb carbon in the early 1960s, and the subsequent decline due to oceanic uptake, plant respiration, and 14C-depleted fossil fuel CO2 addition to the atmosphere. (Modified from...

Hairy Roots A Promising Tool for Phytoremediation

Abstract Environmental pollution caused by natural processes or anthropogenic activities is a major global problem. Although several physical and chemical strategies have been used for environmental remediation, these methods are expensive and associated with certain limitations. Phytoremediation is an alternative, biological approach where different plant species are used for the removal of pollutants from the environment or for converting toxic molecules to non toxic forms. Both organic and inorganic compounds of various types are the targets of phytoreme-diation. The technique is cheaper than other established methods and has several advantages like soil stabilization, production of biofuels, non invasiveness etc. Plants readily absorb certain compounds, otherwise considered contaminants, through the root system and utilize for their normal growth and development. Hairy roots of plants are among the several experimental systems which have been employed to improve the efficiency of...

Case of Zerowaste Engineering

And energy pricing crises that we are currently facing (Zatzman and Islam 2007). In order to predict the future outlook, there is a need to balance energy demand and energy supply, rather than treating them as dependent variables of the addiction to consumption (Imberger 2007). Only sustainable development of energy production and utilization can guarantee this balance. While it is commonly understood that only renewable energy fits this description, it is possible to utilize non-renewable energy sources (e.g., fossil fuel) as long as the processing mechanism is sustainable (Khan and Islam 2007b). It is becoming increasingly clear that there is no need to resort to unsustainable practices even for handling short-term emergencies (Islam et al. 2008). With the currently used economic analysis techniques, sustainable energy practices appear to be more expensive than their unsustainable counterparts. This is because the conventional analysis does not account for numerous hidden costs,...

Environmental and Ecological Impact

For instance, the use of Freon in a cooling system disrupted ozone layers and allowed vulnerable rays of sun to hit the earth and living beings. Burning chemically purified fossil fuels also pollutes the environment by releasing harmful chemicals. Energy extraction from nuclear technology leaves harmful spent residues.

Anthropogenic effects on ocean chemistry

The activities of humans have had some impacts on both the major and minor element chemistry of the modern oceans. For example, seawater major ion budgets mostly assume the estimated riverwater input to seawater is that of the pristine (pre-human) system. However, anthropogenic processes have altered some of these fluxes. For example, the riverine Cl- flux may have increased by more than 40 as a result of human activity and the SO4- flux may have doubled, due mainly to fossil fuel combustion and oxidation of pollution-derived H2S.

Energy Demand in Emerging Economies and Nuclear Power

The increasing global energy demand will put great pressure in fossil fuel resources. In order to meet this challenging energy demand, India and China have been attracted towards building nuclear power plants. Recent agreement between India and the U.S., in order to develop nuclear power for civil purposes, has opened up an opportunity for India to become a nuclear power intensive country in the region (BBC 2006). As a matter of fact, India already has several nuclear power facilities producing 2550 MWe and 3622 MWe under construction. China has also developed nuclear energy for power generation and has 5977 MWe as of December 31, 2003. By the end of 2007, 9GWe was attributed to nuclear energy in 11 nuclear power plants (WNA, 2010). Additional reactors are planned, including some of the world's most advanced, to give a sixfold increase in nuclear capacity to at least 60 GWe or possibly more by 2020, and then a further substantial increase to 160 GWe by 2030.

Global Estimated Uranium Resources

The total amount of conven tional uranium that can be mined economically is estimated to be approximately 4.7 million tons (IAEA 2005). This amount is considered sufficient for the next 85 years to meet the nuclear electricity generation rate based on 2004. However, if the conventional technology were converted to fast reactor technology, the current resources would be enough for the next hundreds of years (Sokolov 2006). It has further been reported that, if the uranium in phosphate is considered, total uranium reserves will reach up to 35 million tons. The world's nuclear energy capacity is expected to increase from the present capacity of 370 GWe to somewhere between 450 GWe (+22 ) and 530 GWe (+44 ). To supply the increased requirement of the uranium feedstock, the annual uranium requirement will rise by about 80,000 tons or 100,000 tons (Sokolov 2006). The common belief is that nuclear energy sources would outlast fossil fuel resources. With the currently used sus-tainability...

Assessment In Practice

The production of bioethanol has been compared with that of synthetically produced ethanol. Synthetic ethanol is produced from ethylene by catalytic hydration with sulfuric acid, and the resulting ester is hydrolyzed. The data for synthetic ethanol production have been obtained from industry. Bioethanol is made from sugar, which may be derived from crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, or maize. When made from sugarcane, the cane is crushed and the sugar is extracted with water. The residue, known as bagasse, may be used to generate steam for the subsequent processes. Yeast is used to ferment the sugar, and the ethanol is removed by distillation. Burning the bagasse for fuel means that the part of the ethanol production process from the cane-crushing stage to distillation is self-sufficient in energy. Ethanol production from renewable raw materials requires very large amounts of energy which are, however, predominantly renewable. In the case of sugarcane, the...

Green Tribology with Applications to Biorefineries

Biorefining is the concept of processing renewable biomass feedstock into chemical products and energy. Unlike current commercial bioprocesses that mainly focus on producing a single product and treating everything else obtained as a by-product, in a biorefinery all the available feedstock should be utilised, gaining as much value out of it as possible. The biorefinery concept is very much like a modern day fossil fuel refinery, producing a broad range of products while using as much of the feedstock as possible. The main difference is however the fact that the feedstock of a biorefinery would be a renewable resource, while the products would be hydrocarbon-based, similar to a conventional crude-oil-based refinery 1 . so much attention has turned to it lately is because of increasing environmental awareness and the realisation that fossil fuel supplies will run out. When the word biorefining is heard, the product most commonly thought of is biofuels. The largest current producer of...

Methodological Outline

First, this applies to the definition of a functional unit. As has been pointed out earlier, the choice of a functional unit is not only a necessary convention for calculation, but it also mirrors the rationale of an LCA study. In case of biobased products, the functional unit may be chosen to be simply the amount of a product, given in kg or tons. If so, the interest concentrates on the production process, neglecting the use phase or assuming that it is the same as for a petrochemical product. However, often the end-of-life phase is included for a comprehensive assessment of the carbon balance. A different rationale is based on the insight that land is the basic resource for the production of biobased products and that this land is limited. If the interest is to assess the most efficient use of limited land for the production of biomass, the functional unit is chosen to be the amount of biomass produced from a certain area, for example, 1 ha of land. This...

Processes and Products

The biochemical processes are a collection of processes derived from natural processes using enzymes, bacteria and yeasts. The possible products from biochemical processes are enormous and are mostly products from sugars, with the prime example being ethanol production. There are other high-value products as well, such as xylitol and furfural. Xylitol is a sugar alcohol made from the sugar xylose, which can only be found in plants, that has commercial application as a non-nutritive sweetener. Furfural is a sugar derived building block with a growing market where a wide range of new uses are being investigated 9 .

World Coal Reserves and Sources of Pollution 3221 Coal Reserves

Coal has been used worldwide for electricity generation, steel production, cement manufacturing, as a liquid fuel and for other industrial processes. Coal is a fossil fuel. It is a combustible sedimentary organic rock, which is composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. It is formed from vegetation, which has been consolidated between other rock strata and altered by combined effects of pressure and heat over millions of years to form coal seams. Lignite is the lowest rank of coal formed during the Miocene period 16 million years ago (Rumpel et al. 2002 Rumpel and Kogel-Knabner 2003). High moisture content and susceptibility to spontaneous combustion can cause problems in transportation and storage of lignite. It has been estimated that there are over 984 billion tonnes of proven coal reserves worldwide. It can found on every continent in over 70 countries with the biggest reserves in the USA, Russia, China and India (Table 32.1). There is enough coal to last us over 190...

Biorefining in South Africa

Biorefining was first investigated in South Africa as early as 1970 by the CSIR when alternate sources of petroleum-based fuels were of great interest 15 , but was abandoned after 1994 as an active area of research. With recent growing international focus on biorefining and utilization of biomass research in this field has seen a steady growth in South Africa. As far as biomass production goes South Africa is in a very good position to be a competitor in biorefining with its range of climates for diverse agriculture and its established forestry industries. In 2005 South Africa was ranked 9th in the world for its maize (primary source of bio-ethanol production in the USA) production and 12th for its sugarcane (primary source of bio-ethanol in Brazil) production 16 .

Issues in Petroleum Operations

Petroleum hydrocarbons are considered to be the backbone of the modern economy. The petroleum industry that took off from the golden era of the 1930s never ceased to dominate all aspects of our society. Until now, there were no suitable alternatives to fossil fuels and all trends indicated a continued dominance of the petroleum industry in the foreseeable future (Service 2005). Even though petroleum operations have been based on solid scientific excellence and engineering marvels, only recently it has been discovered that many of the practices are not environmentally sustainable. Practically all activities of hydrocarbon operations are accompanied by undesirable discharges of liquid, solid, and gaseous wastes (Khan and Islam 2007), which have enormous impacts on the environment (Khan and Islam 2003a Khan and Islam 2006b Chhetri et al. 2007). Hence, reducing environmental impacts is the most pressing issue today, and many environmentalist groups are calling for curtailing petroleum...

LCA Studies for Biobased Products Major Findings and Insights

Early LCA studies on biobased products have been carried out already during the '90s, covering traditional materials, for example, for packaging 22 as well as novel ones, like starch - based polymers 23 t Due to the large variety of biobased products, LCA studies may be quite diverse covering a broad scope of applications with often very tailored goal and scope. In order to gain some general insights, this chapter focuses in the first place on groups of biobased bulk or intermediate products which are of interest because of large production amounts and consequently high potential for saving GHG. The selected groups are biofuels, biopolymers, and biocomposites. Above this, there are studies focusing rather on a specific technology, notably biotechnological processes, whose results are included as well. As to biobased consumer products, a short survey on LCA studies from the building sector and for packaging is presented focusing on effects from the inclusion of the use phase rather...

Production of Fertilizers

The poultry waste generated as poultry feed can also be applied for organic farming as a semi-slow-release nitrogen fertilizer (Hadas and Kautsky 1994 Choi and Nelson 1996). Feather contains some amounts of fat approximating to as much as 12 of its dry weight. Fat content of feathers have been reported to hinder its colonization by the microorganisms (Baxter and Trotter 1969 Pugh and Evans 1970 Deshmukh et al. 1981). Above reports also indicated the need of fat extraction from the poultry feathers to make the microbial processes more quick and economical. Narsimharao Koundamudi and his colleagues suggested a process of feather treatment for extraction of fat from chicken feather meal using boiling water and processing it to biodiesel which is estimated to generate approximately 593 million gallons of biodiesel worldwide, in addition to have a higher grade of animal feed and a better nitrogen source for fertilizer applications ( Kondamudi et al. 2009) .

Future Perspectives

Decomposition methods of keratinic waste like incineration or chemical treatments (Onifade et al. 1998) are rather expensive or environment-polluting. In contrast, Present day biotechnology offered an environmentally sound two stage fermentation system for conversion of keratinic waste into a useful product, biohydrogen (Balint et al. 2005). A keratin-degrading Bacillus strain (Perei et al. 2000) was used to obtain fermentation product which was rich in amino acids and peptides and subsequently used as major nutrient source for an anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon, Thermococcus litoralis, which produced hydrogen gas as a physiological byproduct. Besides T. litoralis, E. coli and Caldicellusiruptor saccharolyticus capable of producing hydrogen were also examined but neither of them could utilize the keratin hydrolysate for biohydrogen production (Balint 2006) . The application of keratinase as a detergent additive has also been suggested (Gupta and Ramnani 2006). Another field of...

