Global Warming

Structural Analysis of Paraffin Wax and Beeswax

Structural Formula Paraffin Wax

Sample handling, coating and preparation for SEM cause sample alteration, which modifies its composition and morphology structure. Therefore, the quality of the micrographs obtained is affected as well. Figures 9.6 to 9.8 show the SEM micrographs for paraffin wax following three magnifications of 250, 1050, and 2000 respectively. Some micrographs are affected by charging that alters the brightness and contrast levels. For example, the bright spots in Figure 9.6 exhibit the charging effect due...

Theoretical Comparison Between Nylon and Silk

Nylon Synthesis Structure

Nylon is a linear polymer that contains the amide bonds CONH (Tetsuya et al. 1998). Natural polymers, such as protein, also have amide groups in their molecular structure. However, nylon with the exception of nylon-1, is resistant against proteolytic enzymes, whereas protein is easily hydrolyzed by these enzymes (Tetsuya et al. 1998). Nylon has the same structure as silk but different behaviors in the degradation process. One is degradable, but the other one is non-degradable . Silk and Nylon...

Environmental Sustainability of Wood Ash Usage

In Canada, 4,175,000 km2 of land out of a total 10,000,000 km2 of land is covered by forest. Every year a huge amount of wood ash is produced worldwide, and approximately three million tons of wood ash is produced annually in the United States alone (SAL 2006). Wood ash has great potential to be used as a source of major- and micronutrient elements required for healthy plant growth. Wood ash contains many essential nutrients, mainly calcium, potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus, for the growth...

References and Bibliography

Abdel-Ghani, M.S. and Davies, G.A., 1983, Simulation of Non-Woven Fibre Mats and the Application to Coalescers. Chemical Engineering Science 40 117-129. Ackermann, R., 1961, Inductive Simplicity, Philosophy of Science 28 2 152-61 Adelaide, 2006, Waite Solid-state NMR Facility, University of Adelaide, Australia accessed December 30,2006. Adelman, M.A., 2001, The Clumsy Cartel Opec's Uncertain Future, Harvard International Review, Vol. 23 1 - Spring. Adeoti, O., Ilori, M.O., Oyebisi, T.O., and...

Biochemical Composition of Wool

Wool is an extremely complex, natural, and biodegradable protein fiber that is both renewable and recyclable. It has a built-in environmental advantage because it is a natural fiber grown without the use of any herbicides and fertilizers. Wool fibers grow in small bundles called staples, which contain thousands of fibers. Wool fiber is so resilient and elastic that it can be bent and twisted over 30,000 times without danger of breaking or being damaged (Canesis 2005). Every wool fiber has a...

Introduction

A process can be sustainable only if both the source and the process conform to natural processes. This simple rule of sustainability is scientific yet rarely understood by engineers. This chapter is dedicated to providing two sets of examples of products that are on the opposite sides of the sustainable spectrum. The detailed analysis of origin and pathway shows that a product can be rendered unsustainable by merely following an unsustainable pathway. However, the difference of the products...

Physical Properties of Beeswax and Paraffin

Paraffin wax is a tasteless and odorless, white, translucent solid. The source of paraffin wax is crude oil, which is derived from organic materials. Paraffin wax is produced by refining and de-waxing light lubricating oil stocks. It consists of a mixture of solid aliphatic hydrocarbons of high molecular weight, such as C36H74. Its molecular formula is C H. Paraffin wax can be defined as a fraction of petroleum dominated by n-alkanes that are solid at ambient temperature (Chouparova and Philp...

Ultrasonic Tests on Beeswax and Paraffin

Ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) introduces high frequency sound waves into a test object in order to obtain information about the object without altering or damaging it. Sound generated above the human hearing range (typically 20 KHz) is called ultrasound. However, the frequency range normally employed in ultrasonic testing and thickness gauging is 100 KHz to 50MHz. Although ultrasound behaves in a similar manner to audible sound, it has a much shorter wavelength. This means it can be...

Sustainable Energy Development

Bienaventuranzas Explicacion

Different technologies that are sustainable for a long term and do not produce any greenhouse gases are presented. Technology plays a vital role in modern society. The use of thousands of toxic chemicals in fossil fuel refining and industrial processes that make products for personal care, such as body lotion, cosmetics, soaps, and others, has polluted much of the world in which we live (Chhetri et al. 2006 The Globe and Mail 2006). Present day technologies are based on the use of fossil fuels...

Pathways of Crude Oil Refining

Fossil fuels derived from the petroleum reservoirs are refined in order to suit the various application purposes, from car fuels to airplane fuels and space fuels. Fossils fuels are a complex mixture of hydrocarbons varying in composition depending on source and origin. Depending on the number of carbon atoms the molecules contain and their arrangement, the hydrocarbons in the crude oil have different boiling points. In order to take advantage of the difference in boiling points of different...

Characterization of Maple Wood Ash Producing the Alkalinity

Wood Ash Maple

Rahman (2007) used SEM-EDX to characterize the morphology and surface texture of individual particles of the maple wood ash samples and to determine the elemental composition presented in the samples. Each maple wood ash sample was characterized by randomly selecting 3-4 fields of view and examining all the ash particles observed within the selected fields. The elemental composition and morphology were noted for each particle and compiled for each sample. The morphology of the untreated maple...

Kinetic Hydrate Inhibitors

Kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHI) were among the first Low Dosage Hydrate Inhibitor (LDHI) products employed to contain hydrates in natural gas transmission systems. The KHIs are normally water-soluble polymers or copolymers. They do not stop the formation of hydrates they just delay the nucleation and growth of hydrates in the systems. One of the better known KHI chemicals is a copolymer of vinylmethylacetamide (VIMA) and vinylcaprolactam (VCAP) it is also referred to as polytVIMA VCAP (Fu et...

