Prologue

1. Author's interview with Paul Anastas, October 2007.

2. Paul T. Anastas and John C. Warner, Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 8-9.

3. Anastas and Warner, Green Chemistry, 11.

4. Anastas and Warner, Green Chemistry, 13.

5. Anastas and Warner, Green Chemistry, 11.

6. Author's interview with John Warner, May 2007.

7. John C. Warner, "Guest Editorial: Asking the Right Questions,"Green Chemistry 6, no. 1 (2004): 27-28.

8. The EPA's Green Chemistry and Design for the Environment programs are now under this umbrella.

CHAPTER 1: THERE'S SOMETHING IN THE AIR

1. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "Contaminants in Great Lakes Sport Fish Fillets," www.epa.gov/glindicators/fishtoxics/sportfishb.html.

2. Elaine MacDonald and Sarah Rang, Exposing Canada's Chemical Valley: An Investigation of Cumulative Air Pollution Emissions in Sarnia, Ontario Area, Toronto: (Ecojustice, 2007); Martin Mittelstadt, "Sarnia's Emissions Affecting Health, Study Says," Toronto Globe & Mail, October 4, 2007; Karen Y, Fung, Isaac N. Luginaah, and Kevin M. Gorey, "Impact of Air Pollution on Hospital

Admissions in Southwestern Ontario, Canada: Generating Hypotheses in Sentinel High-Exposure Places," Environmental Health 6, no. 18 (July 2007).

3. MacDonald and Rang, "Exposing Canada's Chemical Valley."

4. Kellyn Betts, "Unwelcome Guest: PBDES in Indoor Dust," Environmental Health Perspectives 116, no. 5 (2008): A202-8.

5. Marina Fernández, Maria Bianchi, Victoria Lux-Lantos, and Carlos Libertun, "Neonatal Exposure to Bisphenol A Alters Reproductive Parameters and Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Signaling in Female Rats," Environmental Health Perspectives 117, no. 5 (2009): 757-62. See also Julia R. Barrett, "Trumped Treatment? BPA Blocks Effects of Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Drugs," Environmental Health Perspectives 117, no. 2.

6. See Centers for Disease Control NHANES reports.

7. Shanna H. Swan, personal communication with author, March 2007.

8. TerrenceJ. Collins and Chip Walter, "Little Green Molecules," Scientific American, March 2006, 84.

9. John Warner, personal communication with author, May 2007.

10. Christopher M. Reddy, John J. Stegeman, and Mark E. Hahn, "Organic Pollutants: Presence and Effects in Humans and Marine Animals," in Oceans and Human Health, ed. P. J. Walsh, S. L. Smith, H. Solo-Gabriele, and W. H. Gerwick (Boston: Elsevier, 2008), 121-44.

11. John Stegeman, in discussion with the author, September 2008.

12. Michael P. Wilson with Daniel A. Chia and Bryan C. Ehlers, Green Chemistry in California: A Framework for Leadership in Chemicals Policy and Innovation (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006).

13. Wilson, Chia, and Ehlers, Green Chemistry in California. See also U.S. EPA High Production Volume Challenge Program.

14. Ken Geiser, Materials Matter: Toward a Sustainable Materials Policy (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2001), 3.

15. Comments by Derek Muir made at the AAAS 2008 conference.

16. Paul T. Anastas and John C. Warner, Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 9.

17. The "Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry" are listed in the appendix to this volume (see page 203).

18. Paul J. Crutzen, "Geology of Mankind," Nature 415, no. 3 (2002): 23.

CHAPTER 2: SWIMMERS, HOPPERS, AND FLIERS

This characterization of "swimmers, hoppers, and flyers" is taken from Dr. Frank

Wania's research, as described in Todd Gouin and Frank Wania, "Time Trends of

Arctic Contamination in Relation to Emission History and Chemical Persistence and Partitioning Properties," Environmental Science and Technology 41, no. 17 (2007):

5986-97, and other papers.

1. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) and Arctic Council Action Plan to Eliminate Pollution of the Arctic (ACAP), "Fact Sheet: Brominated Flame Retardants in the Arctic," January 2005, www.amap.no/.

2. Karla Pozo, Tom Harner, Frank Wania, Derek C. G. Muirm Kevin C. Jones, and Leonard A. Barrie, "Toward a Global Network for Persistent Organic Pollutants in Air: Results from the GAPS Study," Environmental Science & Technology 40 (2006): 4867-73.

3. This study is the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project, designed and implemented by the National Park Service in January 2008.

4. Author's interview with Eric Dewailly, March 2008.

5. See the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, http://chm .pops.int/Convention/tabid/54/language/enP-US/Default.aspx.

6. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, "Governments Unite to Step-Up Reduction on Global DDT Reliance and Add Nine New Chemicals under International Treaty," press release, May 9, 2009, http://chm.pops.int/ Convention/Pressrelease/COP4Geneva8May2009/tabid/542/language/en-US/Default.aspx.

7. Gouin and Wania, "Time Trends of Arctic Contamination," 5986-92. R. W Macdonald, D. Mackay, Y.-F. Li, and B. Hickie, "How Will Global Climate Change Affect Risks from Long-Range Transport of Persistent Organic Pollutants?" Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 9, no. 3 (2003): 644-45.

8. Torsten Meyer and Frank Wania, "What Environmental Fate Processes Have the Strongest Influence on a Completely Persistent Organic Chemical's Accumulation in the Arctic?" Atmospheric Environment 41 (2007): 2757-67. Quotation from page 2763.

9. Author's interview with Derek Muir, February 2008.

10. Heidi N. Geisz, Rebecca M. Dickhut, Michele A. Cochran, William R. Fraser, and Hugh W. Ducklow, "Melting Glaciers: A Probable Source of DDT to the Antarctic Marine Ecosystem," Environmental Science & Technology 42 (2008): 3958-62, http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/article.cgi/esthag/2008/42/i11/pdf/es 702919n.pdf ?isMac=23773.

11. Doug Struck, "Dust Storms Overseas Carry Contaminants to U.S.," Washington Post, February 6, 2008.

12. Lori Styles, University Communications, "UA Scientist Leads U.N. Team Drafting Plan For Sand, Dust Storm Warning System," UA News, November 20, 2007, http://uanews.org/node/17041.

13. United States National Snow and Ice Data Center, "Arctic Sea Ice News

& Analysis," University of Colorado, Boulder, http://nsidc.org/arcticseaice news /index.html.

14. Tatiana Savinova, Vladimir Savinov Lyudmila Stephanova, Sergey Kotelevtsev, Geir Wing Gabrielsen, and Janneche Utne Skaare, "Biological Effects of POPs on Svalbard Glaucous Gulls," Norwegian Ministry of the Environment, www .npolar.no/transeff/Effects/Glaucous_Gull/Gull-Akvaplan.htm. See also http:// npweb.npolar.no/english/articles/1207829685.63.

CHAPTER 3: LABORATORY CURIOSITIES AND CHEMICAL UNKNOWNS

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Childhood Overweight and Obesity," February 10, 2009, www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/childhood/.

2. "Cost Estimates as a Guide to Research," proposed talk to be delivered before Louisville Section National Association of Cost Accountants, February 15, 1955. Hagley Museum and Library Collection.

3. Research progress report for Feb. 1935 P-16 E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, Delaware. Chemical Department, Experimental Station, Hagley Museum and Library. See also June 27, 1935, DuPont Cellophane Company Inc., memo from O. F. Benz, D. S. to Dr. W H. Charch, P-19 Pioneering Research Division, Subject: Visking Corporation—Sausage Casing, Hagley Museum and Library.

4. January 21, 1935. Dr. H. E. Eastlack, Attention: Mr. P. M. Clark, DuPont Archives, Hagley.

5. See Gerald Markowitz and David Rosner, Deceit and Denial: The Deadly Politics of Industrial Polution (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002).

6. C. L. Burdick, Development Department, Pioneering Research Division, DuPont de Nemours & Company, "Synthetic Plastics: Industrial Value of the Vinyl Derivatives," Chemical Trade Journal, August 14, 1936, Hagley Museum and Library.

7. Daniel Yergin, The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991), 259.

8. Christopher Reddy, personal communication with author, September 2007

10. Rachel Carson, Silent Spring (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1994), 7.

11. Carson, Silent Spring, 187.

12. Carson, Silent Spring, 30.

13. Theo Colborn, Dianne Dumanoski, and John Peterson Myers, Our Stolen Fu-

ture: Are We Threatening Our Fertility, Intelligence, and Survival? A Scientific Detective Story (New York: Dutton, 1996). See especially chapter 1.

14. Linda Birnbaum, Dioxin 2007, Tokyo, September 2007.

15. Author's interview with Linda S. Birnbaum, September 2007.

16. Peter C. Juliano, General Electric Company, "1985—Science and Technology of Polymer Blends," accessed at Chemical Heritage Foundation, Othmer Library.

17. AAAS February 16, 2008, presentation by Nat Scholz and John Incardona, fisheries biologies with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) on effects of pesticides on salmon.

CHAPTER 4: THE POLYCARBONATE PROBLEM

1. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, "Since You Asked— Bisphenol A: Questions and Answers about the National Toxicology Program's Evaluation of Bisphenol A," www.niehs.nih.gov/news/media/questions/ sya-bpa.cfm.

2. Elvira Greiner, Thomas Kaelin, and Kazuaki Nakamura, "Bisphenol A" (SRI Consulting, November 2007), www.sriconsulting.com/CEH/Public/Reports/ 619.5000/.

3. American Chemistry Council, "Bisphenol-A Website." www.bisphenol-a.org.

4. In 2007, General Electric sold its plastics division to the Saudi Arabian company SABIC (Saudi Basic Industries Corporation), which makes chemicals, plastics, fertilizers, and metals.

5. American Chemistry Council, "About Bisphenol-A," www.bisphenol-a.org/ about/index.html.

6. F. S. vom Saal, B. T. Akingbemi, S. M. Belcher, L. S. Birnbaum, D. A. Crain, M. Eriksen, F. Farabollini, et al., "Chapel Hill Bisphenol A Expert Panel Consensus Statement: Integration of Mechanisms, Effects in Animals, and Potential to Impact Human Health at Current Levels of Exposure," Reproductive Toxicology 24, no. 2 (2007): 131-38.

7. Julia A. Taylor, Wade. V Welshons, and Frederick S. vom Saal, "No Effect of Route of Exposure (Oral; Subcutaneous Injection) on Plasma Bisphenol A throughout 24 Hours after Administration in Neonatal Female Mice," Reproductive Toxicology 25, no. 2 (2007): 169-76.

8. Antonia M. Calafat, Zsuzsanna Kuklenyik, John A. Reidy, Samuel P. Caudill, John Ekong, and Larry L. Needham, "Urinary Concentrations of Bisphenol A and 4-Nonylphenol in a Human Reference Population," Environmental Health Perspectives, 113, no. 4 (2005): 391-95.

9. Environmental Working Group, "A Survey of Bisphenol A in U.S. Canned Foods," March 5, 2007, www.ewg.org/reports/bisphenola.

10. American Chemistry Council, "Epoxy Resin Can Coatings and Bisphenol A Safety Information." www.bisphenol-a.org/human/epoxycan.html.