The sulphur cycle and climate

It is difficult to estimate the size of the effect since it depends not only on the total aerosol mass loading in the atmosphere, but also on the chemical composition and size distribution of the particles. However, the effect seems to be significant in terms of climate changes induced by human consumption of fossil fuels. Data in the 2001 report on 'Radiative Forcing of Climate Change' by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are instructive here. The globally averaged assessment of direct radiative forcing effect of SO4- aerosols from fossil fuel burning relative to 1750 (pre-industrial times) is -0.4 (range 0.2 to -0.8) Wm-2. Similarly the globally averaged figure for biomass burning over the same period is -0.2 (range -0.1 to -0.6) Wm-2. These numbers can be compared with radiative forcing attributed to greenhouse gas emissions since pre-industrial times of +2.4 (range +2.2 to +2.7) Wm-2. Four important things should be noted from the comparison. Firstly, the direct...

Electric Cars Powered by Batteries

Even electric vehicles are not really pollution-free if a fossil fuel is burned to generate the electricity to charge the battery, since the fossil fuel's combustion in any power plant yields NOx that is released into the atmosphere. Hydrogen gas can be produced by reacting a fossil fuel such as coal or petroleum or natural gas with steam to form hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The energy value of the fuel is transferred from carbon to the hydrogen atoms of water chemically speaking, the reduced status of the carbon is transferred to the hydrogen. The net reactions, assuming coal to be mainly graphite, are Notice that as much carbon dioxide is produced in this way as would be obtained by combustion of the fossil fuels in oxygen. As discussed previously, the actual conversions occur in two steps First the fossil fuel reacts with steam to yield carbon monoxide and some hydrogen (Figure 8-10). Then the CO H2 synthesis gas mixture and additional steam are passed over a suitable catalyst to...

Limitations and Research and Development Potential

Zero-cost or low-cost carbon sources like agricultural waste residues containing high amounts of cellulose and hemicellulose or raw glycerol, a by- product from biodiesel production, are alternatives for an economic production process of SCOs with heterotrophic microorganisms. However cellulose and hemicellulose would require a costeffective prior hydrolysis step to convert it into usable sugars like glucose and xylose. Concerning agricultural waste like straw or food.processing waste, one has to consider that also such feedstock is not a zero-cost carbon source

Functional competition of biobased bulk chemicals with fossilbased

The world market prices for the petroleum- and biobased components are in the same range for raw materials and intermediates, but when using the biobased compounds for production of the petroleum- based intermediates, they will face the disadvantage to have to compete on a cost basis against processes which have been optimized for a long time, and which often run on depreciated capital. Further it becomes obvious that the amount of the recently available biobased materials will not be sufficient to meet the demands of biofuel production and the chemical industry. Additionally most of the biobased substrates recently used as substrates for microbial fermentations are in competition with food and feed and may not be used in big scale in future for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

Nitrogen Ammonia Nh3 Nitrite No2 And Nitrate No3

Solubility Curve

The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to other chemical forms is called nirogen fixation and is accomplished by a few types of bacteria that are present in water, soil, and root nodules of alfalfa, clover, peas, beans, and other legumes. Atmospheric lightning is another significant source of fixed nitrogen because the high temperatures generated in lightning strikes are sufficient to break N2 and O2 bonds making possible the formation of nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen oxides created within lightning bolts are dissolved in rainwater and absorbed by plant roots, thus entering the nitrogen nutrient sub-cycles, (see Figure 3.5). The rate at which atmospheric nitrogen can enter the nitrogen cycle by natural processes is too low to support today's intensive agricultural production. The shortage of fixed nitrogen must be made up with fertilizers containing nitrogen fixed by industrial processes, which are dependent on petroleum fuel. Modern large-scale farming has been called a method for...

Environmentally Balanced Industrial Complexes

Environmentally balanced industrial complexes are a selective collection of compatible industrial plants located together in one area complex to utilize the waste of one plant as the raw materials for another plant with minimum transportation and storage facilities. This category will reduce the overall production cost significantly because it eliminates waste treatment cost, reduces raw material cost substituted by waste, minimizes storage facility and transportation cost as well as reducing pollution and protects the environment. A number of EBICs were investigated and proposed to produce zero waste out of such complexes, such as sugarcane complexes, tannery complexes, textile complexes, pulp and paper mill complexes, fertilizer-cement complexes, fossil fuel power plant complexes, steel mill fertilizer-cement complexes, cementlime, and power plant complexes.55

Universidad De Antioquia Riri lOTFfiA Central

Is devoted to exploring this problem and its possible solutions, as well as to the nature and properties of fossil fuels, namely coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Carbon dioxide is produced when any carbon-containing substance undergoes complete combustion Developed countries have accounted for about three-quarters of all carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement manufacture since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. The emissions from these sources from various countries in the more recent period (1980-2004) are illustrated by the bands in Figure 7-1. Notice that FIGURE 7-1 C02 emissions from fossil-fuel combustion for different countries and regions since 1 980. Source M. Raupach et a I., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (2007) 10288. Almost all the increase in C02 emissions discussed above arose from increases in usage of energy derived from fossil fuels. However, the ratio of carbon dioxide to energy varies among countries and over...

Phytoremediation of Toxins

Benefit of the rhizofiltration method is that it may be conducted in-situ, with plants being grown directly in the contaminated soil and water bodies. It does not involve removal and ex-situ treatment of contaminants. Therefore, it is considered as a relatively cheep procedure with low capital costs. Operational costs are also low but it depends on the type of contaminant as well as selection of plant species. Additionally, crop may be converted to biofuel, used as a substitute for fossil fuel or used in other domestic and agricultural purposes (Chaudhry et al. 2002 Rugh 2004). Despite this, the applicability of this method is very limited. First of all, the plants species selected may grow well in moderately contaminated areas but might show poor performance in highly contaminated sites. Secondly, contaminants that lie in deep soil below the rooting depth will not extracted by this method. Therefore, plants with shallow root system will not be much effective as the deep-rooted...

Challenges of Modeling Sustainable Petroleum Operations

Recently, Khan and Islam (2007a, 2007b) outlined the requirements for rending fossil fuel production sustainable. This scientific study shows step by step how various operations ranging from exploration to fuel processing can be performed in such a manner that resulting products will not be toxic to the environment. However, modeling such a

Isolated Enzymes for the Transformation and Detoxification of Organic Pollutants

Some of the principal sources of environmental contamination with organic chemicals are current or decommissioned industrial sites where there has been spillage of wastes of various origins. Thus both petroleum- and coal-derived fossil fuel-related materials, effluents from vehicle and equipment cleaning and maintenance, wood-preserving chemicals, paper mill effluents, and a host of pesticides are organic chemicals that find their way into the environment (3). In addition, feedlot operations and landfill sites generate potential pollutants of soil, water, and atmosphere. Finally, industrial sites that produce, store, and distribute organic chemicals may be considered one of the largest sources of environmental pollutants. Paper mill effluents bleached kraft mill effluents wood industry solvents, intermediates in pesticide manufacture Creosote waste sites fossil fuel wastes by-products of old gas manufacturing summarizes some of the more common pollutants of soil and water and lists...

Impact of Energy Technology and Policy

Currently, fossil fuels provide approximately 85 of the world's energy demand. According to the projection of EIA (2006d), it is estimated that the world's total energy consumption will rise by 59 between 1999 and 2020. The same report predicts a 20-year increase of carbon dioxide emissions by 60 . It is clear that fossil fuels will still remain the mainstream of global energy supply and demand. Supplying this huge quantity of energy demand is a big challenge. Due to the environmental problems caused by the use of fossil fuels, another series of environmental problems, including global warming, is inevitable (Chhetri and Islam 2006c). However, recent studies indicate that toxicity and other negative effects are the results of all environmental problems that have emerged from oil refining and natural gas processing (Khan and Islam 2006b Chhetri et al. 2006a). This global energy demand must be met in a sustainable way with few or no impacts on the natural environment. However, the...

