Transportation Use and Endof Life

The complex array of pipes, valves, pumps, compressors, and storage tanks at refineries are potential sources of leaks into air, land, and water. If they are not contained, liquids can leak from transfer and storage equipment and contaminate soil, surface water, and groundwater. This explains why, according to industry data, approximately 85% of monitored refineries have confirmed groundwater contamination as a result of leaks and transfer spills (EDF 2005).

To prevent the risks associated with the transportation of sulfuric acid and on-site accidents associated with the use of hydrofluoric acid, refineries can use a solid acid catalyst that has recently proven effective for refinery alkylation. However, they are also more toxic than the liquid counterpart. As pointed out earlier, the use of organic acid or organically prepared acid would render the process inherently sustainable.

A sustainable petroleum process should have storage tanks and pipes aboveground to prevent ground water contamination. There is room for improving the efficiency of these tanks with natural additives. Quite often, the addition of synthetic materials makes an otherwise sustainable process unsustainable. Advances in using natural materials for improving material quality have been made by Saeed et al. (2003).

Sulfur is the most dangerous contaminant in a refinery's output products. When.fuel oils are combusted, the sulfur in them is emitted into the air as sulfur dioxide (S02) and sulfate particles (S04). Emissions of S02, along with emissions of nitrogen oxides, are a primary cause of acidic deposition (i.e., acid rain), which has a significant effect on the environment, particularly in central and eastern Canada (2002). Fine particulate matter (PM25), of which sulfate particles are a significant fraction (30-50%), may affect human health adversely. In the absence of toxic additives, the produced products

Table 11.8 Level regulation for petroleum products.

Fuel Type

Sulfur

Benzene

Heavy Fuel Oil, HFO

1 % by weight1*

Motor Gasoline

30 mg/kg2

1 % by volume3

Light fuel Oil, LFO

0.1% by weight3'

Diesel Fuel

15 mg/kg4

Aviation Gasoline

N/A

Lubricants

N/A

'Starting January 1, 2002 in Europe; Starting January 2005 in Canada; "Starting January 1, 2008 in Europe, "Starting June 1, 2006 in Canada; "Effect in July 1999 in Canada; N/A: Not yet available

'Starting January 1, 2002 in Europe; Starting January 2005 in Canada; "Starting January 1, 2008 in Europe, "Starting June 1, 2006 in Canada; "Effect in July 1999 in Canada; N/A: Not yet available

* There is no Canadian standard for this product will perform equally well but will not release contaminated natural products to the environment.

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment