23. Chemtura, Material Data Safety Sheet, Firemaster 550, effective date June 20, 2006.

24. Alexander H. Tullo, "Resting Easier," Chemical & Engineering News 81, no. 46 (2003): 43-44,

25. San Francisco Estuary Institute, "Characterization of the Brominated Chemicals in a PentaBDE Replacement Mixture and Their Detection in Biosolids Collected from Two San Francisco Bay Area Wastewater Treatment Plants," poster available at www.sfei.org/rmp/posters/08BFR_Poster_klosterhaus_ shrunk.pdf.

26. Kellyn Betts "New Flame Retardants Detected in Indoor and Outdoor Environments," Environmental Science & Technology 42, no. 18 (2008): 6778. Julia

Scott, "Fire Retardant Discovered in Wastewater Plants That Discharge into the Bay," Oakland Tribune, August 11, 2008. Heather M. Stapleton, Joseph G. Allen, Shannon M. Kelly, Alex Konstantinov, Susan Klosterhaus, Deborah Watkins, Michael D. McClean, and Thomas F. Webster, "Alternate and New Flame Retardants Detected in U.S. House Dust," Environmental Science & Technology 42, no. 18 (2008): 6910-16.


1. J. Peterson Myers is coauthor with Theo Colborn and Diane Dumanoski of Our Stolen Future (1996), a landmark book on endocrine disrupters. Comments by John Peterson Myers made at AAAS 2007 conference and Cain Research 2007 conference, Chemical Heritage Foundation.

2. U.S. EPA New Chemicals Program, "Is a Filing Necessary for My Chemical?" wwwepa.gov/opptintr/newchems/pubs/whofiles.htm.

3. EPA Fact Sheet, "Emerging Contaminant, 1,4 Dioxane," April 2008.

4. REACH, "What Is Reach?" http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/ reach/reach_intro.htm.

5. Comments by Derek Muir made at the AAAS 2008 conference.

6. U.S. EPA Science Advisory Board, "Perfluorooctanoic Acid Review Panel," www.epa.gov/sab/pdf/sab_06_006.pdf.

7. In a 2006 scientific review, the EPA has described one widely used PFC as a "likely carcinogen," but that review process is ongoing.

8. Kurunthachala M. Kannan, Emily Perrotta, and Nancy J. Thomas, "Association between Perfluorinated Compounds and Pathological Conditions in Southern Sea Otters," Environmental Science & Technology 40, no. 16 (2006): 4943-48.

9. Antonia M. Calafat, Lee-Yang Wong, Zsuzsanna Kuklenyik, John A. Reidy, and Larry L. Needham, "Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals in the U.S. Population: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 and Comparisons with NHANES 1999-2000," Environmental Health Perspectives 115, no. 11 (2007): 1596-1602.

10. Benjamin J. Apelberg, Frank R. Witter, Julie B. Herbstman, Antonia M. Calafat, Rolf U. Halden, Larry L. Needham, and Lynn R. Goldman, "Cord Serum Concentrations of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in Relation to Weight and Size at Birth," Environmental Health Perspectives 115, no. 11 (2007): 1670-76.

11. Chunyuan Fei, Joseph K. McLaughlin, Loren Lipworth, andJ0rn Olson, "Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonate

(PFOS) and Maternally Reported Developmental Milestones in Infancy," Environmental Health Perspectives 116, no. 10 (2008): 1391-95.

12. The EPA's 2006 Scientific Advisory Board report on PFOA found young children to have higher chemical levels than adults.

13. Rebecca Renner, "Is Arctic PFOA Contamination a 'Blast from the Past?' Environmental Science & Technology, January 4, 2006.

14. Rebecca Renner, "EPA Finds Record PFOS, PFOA Levels in Alabama Grazing Fields," Environmental Science & Technology 43, no. 5 (2009): 1245-46.

15. Minnesota Public Radio, "Toxic Traces: Timeline," http://news.minnesota .publicradio.org/projects/2005/02/toxictraces/timeline.shtml.

16. EIATRACK Environmental Intelligence Analysis, "EU Adopts Restrictions on Perfuorooctane Sulfonates (PFOS), Subject to Derogations; Perfuorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) Kept Under Review," March 27, 2007, www.eiatrack.org/r/1169.