Theoretical Comparison Between Synthetic Rubber and Latex Natural Rubber

Rubber Structure

Another example is the chemical structure of natural rubber (latex) and synthetic rubber and their pathway from crude oil to rubber. Natural latex can be extracted from the inner bark of many trees. According to Katz, the white sticky sap of plants such as milkweed and dandelions is also latex, and natural rubber is a polymer of isoprene (2-methyl-l, 3-butadiene) in the form of folded polymeric chains which are joined in a network structure and have a high degree of flexibility (1981). Below is...

Nuclear Radiation Hazard

Natural Decay Surrounding Living

Figures 16.11-16.13 show the decay series of radionuclides of uranium208, thorium232, and uranium235, including the mode of radioactive Figure 16.11 Natural Decay Series Uranium-238 (Argonne National Laboratory 2005). Figure 16.11 Natural Decay Series Uranium-238 (Argonne National Laboratory 2005). Figure 16.12 Natural Decay Series Uranium-235 (Argonne National Laboratory 2005). Figure 16.12 Natural Decay Series Uranium-235 (Argonne National Laboratory 2005). decay. This occurs because the...

Social Sustainability of Nuclear Energy

Nuclear energy is one of the most debatable energy sources among others due to its environmental concerns. It is obvious that the potential contribution of even the most novel or sophisticated nuclear technique is compared with and judged against its non-nuclear competitors. However, the health and environmental concerns of nuclear energy is not comparable with any other sources of energy. Yet, the cost, reliability, safety, simplicity, and sustainability are important elements for the basis of...

Biogas Plant

Before a biogas plant can be put into operation, it is necessary to estimate the cost- and benefit- profile of the plant. The capital involved in different phases of the plant installation and operation can be divided into two categories total capital investment and annual expenditure. Capital investment is the total amount of money initially needed to supply the necessary plant construction and facilities, plus the amount of money required as working capital for the operation of the...

Solar Energy

Solar energy is the most important source of energy in terms of life survival and energy source. Service (2005) reported that the earth receives 170,000 terawatts of energy every moment of everyday. This means that every hour, Earth's surface receives more energy from the sun than what humans use in an entire year. The only challenge is how to use this huge energy source in a sustainable way for the benefit of mankind. Moreover, the conventional way of utilizing solar electric energy is...

Alkalinity of Maple Wood Ash Extracted Solution

Balance And Wood Ash

The pH values of maple wood ash extracted solutions at different percentages of maple wood ash (1 , 2 , 4 , 6 , and 8 ) were measured, and the pH values are presented in Table 14.3. It is found that the alkalinity (pH value) of a 6 wood ash solution is close to a 0.5 synthetic sodium hydroxide solution. This value is also very close to the pH value of a 0.75 Na2Si03 solution (Rahman et al. 2006). It was reported that alkaline solutions of the pH range 12-14 were treated as strong bases, as...

Biodiesel Toxicity

Samurai 1575

The toxicity of biodiesel is measured by the fuel toxicity to the human body and by the health and environmental impacts due to exhaust emission. Tests conducted for acute oral toxicity of a pure biodiesel fuel and a 20 blend (B20) in a single-dose study on rats reported that the LD50 of pure biodiesel, as well as B20, was found to be greater than 5000 mg kg (Chhetri et al. 2008). Hair loss was found on one of the test samples in the B20. The acute dermal toxicity of neat biodiesel tested for...

The Difference Between Sustainable and Unsustainable Products

The history of this modern age tells that we cannot trust the doctrinal definition of truth and falsehood. This book is an attempt to describe fundamental principles from an entirely scientific stand. It is established in this book that truth is based on a true first premise, followed by the natural process of cognition. If this is the case for the thought process or the abstract notion of the truth, what is the case for products Based on the explicit first premise that natural real, Chapter 8...

The Marginal Revolution as a Legacy of Utilitarian Philosophy

During economic crises under modern oligopoly and cartelized commodity production, most of the price of technological advance -especially advances in the efficient utilization of energy sources - has been paid by those productive forces caught on the margins of the economic system at the moment of crash and or crisis. As will be discussed in some detail in the next chapter, this was vividly illustrated in the east coast fisheries of Canada before and after the five collapses...

Ct Scan Study was Paid by Tobacco Companies New York Times story

The conclusion Smoke all you want, we have the cure (detection cure, no ) and we have a patent to prove you are safe. Cigarette Company Paid for Lung Cancer Study By Gardiner Harris In October 2006, Dr. Claudia Henschke of Weill Cornell Medical College jolted the cancer world with a studysaying that 80 percent of lung cancer deaths could be prevented through widespread use of CT scans. Small print at the end of the study, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, noted that it had been...

Zerowaste Refining Process

The zero-waste scheme is the only way to sustainability. Recent works by Lakhal and H'Mida (2003) and Lakhal et al. (2006) propose a sustainable refining scheme with the so-called Olympic model. Their work analyzes the structure of the supply chain from production, transportation, and distribution to the end users. The specific aspects of the model include (1) the actual contaminants through the supply chain and (2) an analysis of operations, processes, materials design, and selection,...

Current Status of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Industrial activities, especially related to the burning of fossil fuels, are major contributors of global greenhouse gas emissions. Climate change due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a growing concern for the global society. In the third assessment report, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides the strongest evidence so far that the global warming of the last 50 years is due largely to human activity and the C02 emissions that arise when burning fossil...

Petroleum Refining

Petroleum Refining Separation Process

Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons. These hydrocarbon mixtures are separated into commercial products by numerous refining processes. They have very similar compositions as vegetable oils. As a result, many properties of the two sets of fluids are similar, including biodegradability, flashpoint, dead oil viscosity, density, bactericidal properties, etc. However, petroleum fluids are rarely used in their original form. Even though it is known that petroleum fluids have been used in various...

Chemical Composition of Polyurethane Fiber

Polyurethane's fiber is a polymeric fiber. In a polyurethane molecule, urethane linkages are in the backbone. Figure 8.1 shows a simple polyurethane chain. A more complex form will have any polymer containing the urethane linkage in its backbone chain. Crystal can form in any object in which the molecules are arranged in a regular order and pattern. A polymeric fiber is a polymer whose chains are stretched out straight (or close to straight) and lined up next to each other, all along the same...

Degradation of Wools

Wool is a natural product, and microorganisms can decompose it. It is a bio-based polymer that is synthesized by bacteria and is an integral part of ecosystem functions. Thus, biopolymers are capable of being utilized (biodegraded) by living matter. Therefore, they can be safely and ecologically disposed of through disposal processes (waste management) such as composting, soil application, and biological wastewater treatment (Narayan 2004). Bio-based materials, such as wool, offer value in the...

Pathways of Polyurethane

Detailed pathways of polyurethane are presented in Figure 8.11. This product is manufactured from hydrocarbon. The exploration of hydrocarbon is environmentally very expensive and causes many environmental problems (Khan and Islam 2005a, 2005c, 2006 Khan et al. 2006b). The present hydrocarbon refinery process also uses toxic catalysts and heavy metals (Lakhal et al. 2005). Each step of the production of polyurethane, especially from monomer to dimer and from oligomers to polymers, has many...

Mechanism of Microbially Induced Corrosion

Colony Corrosion Enhancing Bacteria

The most important microbial corrosion is that which is due to sul-fate-reducing bacteria (SRB). SRB thrive under anaerobic conditions, for example deep in soils and underneath deposits. The best-known examples of SRB are Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum. In many cases, SRB derive their carbon (for incorporation into cell material) from low molecular weight compounds such as lactate and fumarate. SRB possessing the enzyme hydrogenase can obtain their energy from the oxidation of molecular...

Is It Possible That Air Water and Earth Became Our Enemy

For thousands of years of known history, air, water, fire, and earth matter were considered to be the greatest asset available for the sustainability of human civilization. On the same token, humans (earthlings, in English inhabitants of the earth, which comes from old English, earthe, old German erda, and is very close to Arabic, o 'j 1 (al-ardha) that means the natural habitat of humans) were the greatest assets that a family, a tribe, or a community could have. Land was the measure of...

Concluding Remarks

It is concluded that current, synthetic, chemical-based technological development is a major cause of global warming and climate change problems. Industrial C02 emissions, which are contaminated by the addition of toxic chemicals during fuel refining, processing, and production activities, are responsible for global warming. Natural COz, which is beneficial to the environment and an essential ingredient for life and biodiversity on Earth, does not cause global warming. For the first time,...

Greening of Petroleum Operations

17.9.1 Effective Separation of Solid from Liquid, Gas from Liquid, and Gas from Gas Chapter 11 presents sustainable ways to separate solid from liquid as well as gas from liquid. Chapter 12 and 13 present techniques for separation of gas from gas. 17.9.2 Natural Substitutes for Gas Processing Chemicals (Glycol and Amines) Glycol is one of the most important chemical used during the dehydration of natural gas. In search of the cheapest, most abundantly available and cheap material, clay has been...

Response to Uniaxial Compression

Yield Stress Paraffin

Uniaxial compression tests performed on beeswax and paraffin wax samples reveal inherent differences between these two materials. Figures 9.12 and 9.13 show the paraffin wax and beeswax sample attached to a compressive strength test machine along with a strain meter (linear traveling dial machine). The figures show the setup before starting the experiment. Figures 9.14 and 9.15 display the paraffin wax and beeswax samples after the compressive strength test, presenting the rupture of both wax...

Nuclear Reactor Technologies

Current nuclear power plants are nuclear fission reactors. Approximately 78 of the current reactors are cooled by light water tonnes U) 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000,000 600,000 600,000 400,000 200,000 Figure 16.9 Global uranium reserves (NEA 2005 IAEA 2005). and, hence, are called light water reactors (LWRs) (Boyle et al. 2003). Light water is used as a moderator and coolant in the reactors system, and heat is removed to produce steam for turning the turbines of the electric generators. Light...

The Science of Intangibles

Intangibles are those that are not quantifiable or verifiable with our modern counting technique. Mathematically, it is the fourth dimension or the time dimension. However, this should not be confused with time as a continual function (e.g., digital). Intangibles refer to the continuous function of time. Every time function will also have a source, which is the origin of the function and is itself intangible. For any human activity, the source of any action is the intention. This is truly...

First Level of Rectification of Newtons First Assumption

On the one hand, in a Newtonian mechanical system, time-duration remains tied to the motion of a mass inside a referential frame of active forces. On the other hand, momentum is preserved at all scales, from the most cosmic to the nano- and inter-atomic level, and at none of these scales can time or motion stop. Although Newton posited gravitation as a universally acting force, we now know that electromagnetic forces predominate in matter at the nano- or inter-atomic level. Electromagnetic...

How Leeches Fell Out of Favor

Over four years ago, the Associated Press reported that the FDA had approved the use of leeches for medicinal purposes (FDA 2004). The practice of drawing blood with leeches, which is thousands of years old, finally redeemed itself by being approved by the FDA. This practice of bloodletting and amputation reached its height of medicinal use in the mid-1800s. How and why did this perfectly natural engineering solution to skin grafting and reattachment surgery fall out of favor Could it be that...

The Criterion The Switch that Determines the Direction at a Bifurcation Point

It is long understood that the decision making process involves asking yes or no questions. Usually, this question is thought to be posed at the end of a thought process or logical train. It is less understood that the yes or no question cannot lead to a correct answer if the original logical train did not start with a correct first premise and if the full time domain (defining logical train) is not fully considered. Consider the following question. Is whole wheat bread better than white bread...

The Kyoto Protocol

Various climate models that use different scenarios have been analyzed. Emission scenarios under satisfactory, as well as partial, fulfillment of Kyoto Protocol have also been evaluated. Based on the conclusion that current global warming and climate change are caused by the emissions of greenhouse gases from industrial activities, the Kyoto Protocol was negotiated by more than 160 nations in 1997 and aimed to reduce greenhouse gases, primarily C02 (EIA 2005). In this protocol, the industrial...

Pathways of Glycols and Their Toxicity

Matsuoka et al. (2005) reported a study on electro-oxidation of methanol and glycol and found that electro-oxidation of ethylene Ethylene glycol Glycol aldehyde (CH2OH)2 CH2OH(CHO) Figure 12.9 Ethylene Glycol Oxidation Pathway in Alkaline Solution (Matsuoka et al. 2005). Figure 12.9 Ethylene Glycol Oxidation Pathway in Alkaline Solution (Matsuoka et al. 2005). glycol at 400mV forms glycolate, oxalate, and formate (Figure 12.9). The study further reports that glycolate is obtained by...

Global Efficiency of Biomass Energy

Global Efficiency

Biomass energy is one of the most sustainable sources of energy. It originates from sunlight and continues to be in one of the form of biomass in a system. The key to the system's sustainability lies in its energy balance. Here is where natural sources of biomass and non-biomass must be distinguished from non-natural, non-characteristic, industrially synthesized sources of non-biomass. Figure 10.8 Global Efficiency of Hydroelectricify to Electric Stove. Figure 10.8 Global Efficiency of...

Microstructures of Beeswax and Paraffin wax

Paraffin And Bee Wax Spectrum

For the physical and chemical characterizations of solid materials, SEM is one of the best and most widely used techniques (Vassilev and Vassileva 2005). SEM, using a focused electron beam to scan the surface of a sample, generates a variety of signals. The three most common modes of operation in SEM analysis are Back-Scattered Electron imaging (BSE), Secondary Electron Imaging (SEI), and EDS (Postek et al. 1980). In this study, EDS coupled with SEM were used to characterize paraffin wax and...

Can Nature Be Treated as If It Were Static

The most significant contribution of the previous section has been the recognition that the time function is the most important dimension in engineering design. If this is the case, one must then ask what the duration of this time function is in which one should observe the effect of a certain engineering design. It is of utmost importance to make sure that this duration is long enough to preserve the direction of the changes invoked by an engineering design. Philosophically, this is equivalent...

Current Practices in Petroleum Engineering

In very short historical time (relative to the history of the environment), the oil and gas industry has become one of the world's largest economic sectors, a powerful globalizing force with far reaching impacts on the entire planet that humans share with the rest of the natural world. Decades of continuous growth of the oil and gas operations have changed, in some places transformed, the natural environment and the way humans have traditionally organized themselves. The petroleum sectors draw...

Hydrogen Energy

Hydrogen is a clean fuel and an energy carrier that can be used for a broad range of applications from transportation to electricity production. Hydrogen is high in energy value and produces no pollution after combustion. Hydrogen is found in many organic compounds such as gasoline, natural gas, methanol, propane, and biomass. Hydrogen is produced by the electrolysis of water or by applying heat to hydrocarbons, which is called hydrogen reforming. Currently, reforming from the natural gas...

Impact of Energy Technology and Policy

Currently, fossil fuels provide approximately 85 of the world's energy demand. According to the projection of EIA (2006d), it is estimated that the world's total energy consumption will rise by 59 between 1999 and 2020. The same report predicts a 20-year increase of carbon dioxide emissions by 60 . It is clear that fossil fuels will still remain the mainstream of global energy supply and demand. Supplying this huge quantity of energy demand is a big challenge. Due to the environmental problems...

Renewable vs Nonrenewable No Boundary as Such

The demand of fossil fuel, such as oil, coal, and natural gas, will still be significant in the next several decades. Figure 5.16 shows that as the natural processing time increases, the energy content of the natural fuel increases from wood to natural gas. The average energy value of wood is 18 MJ kg (Hall and Overend 1987) and the energy content of coal, oil, and natural gas are 39.3MJ kg, 53.6MJ kg, and 51.6MJ.kg, respectively (Chhetri and Islam, 2008). Moreover, this shows that renewable...

Global Efficiency of Solar Energy to Electricity Conversion

Reactor Cooling Pumps Efficiency

Solar energy is the most abundant energy source available on Earth. Service (2005) wrote that Earth receives 170,000 TW of energy every moment, one third of which is reflected back to the atmosphere. Earth received more energy in an hour than what is consumed by humans in a year. However, utilizing such a huge energy source is not easy. Even though the cost of power generation from solar energy is decreasing, it is still the most expensive power generation option compared to wind, natural gas...

Separation of Gas Gas

The separation of gas is by far the most important phase of the no-flare design. Current technologies indicate that separation may not be needed, and the waste gas as a whole can be utilized as a valuable energy income stream. Capstone Turbine Operation has developed a micro-turbine, which can generate up to 30 kW of power and consume 9000 ft3 day of gas (Capstone 2003). Micro-turbines may be especially useful for offshore applications where space is limited. Another possible use of the waste...

Natural Gas Processing

Natural gas found in natural gas reservoirs are complex mixtures of hundreds of different compounds. A typical natural gas stream consists of a mixture of methane, ethane, propane, butane and other hydrocarbons, water vapors, oil and condensates, hydrogen sulfides, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, other gases, and solid particles (Table 12.2). Even though these compounds are characterized as contaminants, they are not removed because of environmental concerns. It is obvious that water vapor, carbon...

Additives in Oil Refining and Their Functions

Oil refining and natural gas processing are very expensive processes in terms of operation and management. These operations involve the use of several chemicals and catalysts that are very expensive. Moreover, these catalysts and chemicals pose a great threat to the natural environment including air and water quality. Air and water pollution ultimately have impacts on the health of humans, animals and plants. For instance, the use of catalysts, such as lead, during crude oil refining to produce...

Emissions from Oil Refining Activities

Crude oil refining is one of the major industrial activities that emits C02 and many toxic air pollutants and has a high energy consumption. Because of the presence of trace elements, this C02 is not readily absorbed by the ecosystem, creating an imbalance into the atmosphere. Szklo and Schaeffer (2002) reported that crude oil refining processes are highly energy-intensive, requiring between 7 and 15 of the crude oil from the refinery processes. The study showed that the energy use in the...

Pathways of Natural Gas Processing

Gas Processing Schematic

Natural gas is a mixture of methane, ethane, propane, butane and other hydrocarbons, water vapor, oil and condensates, hydrogen sulfides, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, other gases, and solid particles. The free water and water vapors are corrosive to the transportation equipment. Hydrates can plug the gas accessories creating several flow problems. Other gas mixtures such as hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide are known to lower the heating value of natural gas by reducing its overall fuel...

Oil and Condensate Removal from Gas Streams

Natural gas is dissolved in oil underground due to the formation pressure. When natural gas and oil are produced, they generally separate simply because of the decrease in pressure. This separator consists of a closed tank where the gravity serves to separate the heavier liquids from lighter gases (EIA 2006). Moreover, specialized equipment such as the Low-Temperature Separator (LTS) is used to separate oil and condensate from natural gas (Natural Gas Org. 2004). When the wells are producing...

Glycol Dehydration

Solid Desiccant Dehydration

It is important to remove water vapor present in a gas stream, because otherwise it may cause hydrate formation at low temperature conditions that may plug the valves and fittings in gas pipe lines (Twu 2005). Water vapor may further cause corrosion when it reacts with hydrogen sulfide or carbon dioxide present in gas streams. Glycol is generally used for water dehydration or absorption (Mallinson 2004). Glycol has a chemical affinity for water (Kao et al. 2005). When it is in contact with a...

H2S Removal Techniques

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one of the impurities coming through the natural gas streams. A significant amount of hydrogen sulfide is emitted from industrial activities such as petroleum refining (Henshaw et al. 1999) and natural gas processing (Kim et al. 1992). H2S is a toxic, odorous, (Roth 1993) and corrosive compound that seriously affects internal combustion engines (Tchobanoglous et al. 2003). If inhaled, H2S reacts with enzymes in the bloodstream and Table 12.12 Sorbents prepared by...

Hydrate Problems

The production and transmission of natural gas is a very complex set of operations (Figure 13.1). There are virtually hundreds of different compounds in the natural gas stream coming out of the production well. A natural gas stream consists of methane, ethane, propane, butane, gas condensate, liquid petroleum, water vapor, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfides, nitrogen, and other gases and solid particles. The overall attraction of natural gas as one of the most environmentally acceptable sources...

The Prevention of Hydrate Formation

Many techniques are used to prevent hydrate formation in offshore pipeline systems including the dehydration of natural gas, operating beyond the hydrates formation zone, and the addition of gas hydrate inhibitors. Figure 13.2 shows the phase diagram of gas hydrates. The first one is the complete extraction of water before the natural gas is transmitted through the pipeline. In this method, a dehydration plant is utilized, which can be installed either offshore or onshore. The major...

Ethylene Glycols EG

These are made up of three elements carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. Their structure is H-0-CH2-CH2-0-H. If some of these molecules pick up extra oxygen, other compounds of the carboxylic acid family are formed, for example, formic acid, oxalic acid, and glycolic acid. These compounds are all acidic, and may cause corrosion of certain metals. Higher temperatures can destroy ethylene glycol in a remarkably short period of time (Carroll 2003). More importantly, each of these chemicals, being...

Triethanolamine TEA

Triethanolamine (TEA) is both a tertiary amine and a tri-alcohol and has a molecule with three hydroxyl groups. Triethanolamine acts as a weak base due to the lone pair on the nitrogen atom. It also decomposes with heating and produces toxic and corrosive gases including nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. By-products of these reactions such as formaldehyde, nitrogen oxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and formic acids have other health hazards and dangerous effects on the...

Sustainable Chemical Approach

The first approach is hypothetical, but it is believed that this can be proven a practical solution with elaborate experimental work. This approach would not alter the present mechanisms and methodology of applying conventional chemicals in processing and the transportation of natural gas, it would only make a change in the pathways of the development of the same chemical. This approach is based on the assumption that nature is perfect. It is believed that, if the constituents of the...

Biological Approach

The second approach is based on the hypothesis that natural biological means can be employed by the industry in processing and transporting natural gas. Paez (2001) has isolated cryophilic bacteria from Nova Scotia that can prevent the formation of gas hydrates at pressure ranges of 150 psi. Such actions of bacteria are similar to how LDHIs work. 13.5.2.1 Hydrate Formation Resistance Through Biological Means The possibilities of completely replacing the present toxic chemicals (used by the gas...

Rendering C02 Injection Sustainable

The injection of COz is one of the oldest EOR techniques available. Historically, C02 has been applied for both miscible and immiscible applications. Because of some very attractive features of C02 (e.g., swelling, IFT reduction, low minimum miscibility pressure), it has received considerable attention in the topic of EOR. The injection of COz into hydrocarbon reservoir is known to increase the amount of recoverable oil, yielding economic benefits. The process, however, has not been implemented...

Economic Sustainability of Nuclear Energy

Even though the economics of any energy technology is a function of local conditions and the way energy is processed, the economics of nuclear energy is one of the most contentious issues globally. Tester et al. (2005) reported that the cost of electric energy production from light water reactors (LWRs) is typically 57 capital, 30 operation, and 13 maintenance and fuel cost. Because the nuclear power plants have very high capital costs, any factors that affect capital costs such as inflation...

Unsustainable Technologies

At present, it is difficult to find any technology that brings benefits to human beings in the long-term. Plastic technology is one of the examples of an unsustainable technology. In this study, we are considering plastic as a case study. It is reported that, daily, millions of tons of plastic products are produced. About 500 billion to 1 trillion plastic bags are used worldwide every year, as reported by Vincent Cobb, the founder of reuseablebags.com. The first plastic sandwich bags were...

Problems with Biodiesel Sources

The main feedstocks of biodiesel are vegetable oils, animal fats, and waste cooking oil. These are the mono alkyl esters of fatty acids derived from vegetable oil or animal fat. The fuels derived may be alcohols, ethers, esters, and other chemicals made from cellulosic biomass and waste products, such as agricultural and forestry residues, aquatic plants (microalgae), fast growing trees and grasses, and municipal and industrial wastes. Subramanyam et al. (2005) reported that there are more than...

Interfacial Tension IFT Equivalence

Coalescence Oil

IFT measurements between a crude oil and an alkaline solution have generally been accepted as a screening tool to evaluate the EOR potential of the crude oil by alkali (Jennings 1975 Campbell 1977 de Zabala, et al. 1982). Recently, Mollet et al. (1996) showed in an experimental study that minimum IFT is not observed in the Figure 14.16 Schematic illustration of different steps in oil droplets' growth during coalescence. Figure 14.16 Schematic illustration of different steps in oil droplets'...

Chemical Flooding Agents

Chemical Flooding

Even though, the world is facing an energy crisis and, therefore, looking for innovative methods for enhanced oil recovery to produce more oil to meet the current and future energy needs, the EOR schemes have declined recently in the U.S. and the rest of the world. The major challenge the EOR schemes face today is to produce oil under attractive economic and environmental conditions (Islam 1999 Khan and Islam 2007). Figure 14.1 shows the total EOR production in the U.S. between 1982 and 2006....

Alkalinity in Wood Ashes

Clark 1986 Cognitive Model Panic

The origin of the word alkali is the Arabic word al qali, which means from ashes. Wood is the natural source of ashes, and the most important ingredients of natural ashes are sodium and potassium. These metals also form the basis for alkaline solutions used for various applications. In the modern world, wood ash is a by-product of combustion in wood-fired power plants, paper mills, and other wood burning facilities. A huge amount of wood ash is produced every year worldwide, and approximately...

Classification of C02

Carbon dioxide is considered to be the major precursor for current global warming problems. Previous theories were based on the chemicals are chemicals approach initiated by Linus Pauling's vitamin C and antioxidant experiments. This approach advanced the principle that, whether from a natural or synthetic source and irrespective of the pathway it travels, all vitamin C is same. This approach essentially disconnects a chemical product from its historical pathway. Even though the role of...

Recycling Polyurethane Waste

Polyurethane has been used in massive scales during the manufacturing of appliances, automobiles, beddings, carpet cushion, and upholstered furniture. Industries are recovering and recycling polyurethane waste materials form discarded products and from manufacturing processes. The recycling of any plastic waste is done generally in three ways mechanically, chemically, and thermally. Mechanical recycling consists of melting, shredding, or granulating waste plastic. Even though plastic is sorted...

Separation of Solid Liquid

Even though numerous techniques have been proposed in the past, little improvement has been done in the energy efficiency of solid-liquid separation. Most techniques are expensive, especially if a small unit is operated. Recently, a patent has been issued in the U.S. for a new technique that removes solids from oil, called an EVTN system. This system is based on the creation of a strong vortex in the flow to separate sand from oil. The principle is that by allowing the flow to rotate rapidly in...

Environmental Sustainability of Nuclear Energy

Path Analysis Procrastination

The impacts and the pathway analysis of radioactive release from a nuclear energy chain is shown in Figure 16.10 (NEA-OECD, 2003). The impacts of a nuclear energy chain are both radiological and Figure 16.10 Radioactive release from nuclear energy chain (Redrawn from NEA-OECD 2003). Figure 16.10 Radioactive release from nuclear energy chain (Redrawn from NEA-OECD 2003). non-radiological, which can be caused due to routine and accidental release of radioactive wastes into the natural...

Energy from Nuclear Fusion

Nuclear fusion power is generated by the fusion reaction of two atomic nuclei. Two light atomic nuclei fuse together to form a heavier nucleus and release energy. The sun in the solar system is the perfect example of fusion reaction occurring every moment in the universe. Fusion can occur only at very high temperatures where materials are at a plasma state. At a very high temperature the electrons separate from the nuclei, creating a cloud of charged particles, or ions. This cloud of equal...