Decay Effects of Pollutants

Fossil fuel combustion by industrial facilities and vehicular engines is a major source of anthropogenic emissions into the atmosphere, and the effect of such pollution is stronger in urban areas. The main studied gaseous pollutants are sulphur, nitrogen and carbon compounds and other organic pollutants (Judeikis and Stewart 1976 Johansson et al. 1988 Lipfert 1989 Cobourn et al. 1993 Saiz-Jimenez 1993 Ruijgrok et al. 1995).

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Another important class of SVOCs is PAHs, which are produced mainly from combustion processes and petrogenic sources (e.g., coal, oils, fossil fuels). Some PAHs are produced naturally from forest fires and volcanic eruptions, but anthropogenic emissions of PAHs from fossil fuel burning tend to dominate in most areas (Wild and Jones 1995). Petrogenic sources are the main source of PAHs in areas impacted by oil spills and fossil fuel contamination (e.g., by unburned coal), such as shipping ports and areas around oil refineries. The major health concerns for PAHs and substituted PAHs (e.g., nitro-PAHs) are their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity (Atkinson and Arey 1994). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were the first class of atmospheric pollutants to have been identified as suspected carcinogens. Their carcinogenicity appears to increase with increasing molecular weight. In contrast, acute toxicity apparently decreases with increasing molecular weight (Ravindra et al. 2001,2008). The...

Sustainable Energy Development

Bienaventuranzas Explicacion

Different technologies that are sustainable for a long term and do not produce any greenhouse gases are presented. Technology plays a vital role in modern society. The use of thousands of toxic chemicals in fossil fuel refining and industrial processes that make products for personal care, such as body lotion, cosmetics, soaps, and others, has polluted much of the world in which we live (Chhetri et al. 2006 The Globe and Mail 2006). Present day technologies are based on the use of fossil fuels for primary energy supply, production or One of the sustainable technologies presented in this chapter is the true green bio-diesel model (Chhetri and Islam 2006). As an alternative to petrodiesel, bio-diesel is a renewable fuel that is derived from vegetable oils and animal fats. However, the existing bio-diesel production process is neither completely green nor renewable because it utilizes fossil fuels, mainly natural gas, as an input for methanol production. Conventional bio-diesel...

Significance Of Carbon Dioxide And Mineral Acidity

Combustion of fossil fuels in power plants and automobiles leads to the formation of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, which when mixed with rain, hydrolyze to form sulfuric and nitric acids. The resulting acid rain can lower the pH in poorly buffered lakes, adversely affecting aquatic life, and can increase the amount of chemicals, such as aluminum, leached from soil into surface runoff. For these reasons, control has been placed on the amount of sulfur and nitrogen oxides that can be discharged to the atmosphere through combustion.

Bioremediation and Heavy Metal Uptake Microbial Approaches at Field Scale

Pollution of the biosphere with toxic heavy metals is a widespread ecological problem resulting from anthropogenic activities such as fossil fuel burning, ore mining and smeltering, industrial and municipal waste disposal, and agricultural activities (Nriagu 1979 Adriano 2001 Kratz and Schnug 2006). In Western Europe alone, about 300,000 sites have been contaminated with heavy metals (Gade 2000 McGrath et al. 2006). The retention time of metals in soil is thousands of years because, unlike organic pollutants, metals are not degraded biologically. They rather are transformed from one oxidation state or organic complex into another and therefore persist in soil (Gisbert et al. 2003). However, the mobility of (heavy) metals may change, resulting in wash-out into ground and surface waters or uptake into plants via microbial physiological processes. While the major metal contamination is specific for each site, most operations will lead to multimetal contamination, which in most cases...

Characteristic Features of the Persistent Organic Compounds

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are a class of ubiquitous organic compounds with two to seven condensed aromatic rings. Overall 16 PAHs are considered by the USEPA as priority micropollutants because of their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. PAHs are derived mainly from anthropogenic inputs and they are products of incomplete combustion. Natural and anthropogenic sources contribute significantly to the PAH concentrations in the environments. Anthropogenic sources include combustion of fossil fuels, waste incineration and production of coke, carbon black, coal tar pitch, asphalt and petroleum cracking (Mc Cready et. al. 2000). Likewise, spillage of fossil fuel (e.g., huge oil spill at Mumbai-Raigad coast, western part of India occurred on 11th August, 2010) is another common anthropogenic source of PAHs. Pyrolytic and petrogenic sources are known to generate substantially different PAH assemblages. PAHs can be introduced in the environment by various processes (Neff 1979...

