Physical Properties of Beeswax and Paraffin

9.2.1 Paraffin Wax

Paraffin wax is a tasteless and odorless, white, translucent solid. The source of paraffin wax is crude oil, which is derived from organic materials. Paraffin wax is produced by refining and de-waxing light lubricating oil stocks. It consists of a mixture of solid aliphatic hydrocarbons of high molecular weight, such as C36H74. Its molecular formula is C H. .. Paraffin wax can be defined as a n 2n+2

fraction of petroleum dominated by n-alkanes that are solid at ambient temperature (Chouparova and Philp 1998). It contains above C8+, and smaller amounts of isoalkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatics. Paraffin waxes are chemically stable and have a negligible degree of sub cooling during nucleation. There is no phase separation, and the phase change process only results in a small volume change (He et al. 2004). It contains above C8+, and smaller amounts of isoalkanes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics. Paraffin waxes are chemically stable and have a negligible degree of sub cooling during nucleation. Paraffin waxes are commonly classified in the petroleum industry literature as paraffin, intermediate and microcrystalline types (Jowett 1984; Speight 1991).

Table 9.1 shows the paraffin wax properties including the values of wax density, melting point, flash point, and autoignition temperature. The density varies between 0.88 and 0.94 g/cm3 (Lewis 2002; Krupa and Luyt 2001). The melting point ranges from 47 to 65°C (Lewis 2002). The flash point equals 390°F or 198°C (Lewis 2002). The autoignition temperature is reached at 473°F or 245°C (Lewis, 2002). The paraffin wax has a molar mass equal to 785 g/mol and a C/O ratio of 18.8/1 (Krupa and Luyt 2001). Its common properties are water repellency, smooth texture, low toxicity, and freedom from objectionable odor and color (Speight 1991). Paraffin waxes contain carcinogens because they are processed using toxic material. The threshold limit value for paraffin wax is 2 mg/m3 (Lewis 2002). Paraffin wax is soluble in benzene, ligroin, warm alcohol, chloroform, turpentine, carbon disulfide, and olive oil. It is insoluble in water and acids. Paraffin wax is combustible and has good dielectric properties. Paraffin wax grades are yellow crude scale, white scale, and refined wax. Paraffin waxes are also graded by melting point and color. The higher melting grades are more expensive. Table 9.2 shows the classification of paraffin waxes and their properties.

9.2.2 Beeswax

Table 9.1 shows the properties of beeswax, including the values of wax density and melting point. Its density equals 0.95 g/ cm3 (Lewis, 2002; Leclercq, 2006). Its melting point ranges from 62 to 65°C (Lewis 2002; Columbus Foods 2002). It is completely

Table 9.1 Wax

properties.

Wax type

Density (g/cm3)

Melting point (°C)

Flash point op (oC)

Autoignition temp

Of (OQ

Paraffin wax

0.88-0.941,2

47-651

390 (198)1

473 (245)1

Beeswax

0.951

62-651

-

-

Source: Lewis 2002; Krupa and Luyt 2001

Source: Lewis 2002; Krupa and Luyt 2001

Table 9.2 Classification of paraffin waxes.

Properties

Paraffin wax

Amorphous wax

18 30

Amount of other HC (iso-, cycloalkanes, etc)

Lower

Higher

Melting point range

40-60°C

>60-90°C

Adhesion

Lower

Higher

Source fractions

Light distillate

Heavy distillate, residual oil, pipeline and tank wax deposits

Source: Chouparova and Philp 1998

Source: Chouparova and Philp 1998

insoluble in water due to its resistance to hydrolysis and natural oxidization. However, it is soluble in alcohol, chloroform, ether, and oils, and it is combustible. The properties of beeswax remain unspoiled by time. Apart from the larvae of the wax moth, no animal has the digestive acids and juices to break it down (Leclercq 2006). It is solid in appearance in normal temperatures. It becomes brittle when the temperature drops below 18°C, and it quickly becomes soft and pliable at around 35° to 40°C. Beeswax grades are technical, crude, refined, NF (National Formulary grade of chemical), FCC (Food Chemical Codex), and white USP (United States Pharmacopeia). It is used in the manufacture of furniture, floor waxes, shoe polishes, leather dressings, anatomical specimens, artificial fruit, textile sizes and finishes, church candles, cosmetic creams, lipsticks, and adhesive compositions. A wide variety of cosmetics use beeswax as an emulsifier, emollient, and moisturizer. It is often used in skincare products as a thickening agent. After processing, beeswax remains a biologically active product retaining anti-bacterial properties. It also contains vitamin A, which is essential for human cell development. Throughout time, people have used it as an antiseptic and for healing injuries. Beeswax has many other industrial uses, too.

Table 9.3 Beeswax and paraffin wax density values for different samples.

Sample

Beeswax

Paraffin wax

Mass (8)

Volume (cc)

Density (g/cc)

Mass (g)

Volume (cc)

Density (g/cc)

1

18.2

20.0

0.91

15.4

20.0

0.77

2

14.8

17.0

0.870588

15.8

20.0

0.79

3

15.0

18.0

0.833333

15.7

20.0

0.785

4

15.0

17.0

0.882353

16.3

20.0

0.815

5

15.3

17.5

0.874286

15.1

20.0

0.755

6

19.6

21.0

0.933333

15.6

20.0

0.78

7

15.2

10.0

0.80

15.8

20.0

0.79

8

18.2

20.0

0.91

15.9

20.0

0.795

9

14.1

17.5

0.805714

15.8

20.0

0.79

10

14.6

20.0

0.73

15.7

20.0

0.785

Average

16.0

17.8

0.854961

15.71

20.0

0.7855

Source: Hossain 2008

Source: Hossain 2008

Table 9.3 shows the density values of beeswax and refined paraffin wax for different samples. Physical properties alone would make paraffin wax appear more attractive. Paraffin wax has a lower density and more transparent flame than those of beeswax. This is also accompanied with the cleaner appearance of paraffin wax. In general, material refinement has the general theme of making materials appear more appealing, during which process toxicity is increased due to the addition of inherently toxic additives or catalysts.

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Responses

  • Isengrin
    What the characteristics of paraffin and bee wax?
    2 years ago
  • Florencia
    What is the chemical properties of waxes?
    1 year ago
  • ISIDORA BONI
    Does beeswax change the physical properties of the lipgloss explain your answer.?
    12 months ago
  • Claudia
    What is the density of bees wax polish?
    10 months ago
  • joel
    How to get consistent density in parafin wax fuels?
    10 months ago
  • nadine
    What is the max wattage density that will scortch beeswax?
    8 months ago
  • francis
    Why is polyethylene a high melting solid, whilst paraffin oil is a liquid?
    5 months ago
  • Quintina
    What is viscosity of bees wax at 160 f degrees?
    4 months ago
  • ferumbras greenhand
    Does beeswax expand with temperature?
    13 days ago

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