11. Nancy K. Wilson, Jane C. Chuang, Christopher Lyu, Ronald Menton, and Marsha K. Morgan, "Aggregate Exposures of Nine Preschool Children to Persistent Organic Pollutants at Day Care and at Home," Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 13 (2003): 187-202. See also Nancy K. Wilson, Jane C. Chuang, Marsha K. Morgan, R. A. Lordo, and L. S. Sheldon, "An Observation Study of the Potential Exposures of Preschool Children to Penta-chlorophenol, Bisphenol-A, and Nonylphenol at Home and Daycare," Environmental Research 103, no. 1 (2006): 9-20.

12. Martin Mittelstaedt, "Tests Find Bisphenol A in Majority of Soft Drinks," Globe &Mail, March 5, 2009, www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/LAC .20090305.BPA05/TPStory.

13. Jenny L. Carwile, Henry T. Luu, Laura S. Bassett, Daniel A. Driscoll, Caterina Yuan, Jennifer Y. Chang, Xiaoyun Ye, Antonia M. Calafat, and Karin B. Michels, "Use of Polycarbonate Bottles and Urinary Bisphenol A Concentrations," Environmental Health Perspectives doi:10.1289/ehp.0900604, www.ehponline.org/ docs/2009/0900604/abstract.pdf, accessed May 12, 2009.

14. Hugh S. Taylor, personal communication with author, March 2007.

15. See E. C. Dodds and Wilfrid Lawson, "Synthetic Oestrogenic Agents without the Phenanthrene Nucleus," Nature, June 13, 1936, 996; J. W Cook and E. C. Dodds, "Sex Hormones and Cancer-Producing Compounds," Nature, February 11, 1933, 205-6; J. W Cook, E. C. Dodds, and C. L. Hewett, "A Synthetic Oetrus-Exciting Compound," Nature, January 14, 1933, 56-57; and J. W Cook, C. Hewett, and I. Hieger, "Coal Tar Constituents and Cancer," Nature, December 17, 1932, 926-27.

16. Transcript of an Interview with Daniel W. Fox conducted by Leonard W. Fine and George Wise at Pittsfield, Mass., on August 14, 1986, accessed at Chemical Heritage Foundation, Othmer Library.

17. Rachel Carson, Silent Spring (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1994), 204.

18. Transcript of an Interview with Daniel W Fox conducted by Leonard W Fine and George Wise at Pittsfield, Mass., on August 14, 1986, accessed at Chemical Heritage Foundation, Othmer Library.

19. Daniel W Fox—Recent Developments in Engineering Plastics Polymer Blends DWF [7-2] Blends—1983 (2 of 2), accessed at Chemical Heritage Foundation, Othmer Library.

20. "56.924 Polycarbonate Resins," Federal Register 42, no. 50, March 15, 1977.

21. All toxicity information from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR's) ToxFAQs, www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaq.html.

22. Memo Report: "Use of Butanediol-(bis-glycidylether) as a Hydrolytic Stabilizer for Lexan Resin," February 15, 1978, General Electric, Lexan Department, Mt. Vernon, Indiana, accessed at Chemical Heritage Foundation, Othmer Library

23. American Chemistry Council, "FAQs: The Safety of Baby Bottles, Nalgene Sports Bottles, and Food Containers Made with Polycarbonate Plastic," www .plasticsinfo.org/s_plasticsinfo/sec_level2_faq.asp?CID=704&DID=2838.

24. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "Bisphenol A," January 10, 2008. www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0356.htm.

25. Sarah Vogel, "Battles over Bisphenol A," DefendingScience.org, April 16, 2008, www.defendingscience.org/case_studies/Battles-Over-Bisphenol-A.cfm.

26. Theo Colborn, Dianne Dumanoski, and John Peterson Myers, Our Stolen Future: Are We Threatening Our Fertility, Intelligence, and Survival? A Scientific Detective Story (New York: Dutton, 1996). See especially chapter 8, excerpts available at www.ourstolenfuture.org/Basics/chapter_excerpts/8herethere.htm.

27. Author's interview with Patricia Hunt, February 2007.

28. Elizabeth W LaPensee, Traci R. Tuttle, Sejal R. Fox, and Nira Ben-Jonathan, "Bisphenol A at Low Nanomolar Doses Confers Chemoresistance in Estrogen-Receptor-Alpha-Positive and -Negative Breast Cancer Cells," Environmental Health Perspectives 117, no. 2 (2009): 175-80. Laura N. Vandenberg, Russ Hauser, Michele Marcus, Nocolas Olea, and Wade V Welshons. "Human Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA)," Reproductive Toxicology 24, no. 2 (2007): 139-77. Csaba Ler-anth, Tibor Hajszan, Klara Szigeti-Buck, Jeremy Bober, and Niel J. MacLusky. "Bisphenol A Prevents the Synaptogenic Response to Estradiol in Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex of Ovariectomized Nonhuman Primates," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105, no. 37 (2008): 14187-91.

29. Frederick S. vom Saal, personal communication with author, March 2007.

30. Andrea Gore, personal communication with author, March 2007.

31. General Electric company memos 1984, accessed at the Chemical Heritage Foundation, Othmer Library.

32. Kembra L. Howdeshell, Paul H. Peterman, Barbara M. Judy, Julia A. Taylor, Carl E. Orazio, Rachel L. Ruhlen, Frederick S. Vom Saal, and Wade V Welshons, "Bisphenol A Is Released from Used Polycarbonate Animal Cages into Water," Environmental Health Perspectives 111, no. 9 (2003): 1180-87.

33. Martha Susiarjo, Terry J. Hassold, Edward Freeman, and Patricia A. Hunt, "Bisphenol A Exposure in Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse,"

PLoS Genetics 3, no. 1 (2007): e5, www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10 .1371 /journal.pgen.003 0005.

34. Caroline C. Smith and Hugh S. Taylor, "Xenoestrogen Exposure Imprints Expression of Genes (Hoxa10) Required for Normal Uterine Development," The FASEBJournal 21 (2007): 239-46.

35. Bisphenol A affects the male reproductive hormone systems as well as the female's. There has been extensive research into its impacts on testosterone, prostate, and other male body systems.

36. Hugh S. Taylor, personal communication with author, March 2007.

37. Patricia A. Hunt, personal communication with author, March 2007.

38. F. S. vom Saal, B. T. Akingbemi, S. M. Belcher, L. S. Birnbaum, D. A. Crain, M. Eriksen, F. Farabollini, et al., "Chapel Hill Bisphenol A Expert Panel Consensus Statement: Integration of Mechanisms, Effects in Animals and Potential to Impact Human Health at Current Levels of Exposure," Reproductive Toxicology 24, no. 2 (2007): 131-38.

39. Patricia A. Hunt, personal communication with author, March 2007.

40. Retha R. Newbold, "Prenatal Exposure to Diethylstilbestrol (DES)," Fertility and Sterility 89, supp. 1 (2008): e55-e56, www.prhe.ucsf.edu/prhe/prhe_ articles /14.FertSter2 008.Sup1.Newbold.pdf.

41. A. P. Raun and R. L. Preston, "History of Diethylstilbestrol Use in Cattle." Un-plublished paper, American Society of Animal Science, 2002 www.asas.org/ Bios/Raunhist.pdf.

42. Retha R. Newbold, personal communication with author, February 2007, and comments made at the AAAS 2007 conference.

43. For a helpful explanation of epigenetics see Joanna Downer, "Backgrounder: Epigenetics and Imprinted Genes," Johns Hopkins Medicine, November 15, 2002, www.hopkinsmedicine.org/press/2002/november/epigenetics.htm.

44. Comments by John Peterson Myers made at the AAAS 2007 conference.

45. Philippe Grandjean, David Bellinger, Ake Bergman, Sylvaine Cordier, George Davey-Smith, Brenda Eskenazi, David Gee, et al., "The Faroes Statement: Human Health Effects of Developmental Exposure to Environmental Toxicants," International Conference on Fetal Programming and Environmental Toxicity, May 20-24, 2007, www.pptox.dk/Consensus/tabid/72/Default.aspx.

46. Comments by Newbold and Blumberg made at the 2007 AAAS Conference.

47. Organotins are a subset of compounds known as organometallics (substances made up of metals and hydrocarbons). Organometallics include methyl mercury and tetraethyl lead, both known for their biological toxicity.

48. The information bulletin is Cornell University's Extension Toxicology Network (ETOXNET), http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/pyrethrins-ziram/tributyltin-ext.html.

49. These effects have resulted in an international agreement that discontinues tributyltin's use in anti-fouling paints used on ships. A similar U.S. law, the Organotin Antifouling Paint Control Act, was passed in 1988 but as of this writing the EPA continues to assess other applications of tributyltin.

50. Author's interview with Bruce Blumberg, February 2007.

51. F. S. vom Saal, J. R. Kirkpatrick, and B. L. Coe, "Environmental Estrogens, Endocrine Disruption, and Obesity," in Obesity: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Prevention, ed. Debasis Bagchi and Harry G. Preuss (Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press, 2006), 33-41.

52. Richard W Stalhut, Edward van Wijngaarden, Timothy D. Dye, Stephen Cook, and Shanna H. Swan, "Concentrations of Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Are Associated with Increased Waist Circumference and Insulin Resistance in Adult U.S. Males," Environmental Health Perspectives 115, no. 6 (2007): 876-82.

53. Joseph L. Jacobson and Sandra W Jacobson, "Intellectual Impairment in Children Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Utero," New England Journal of Medicine 335, no. 11 (1996): 783-89; See also Paul W. Stewart, Edward Lonky, Jacqueline Reihman, James Pagano, Brooks B. Gump, and Thomas Darvill, "The Relationship between Prenatal PCB Exposure and Intelligence (IQ) in 9-Year-Old Children," Environmental Health Perspectives 116, no. 10(2008): 1416-22.

54. Bernard Weiss, "Neurobiology and Behavior," University of Rochester, www2 .envmed.rochester.edu/envmed/tox/faculty/weiss.html.

55. Bernard Weiss, "Can Endocrine Disruptors Influence Neuroplasticity in the Aging Brain?" NeuroToxicology 28, no. 5 (2007): 938-50.

56. Weiss, "Endocrine Disruptors."

57. Draft NTP Brief on Bisphenol A [CAS No.80-05-7], April 14, 2008, National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services. Also see National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, "NTP Finalized Report on Bisphenol A," press release, September 3, 2008, www.niehs.nih.gov/ news/releases/2008/bisphenol-a.cfm.

58. vom Saal et al., "Chapel Hill Bisphenol A Expert Panel."

59. In April 2008, Wal-Mart announced it would discontinue the sale of baby bottles, pacifiers, toddlers' sippy cups, or water bottles made with bisphenol A in its Canadian stores; U.S. Wal-Mart stores would follow suit starting in early

2009. Other big retailers, including Toys "R" Us, the Mountain Equipment CoOp (Canada's largest sports retailer), and the CVS pharmacy chain have developed similar policies; half a dozen manufacturers of baby bottles, including Gerber and Playtex, have since discontinued their bisphenol A products.

60. "Ottawa to Ban Baby Bottles Made with Bisphenol A," CBC News, April 18, 2008.

61. Eastman, "New Eastman Tritan Copolyester," www.eastman.com/Brands/ Tritan/Introduction/Introduction.htm.

62. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, "Bisphenol A (BPA)," www.fda.gov/ oc/opacom/hottopics/bpa.html.

63. American Chemistry Council, "Are the Myths about Polycarbonate Bottles True? New Information Supports the Safe Use of Polycarbonate Bottles," February 5, 2008, www.bisphenol-a.org/whatsNew/20080205.html.

64. American Chemistry Council, "Are the Myths about Polycarbonate Bottles True?" See the Bisphenol A website at www.bisphenol-a.org/whatsNew/ 20080205.html, accessed April 10, 2009.

65. American Chemistry Council, "Pthalates Information Center," www .phthalates.org/didyouknow/myth.asp.

66. Jennifer Muir, "Industry Fights Effort to Ban Chemical in Baby Products," Orange County Register, August 8, 2008.

67. Lyndsey Layton, "Studies on Chemical in Plastics Questioned," Washington Post, April 27, 2008.

68. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "Risk Assessment for Toxic Air Pollutants: A Citizen's Guide," originally published as EPA 450/3-90-024, March 1991, www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/3_90_024.html.

69. Joel Tickner, personal communication with author, June 2008.

70. For more information about this group, see http://stats.org/.

71. Trevor Butterworth, "Washington Post Skews Story on Chemical Obesity Risk," STATS, March 12, 2007, http://stats.org/stories/2007/washington_obesity_ mar12_07.htm.

72. George Gray and Joshua Cohen, "Weight of the Evidence Evaluation of Low-Dose Reproductive and Developmental Effects of Bisphenol A," Risk in Perspective 12, no. 3 (2004): 1-4, www.hcra.harvard.edu/rip/risk_in_persp_August 2004.pdf.

73. For a list of the reviewed studies, see www.gradientcorp.com/publications/ scientificpapers.php.

74. For Meghan Reilly's research report, see www.cga.ct.gov/2008/rpt/2008-

R-0249.htm. For further information, see www.senate.mn/committees/2007-2008/health/update.htm.

75. Samantha Young, "California Lawmakers Weigh Ban on Chemical Found in Baby Bottles, although Danger Is in Dispute," Associated Press, August 10, 2008. For Julie E. Goodman's comments on behalf of the American Petroleum Institute, see http://yosemite.epa.gov/sab/sabproduct.nsf/519F483722AAA 80485257494006205F1/$File/Goodman_CASAC+SOx+Public+Comments+ for+July+30-31+2008+Meeting.pdf. I also discovered that STATS is listed among the bisphenol A information recommended by the Juvenile Products Manufacturing Association website and STATS staff are authors of the JPMA statement defending bisphenol A safety.

76. For more information on STATS, see www.stats.org/about.htm. I came by this information via Guidestar and SourceWatch.

77. For more information on the Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX), see www endo crinedisruption.com/home.php.

78. John Tierney, "Ten Things to Scratch from Your Worry List," New York Times, science section, July 29, 2008. NB: The print edition carried a teaser-headline that included the word "myth." It is not in the web edition.

CHAPTER 5: PLASTICIZERS: HEALTH RISKS OR FIFTY YEARS OF DENIAL OF DATA?

1. Marla Cone, "Scientists Find 'Baffling' Link between Autism and Vinyl Flooring," Environmental Health News, March 31, 2009, www.environmentalhealth news.org/ehs/news/autism-and-vinyl-flooring. See also Malin Larssona, Bernard Weiss, Staffan Janson, Jan Sundell, and Carl-Gustav Bornehag, "Associations between Indoor Environmental Factors and Parental-Reported Autistic Spectrum Disorders in Children 6-8 Years of Age," NeuroToxicology, forthcoming.

2. For the final text of HR 4040, section 108, see http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ bdquery/z?d110:h.r.04040: and follow links to text of bill. The bills are HR 4040 and S 2663, laws that also ban all but the merest trace of lead from products intended for children under twelve years old. The six phthalate formulations are diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP also referred to as di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate), dibutyl phthalate (DBP, sometimes also referred to as di-n-butyl phthalate), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), diiso-decyl phthalate (DIDP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP).

3. Canada has barred two of the most widely used phthalates, diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diiosononyl phthalate (DINP), both of which go into PVC, from infants' and children's products since 1998.

4. Benjamin C. Blount, ManoriJ. Silva, Samuel P. Caudill, Larry L. Needham, Jim L. Pirkle, Eric J. Sampson, George W Lucier, et al., "Levels of Seven Urinary Phthalate Metabolites in a Human Population," Environmental Health Perspectives 108, no. 10 (2000): 979-82.