17. U.S. EPA, "News Release: EPA Announces Substantial Decrease of PFOA," February 4, 2008.

18. Scott Finn, "Bush EPA Sets So-Called Safe Level of C8 in Drinking Water," West Virginia Public Broadcasting, January 15, 2009.

19. Environmental Working Group, "Credibility Gap: Toxic Chemicals in Food Packaging and DuPont's Greenwashing: New Food Packaging Chemicals: No Health Data," June 2008, www.ewg.org/node/26641.

20. Rebecca Renner, "PFOA in People," Environmental Science & Technology 41, no. 13 (2007): 4497-4500.

21. Renner, "PFOA in People."

22. As Scott Mabury—one of the world's experts on the environmental impacts of fluorine compounds—and his colleague Jessica C. D'Eon of the University of Toronto commented in a 2007 paper, "The issue of human exposure is increasingly complicated as several sources are likely involved, with relative contributions varying with lifestyle and location." Jessica C. D'Eon and Scott Mabury, "Production of Perfuorinated Carboxylic Acids (PFCAs) from the Biotransformation of Polyfuoroalkyl Phosphate Surfactants (PAPS): Exploring Routes of Human Contamination," Environmental Science & Technology 41, no. 13 (2007): 4799-4805.

23. Comments from Jennifer Keller's presentation at the AAAS 2008 conference.

24. Magali Houde, Trevor A. D. Bujas, Jeff Small, Randall S. Wells, Patricia A. Fair, Gregory D. Bossart, Keith R. Solomon, and Derek C. G. Muir, "Biomagnifica-tion of Perfuoroalkyl Compounds in the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops trunca-tus) Food Web," Environmental Science & Technology 40, no. 13 (2006): 4138-44.

25. Comments from Jennifer Keller's presentation at the AAAS 2008 conference.

26. David Lazarus, "Carcinogen Worries Stick to Food Packaging," Los Angeles Times, July 20, 2008.

27. DuPont, "About PFOA," www2.dupont.com/PFOA2/en_US/about_pfoa/ index.html.

28. 3M, "Human Health and the Environment," http://solutions.3m.com/wps/ portal/3M/en_US/PFOS/PFOA/Information/Health-Environment.

29. Olga Nadeinko, personal communication with author, August 2008.

30. DuPont, "Frequently Asked Questions—DuPont Capstone," March 31, 2008.

31. DuPont, "Frequently Asked Questions—DuPont Capstone," March 31, 2008.

32. M.J.A. Dinglasan-Panlilio and S.A. Mabury, "Significant Residual Fluorinated Alcohols Present in Various Fluorinated Materials," Environmental Science and Technology 40, no. 5 (2006): 1447-53.

33. Comments by Terry Collins made at the Gordon Cain Conference, Chemical Heritage Foundation, March 23, 2007.

34. See DuPont's MSDS Central at http://msds.dupont.com/msds/Mediator, first accessed August 2008 and still available as of March 2009.

35. U.S. EPA, "Section 8(e) of TSCA," www.epa.gov/opptintr/tsca8e/index.htm.

36. See the Thermolon website, www.thermolon.com/.

37. Advertising for GreenPan with Thermalon sold via Amazon.com and Home Shopping Network, hsn.com, accessed most recently May 25, 2009. See www.amazon.com/Green-Pan-Set-Black-Aluminum/dp/B001D6MQM0/ref =sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=home-garden&qid=1243278752&sr=8-1 and http:// kitchen-dining.hsn.com/greenpan-with-thermolon-technology-the-gourmet-set_p-3663839_xp.aspx.

38. See the website of the Shinwoo Trading Company, www.ebiz.co.jp/cgi-bin/ out1.cgi?name=comp&value=idsw22.

39. Structure of Coating-Layer for Heat Cooker, Wipo Patent, www.freepatents online.com/WO2008010639.html.

40. Comments by Paul Anastas made at the Green Chemistry and Environmental Health Conference, University of California, Irvine, November 10, 2008.


1. All of these products are included in the Woodrow Wilson Center's inventory of those that contain nanomaterials: www.nanotechproject.org/index.php? id=44&action=view. The novel is Prey by Michael Crichton (New York: HarperCollins, 2002).

2. National Nanotechnology Initiative, "FAQs: Nanotechnology," www.nano .gov/html/facts/faqs.html.

3. Comments by Vicki Colvin made at the AAAS Conference, February 16, 2007.

4. Rhitu Chatterjee, "Calculating the Costs of Nanohazard Testing," Environmental Science & Technology, March 25, 2009.

5. The list contains more than 800 entries as of April, 2009: www.nanotech project.org/inventories.

6. Author's interview with Barbara Kern, June 7, 2007.

7. Author's interview with James Hutchinson, May 17, 2007.

8. Author's interview with Kristen Kulinowski, June 12, 2007.

9. For more information see the ICON homepage, www.icon.rice.edu/index .cfm. Also see the Wilson Center Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies, www.nanotechproject.org/publications.

10. See the homepage for the International Alliance for NanoEHS Harmonization, http://nanoehsalliance.org.

11. Comments by James Hutchinson made at the Safer Nanotechnology Conference in March 2007.

12. Author's interview with Paul Anastas, April 30, 2007.

13. Author's interview with Terry Collins, May 7, 2007.

14. J. J. Wang, B. J. Sanderson, and H. Wang, "Cyto- and Genotoxicity of Ultrafine TiO2 Particles in Cultured Human Lymphoblastoid Cells," Mutation Research 628, no. 2 (2007): 99-106. T. R. Pisanic, J. D. Blackwell, V I. Shubayev, R. R. Finones, and S. Jin, "Nanotoxicity of Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Internalization in Growing Neurons," Biomaterials 28, no. 16 (2007): 2572-81. Li Zheng, Tracy Hulderman, Rebecca Salmen, Rebecca Chapmen, Stephen S. Leonard, Shih-Houng Young, Anna Shvedova, et al., "Cardiovascular Effects of Pulmonary Exposure to Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes," Environmental Health Perspectives 115, no. 3, (2007): 377-82. Katharine Sanderson, "Migrating Nanotubes Add to Asbestos Concern," Nature News, March 31, 2009.

15. Matthew Cimitile, "Nanoparticles from Sunscreens Damage Microbes," Environmental Health News, March 24, 2003.

16. Zhonghua Tong, Marianne Bischoff, Loring Nies, Bruce Applegate, and Ronald F. Turco, "Impact of Fullerene (C60) on a Soil Microbial Community," Environmental Science & Technology 41, no. 8 (2007): 2985-91.

17. Author's interview with Peter Lichty, June 7, 2007.

18. Author's interview with Gordon Wozniak, May 31, 2007.

19. Comments by Vicki Colvin made at AAAS Conference in San Francisco, February 16, 2007.

20. Author's interview with Barbara Karn, June 2007.

21. Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies, "Experts Argue Nano Food-Additives Require New Oversight," www.nanotechproject.org/news/archive/7055.

22. Britt E. Erickson, "Nanotech Law for European Cosmetics," Chemical and Engineering News 87, no. 13 (2009).

23. Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies, "Nanotech and Synbio: Americans Don't Know What's Coming," www.nanotechproject.org/news/archive/ synbio_poll.


1. Terry Collins, personal communication with author in January and May 2007, and from talks for the Oregon Environmental Council in January 2007, Chemical Heritage Foundation Gordon Cain Conference in March 2007, and from his interview with Moira Gunn on "Tech Nation" in March 2008.

2. Terry Collins, "The Journey to Safe Chemicals," Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, August 20, 2008.

3. See NatureWorks LLC, "Fact or Fiction?" www.natureworksllc.com/product-and-applications/fact%20or%20fiction.aspx.

4. CDC, NIOSH Alert, "Preventing Asthma and Death from Diisocyanate Exposure," 1996, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 96-111, www.cdc.gov/NIOSH/ asthma.html.

5. In September 2008, the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) issued a statement saying that the EPA's so-called Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) was at "serious risk of becoming obsolete." For example, some of the studies cited on the IRIS entry for phthalates were, at the time of this GAO report, more than fifty years old.