Deconstructing the Myth of Global Warming and Cooling

There are two schools of thought regarding global warming. The first is based on the argument that global warming is caused by greenhouse gas emissions from various residential, commercial, and industrial activities. This argument has received widespread attention, and several national and international organizations in the world are working to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from different sectors. A recent report by IPCC (2007) declared that most of global warming is contributed by human...

Corrosion Problems in the Petroleum Industry

The petroleum industry has been the backbone of the world economy for the last 60 years. The United States has been the world leader in petroleum engineering technologies. A large tranche of petroleum infrastructure and maintenance costs relates to production operations, mainly in assuring flow from the wellbore to the processing plants, refineries, and oil tankers. Billions of dollars are spent annually to ensure that access to processing plants, refineries, storage sites, and oil tankers is...

Insufficiency of Energy Economics Theories

The conventional economic theories can be directly linked to disinformation regarding the intangible-tangible nexus. The theories of modern economics taught today all start from something called the theory of marginal utility. The English economics writer William Stanley Jevons (1870) first developed this theory in the 1870s, and it was furthered in the works of Carl Menger (1871), Leon Walras (1874), and Alfred Marshall (1890). Its underlying thesis, which became the basis of an elaborate...

Low Dosage Hydrate Inhibitors

The term low-dosage inhibitors (LDI) comes from the fact that they are used in ppm quantities compared to percentage (as high as 40 for methanol) for thermodynamic inhibitors. It is assumed that these inhibitors bind themselves to the surface of the hydrate particles in the early stages of nucleation and do not allow the hydrate particles to grow to the critical size where thermodynamic conditions become suitable for the growth of the hydrate particle. The length of the inhibition time for...

Challenges of Modeling Sustainable Petroleum Operations

Recently, Khan and Islam (2007a, 2007b) outlined the requirements for rending fossil fuel production sustainable. This scientific study shows step by step how various operations ranging from exploration to fuel processing can be performed in such a manner that resulting products will not be toxic to the environment. However, modeling such a process is a challenge because the conventional characterization of matter does not make any provision for separating sustainable operations from...

Spectral Analysis of Light

Figure 6.13 exhibits the spectrometer setup, comprised of a spectrometer, a USB fiber optic cable, a metallic holder, and a laptop computer including the spectrometer operating software. The light spectrum data are collected by this system, and the resulting light intensity as a function of the wavelengths is shown on the computer screen once ready. Figure 6.14 shows an example of spectrometer data file specifications. OOIBase32 Version 2.0.6.5 Data File +++++++++++++++f++++++++++++++++++++...

Zero Waste Energy Systems

Modern civilization is synonymous with the waste generation (Islam 2004 Khan and Islam 2006). Waste production has the most profound impact on energy and mass utilization. Conventional energy systems are mostly inefficient technologies (Farzana and Islam 2006). The more that is wasted, the more inefficient the system is. Almost all industrial and chemical processes produce wastes, most of which are toxic. The wastes not only reduce the efficiency of a system but also pose severe impacts on our...

Conditions of Sustainability

In order to consider a technology that is inherently sustainable and used in petroleum operations, a method is needed for evaluation. This evaluation method should be based on principles of true sustainability, which are defined and shown in the form of a flowchart in Figure 4.17. Based on this newly developed method, a practical tool is proposed and presented as shown in Figure 4.18. In this evaluation method, for the sake of sustainability, the total natural resources should be conserved in a...

Delinearized History of Mass and Energy Management in the Middle East

At the Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) Planetarium, Dr. Marwan Shwaiki recounted for us an arrestingly delinearized history of the Arab contribution to world scientific and technical culture. What follows is our distillation of some of the main outlines. Human civilization is synonymous with working with nature. For thousands of years of known history we know that man marveled in using mathematics to design technologies that created the basis of sustaining life on this planet. In this design,...

Sustainable Approach to Corrosion Prevention

It is well known that natural materials do not corrode. The reason that corrosion of metal is a great problem is that materials today are processed through unnatural means. The remedy to this problem is not to introduce more unnatural and inherently toxic means to combat corrosion. A sustainable approach to corrosion prevention should mainly focus on using natural material and in absence of natural materials for construction, natural additives to inhibit corrosion. Many researchers have used...

Bacterial Solutions for Asphaltene and Wax Damage Prevention

Effect Salinity Bacterial Growth

The role of microbes in rapid degradation of petroleum compounds is well known. However, few studies have been done for the possible use of microbes in breaking down asphaltic materials in situ. Often, bacteria are considered unfit for growth in harsh salinity and thermal conditions that are prevalent in wellbores of petroleum reservoirs. A few applications of microbial degradation of waxy materials have been reported. However, no systematic study is available in the literature. Progresses have...

Can an Energy Source Be Isolated from Matter

The most important feature of human beings is their ability to think (homo sapiens literally meaning the thinking man). If one simply thinks about this feature, one realizes that the thinking is necessary to decide between two processes. In that sense, our brain is just like a computer, the option always being 0 or 1. The history of philosophy supports this cognition process, as evidenced by Aristotle's theory of exclusions of the middles. Even though dogmatic application of this theory to...

Newtons First Assumption

Broadly speaking, it is widely accepted that Newton's system, based on his three laws of motion accounting for the proximate physical reality in which humans live on this Earth coupled with the elaboration of the principle of universal gravitation to account for motion in the heavens of space beyond this Earth, makes no special axiomatic assumptions about physical reality outside what any human being can observe and verify. For example, Newton considers velocity, v, as a change in the rate at...