Selenium Se CAS 7782492 Background

Most selenium for industrial and commercial purposes is produced from electrolytic copper-re ning shines and from ue dusts from copper and lead smelters. Anthropogenic sources of selenium in water bodies include ef uents from copper and lead re neries, municipal se wage, and fallout of emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Selenium in surface waters can range between 0.1 tg L and 2700 J.g L, with most values between 0.2 j.g L and 20 tg L.

Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds

Aromatic Organic Molecules

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, sometimes also called polynuclear aromatics, PNA) are a hazardous class of widespread pollutants. The parent structures of the common PAHs are shown in Fig. 4 and the alkylated homologs are generally minor in combustion emissions. PAHs are produced by all natural combustion processes (e. g., wild fires) and from anthropogenic activity such as fossil fuels combustion, biomass burning, chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining,metallurgical processes, coal utilization, tar production, etc. 6,9,15,18, 20,24,131-139 .

Zero Waste Energy Systems

The global efficiency of wood combustion has been calculated to be more than 90 (Chhetri et al. 2006), whereas the global efficiency of nuclear power generation is approximately 5 . Nuclear waste storage has been the subject of discussion for a long time, and no feasible methods have been successfully worked out. Development of nuclear power generation utilizes fossil fuel during various process operations, thus contributing to the emission of C02. The major problem of nuclear power generation is that the half-lives of natural uranium isotopes U-234 is 244,500 years - U-235 is 7.03 x 108 years, and that of U-238 is 4.46 x 109 years (Wise Uranium Project 2005). The half-lives of the enriched uranium is much higher than this. For these reasons, nuclear power has the lowest global efficiency. Nuclear waste is a big problem, cannot be utilized, and is almost impossible to store safely. Khan et al. (2006) developed a heating cooling and refrigeration system that uses direct solar heat...

The Relation of Green Nano Tribology and Global Challenge 13 Energy

G20 leaders pledged to phase out fossil fuel subsidies in the medium term. Massive saltwater irrigation can produce 7,600 L ha-year of biofuels via halophyte plants and 200,000 L ha-year via algae and cyanobacteria, instead of using less-efficient freshwater biofuel production that has catastrophic effects on food supply and prices. Exxon announced its investment of 600 million to produce liquid transportation fuels from algae. CO2 emissions from coal plants might be re-used to produce biofuels and perhaps carbon nanotubes. The global market value for liquid biofuel and bioenergy manufacturing is estimated at 102.5 billion in 2009 and is projected to grow to nearly 170.4 billion by 2014. Biofuels still have major unresolved tribological issues related to their hygroscopic properties and related absorption or adsorption of water, leading to microbiological activity, corrosion and fuel instability. These issues need to be addressed with tribology on all length scales. Furthermore,...

Lead Pb CAS 7439921 Background

Lead minerals are found mostly in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. The most abundant lead mineral is galena (PbS). Oxide, carbonate, and sulfate minerals are lanarkite (PbO), cerrusite (PbCO3), and anglesite (Pb(SO4), respectively. Commercial ores have concentrations of lead in the range 30-80 g kg. Metallic lead and the common lead minerals have very low solubility. Most environmental lead (perhaps 85 ) is associated with sediments the rest is in dissolved form. Although some lead enters the environment from natural sources by weathering of minerals, particularly galena, anthropogenic sources are about 100 times greater. Mining, milling and smelting of lead and metals associated with lead, such as zinc, copper, silver, arsenic and antimony, are major sources, as are combustion of fossil fuels and municipal sewage. Commercial products that are major sources of lead pollution include lead-acid storage batteries, electroplating, construction materials, ceramics and dyes,...