6. U.S. EPA High Production Volume Challenge, "OECD SIDS Manual Sections 3.4 and 3.5," www.epa.gov/HPV/pubs/general/sidsappb.htm.

7. Beginning in about 1996, the U.S. EPA began an effort to establish criteria and methods for determining what constitutes endocrine disruption. That effort is ongoing but as of April 2009 had yet to be fully launched. See www.epa.gov/ endo/pubs/regaspects/index.htm for more information.

8. Comments by Michael Wilson made at the HPVIS meeting in Austin on December 13, 2006.

9. American Chemistry Council, "Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH)," www.americanchemistry.com/s_acc/sec_mediakits .asp?CID=344&DID=1180.

10. Joseph Pereira, "Protests Spur Stores to Seek Substitute for Vinyl in Toys," Wall Street Journal, February 12, 2008.

11. Nike, "Environment," www.nike.com/nikebiz/gc/r/fy04/docs/environment .pdf.

12. While use of organic cotton now amounts to but one-tenth of 1 percent of the world's cotton consumption, its ripple effects are significant, influencing the food supply chain and local food products as well as taking pesticide exposure and emissions out of cotton crop production—one of the world's most chemical-intensive. In 2006, Wal-Mart became the world's largest purchaser of organic cotton, surpassing Nike (the previous world-record holder) and joining other retail chains including H&M, Target, and Marks and Spencer as well as dozens of other companies that include textile manufacturers, clothing designers, and retailers

13. In 2007, Catherine Hunt was also leader of technology partnerships at Rohm and Haas; comments by Catherine Hunt made at the ACS Green Chemistry Conference in June 2007.


1. For more information on PFCs and human fertility, see Chunyuan Fei, Joseph K. McLaughlin, Loren Lipworth, andJ0rn Olsen, "Maternal Levels of Perfuorinat-edchemicals and Subfecundity," Human Reproduction 1, no. 1 (2009): 1-6. See also N.Johansson, H. Viberg, A. Fredriksson, and P. Eriksson, "Neonatal Exposure to Deca-Bromnated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE 209) Causes Dose-Response Changes in Spontaneous Behaviour, Cholinergic Susceptibility in Adult Mice," NeuroTox-icology 29 (2008): 911-19. S. Jobling, R. W Burn, K Thorpe, R. Williams, and C. Tyler. "Statistical Modeling Suggests That Anti-Androgens in Wastewater Treatment Works Effluents Are Contributing Causes of Widespread Sexual Disruption in Fish Living in English Rivers," Environmental Health Perspectives 117, no. 5 (2009). J. Hogaboam, A. Moore, and B. P. Lawrence. "The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Affects Distinct Tissue Compartments during Ontogeny of the Immune System," Toxicological Sciences 102, no. 1 (2008): 160-70.

2. Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 35, L03503, doi:10.1029/2007GL031572, 2008, http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/detect/ice-seaice.shtml

3. Comments made at the AGU annual meeting in December 2008.

4. Comments by Jerry Heindel made at the Green Chemistry and Environmental Health meeting at the University of California, Irvine, November 10, 2008.

5. Comments by Terry Collins made at the Green Chemistry and Environmental Health meeting at the University of California, Irvine, November 10, 2008.

6. U.S. EPA New Chemicals Program, "Is a Filing Necessary for My Chemical?" www.epa.gov/opptintr/newchems/pubs/whofiles.htm#exempt.

7. Comments by Lynn Goldman made at the Green Chemistry and Environmental Health meeting at the University of California, Irvine, November 10, 2008.

8. Comments by Paul Anastas made at the Green Chemistry and Environmental Health meeting at the University of California, Irvine, November 10, 2008.

9. The Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) registry is the world's largest and, according to the ACS, most authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information; see www.cas.org/ for more information.

10. Comments by Paul Anastas made at the Green Chemistry and Environmental Health meeting at the University of California, Irvine, November 10, 2008.

11. Comments by Lynn Goldman made at the Green Chemistry and Environmental Health meeting at the University of California, Irvine, November 10, 2008.

12. Comments by Paul Anastas made at the Green Chemistry and Environmental Health meeting at the University of California, Irvine, November 10, 2008.

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