Removable Discontinuities Phases and Renewability of Materials

By introducing time-spans of examination unrelated to anything characteristic of the phenomenon being observed in nature, discontinuities appear. These are entirely removable, but they appear to the observer as finite limits of the phenomenon, and as a result, the possibility that these discontinuities are removable is not even considered. This is particularly problematic when it comes to phase transitions of matter and the renewability or non-renewability of energy. The transition between...

When did Carbon Become the Enemy

An aphenomenal first premise doesn't increase knowledge, no matter through how many steps we take the argument. We can cite numerous examples to validate this statement. In this, it is neither necessary nor sufficient to argue about the outcome or final conclusion. For instance, we may not be able to discern between two identical twins, but that is our shortcoming (because we spuriously consider DNA tests the measure of identity), and that doesn't make them non-unique. Two molecules of water...

Are Natural Resources Finite and Human Needs Infinite

Over a decade ago, Lawrence Lerner, Professor Emeritus in Physics and Astronomy at the University of Chicago, was asked to evaluate how Darwin's theory of evolution was being taught in each state of the United States Lerner 2000 . In addition to his attempt to find a standard in K-12 teaching, he made some startling revelations. His recommendations created controversy, and many suggested that he was promoting bad science in name of good science. However, no one singled out another aspect of his...

The Current Process of Biodiesel Production

Recently (Chhetri and Islam 2008b) detailed the process involved in biodiesel production. Conventionally, biodiesel is produced either in a single-stage or a double-stage batch process or by a continuous flow type transesterification process. These are either acid catalyzed or base catalyzed processes. The acids generally used are sulfonic acid and sulfuric acid. These acids give very high yields in alkyl esters, but these reactions are slow, requiring high temperatures above 100 C and more...

Effect of Eyeglasses and Sunglasses on Light Spectra

The use of eyeglasses might be necessary for normal eye vision. However, sunglasses are not essential for normal eye vision. Sunglasses are coated with paints, other than white, to lower the light intensity and brightness perceived by the eye while driving, for instance. Figures 6.25 to 6.32 exhibit the spectra for the various sources of light investigated in this study comprised of the candle, incandescent white and red lamps, and fluorescent lamp. A lens was used to simulate the effect of...

Problems with Nanomaterials

Micro materials that could pose major health risks Panel issues warning for products with nanomaterials, saying tiny substances in everything from sunscreen to dieselfuel may be toxic The Globe and Mail Toronto , Thu 10 July 2008, Page A10 TPStory qu ery M ARTIN+MITTELSTAEDT A blue-ribbon scientific panel has waved a yellow flag in front of a rapidly expanding number of products containing nanomaterials, cautioning that the tiny substances might be able to penetrate cells and interfere with...

Democritus Of Abbera

Little is known for certain about Democritus of Abbera (c.460 B.C.E.-C.362 B.C.E.). None of his writings has survived intact. It is known from others (both students and detractors) that Democritus was one of the earliest advocates of a theory that all matter exists as collections of very small, permanent, indivisible particle called atoms. John Dalton (1766-1844), a self-educated English scientist, was primarily interested in meteorology and is credited with being the first to describe color...

The Greek Atomistic Philosophy

The earliest ideas concerning atoms can be traced to the Greek philosophers, who pursued wisdom, knowledge, and truth through argument and reason. Greek scientific theories were largely based on speculation, sometimes based on observations of natural phenomena and sometimes not. The idea of designing and performing experiments rarely occurred to Greek philosophers, to whom abstract intellectual activity was the only worthy pastime. Empedocles, a Greek philosopher active around 450 B.C.,...

The HSSA Honey Sugar Saccharin Aspartame Pathway

The HSS A pathway is a kind of metaphor for many other things that originate from a natural form and become subsequently engineered through many intermediate stages into new products. The following discussion lays out how it works. Once it is understood how disinformation works, one can figure out a way to reverse the process by avoiding aphenomenal practices. Over the years it has become a common idea among engineers and the public to associate an increase in the quality, and or qualities, of...

Critical Evaluation of Current Petroleum Practices

In very short historical time (relative to the history of the environment), the oil and gas industry has become one of the world's largest economic sectors, a powerful globalizing force with far reaching impacts on the entire planet. Decades of the continuous growth of oil and gas operations have changed, in some places transformed, the natural environment and the way humans have traditionally organized themselves. The petroleum sectors draw huge public attention due to their environmental...

The Knowledge Dimension and How Disinformation is Distilled

A great deal of what passes as social science consists of data whose actual trend-line comes not from the actual development of events as they are observed and unfolded, but rather from the intentions of the researcher compiling the information. This has been the source of much mischief, including the correlations discussed in the previous section. Although such distillations of information are presented as contributions to knowledge, it is difficult to determine the truth of such an assertion...

What is Antinature About Current Modes of Economic Development

No sustainability can occur if a system is not in conformance with nature. As already discussed earlier, the current technology development process is not driven by the long-term benefit. Often this is called greed. Nature is an infinite source of wisdom and, in a sense, actually anti-greed. Nature operates at zero-waste. Hence, waste-based technology is anti-nature. Where Nature turns things from good (in the sense of functional for our purposes) to better (in the sense of even more...

Design of Existing EOR Projects

Due to the lack of rigorous scientific investigation, the designs of EOR projects involving COz or other greenhouse gases have been flawed both technically and environmentally. Flow rates that have been selected in the past are usually high enough to induce viscous fingering, with the only exception being the projects involving injection of gas from the top of an anticline (see Islam et al. 1994 for detail). If this is not the case, viscous fingering will most likely occur, and the entire...