5. Author's interview with Shanna Swan, March 2007.

6. UK Food Standards Agency, "Food Surveillance Information Sheet," no. 60, May 1995, http://archive.food.gov.uk/maff/archive/food/infsheet/1995/ no60/60phthal.htm.

7. Sheela Sathyanarayana, Catherine J. Karr, Paula Lozano, Elizabeth Brown, Antonia M. Calafat, Fan Liu, and Shanna H. Swan, "Baby Care Products: Possible Sources of Infant Phthalate Exposure," Pediatrics 121, no. 2 (2008): e260-e268.

8. Theo Colborn, Dianne Dumanoski, and John Peterson Myers, Our Stolen Future: Are We Threatening Our Fertility, Intelligence, and Survival? A Scientific Detective Story (New York: Dutton, 1996). See especially "Hypospadias in the U.S.," excerpts available at www.ourstolenfuture.org/NEWSCIENCE/reproduction/ hypospadias.htm.

9. John D. Meeker, Antonia M. Calafat, and Russ Hauser, "Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate Metabolites May Alter Thyroid Hormone Levels in Men," Environmental Health Perspectives 115, no. 7 (2007): 1029-34.

10. Jennifer J. Adibi, Russ Hauser, Paige L. Williams, Robin M. Whyatt, Antonia M. Calafat, Heather Nelson, Robert Herrick, and Shanna H. Swan, "Maternal Urinary Metabolites of Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate in Relation to the Timing of Labor in a U.S. Multicenter Pregnancy Cohort Study," American Journal of Epidemiology, forthcoming.

11. ManoriJ. Silva, John A. Reidy, James L. PreauJr., Larry L. Needham, and Antonia M. Calafat, "Oxdative Metabolites of Diisononyl Pthalate as Biomarkers for Human Exposure Assessment," Environmental Health Perspectives 114, no. 8 (2006): 1158-61.

12. Paul Foster, personal communication with the author, March 2007.

13. Peter Infante, Stephen E. Petty, David H. Groth, Gerald Markowitz, and David Rosner, "Vinyl Chloride Propellant in Hair Spray and Angiosarcoma of the Liver among Hairdressers and Barbers: Case Reports," International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 15, no. 1 (2009): 36-42.

14. Environment California, "Phthalates Overview," www.environmentcalifornia .org/environmental-health/stop-toxic-toys/phthalates-overview.

15. Meg Kissinger and Susanne Rust, "U.S. Lawmakers Move to Ban BPA from Food, Beverage Containers," Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, March 13, 2009.

16. For the American Chemistry Council's response to NPR's piece on the phtha-late ban, see ACC Responds," wwwamericanchemistry.com/s%5Fphthalate/ sec.asp?CID=2084&DID=8774. For the original NPR article, see Jon Hamilton, "Public Concern, Not Science, Prompts Plastics Ban," National Public Radio, April 1, 2009, www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId= 102567295.

17. National Toxicology Program, "Chemical Information Profile for Diethyl Phthalate CAS No.84-66-2, Supporting Nomination for Toxicological Evaluation" November 2006. Prepared for National Toxicology Program.

18. Jun Sekizawa, Stuart Dobson, and Ralph J. Touch III, "Concise International Chemical Document 52: Diethyl Phthalate," www.inchem.org/documents/ cicads/cicads/cicad52.htm.

19. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, "ToxFAQs for Diethyl Phthalate," www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts73.html.

20. Comments by Paul Foster made during his presentation at Chemical Heritage Foundation, Gordon Cain Conference, March 2007.

21. Comments by Paul Foster made during his presentation at Chemical Heritage Foundation, Gordon Cain Conference, March 2007.

22. American Chemistry Council, "The Body of Scientific Evidence on Phtha-lates," press teleconference by Chris Bryant, managing director, chemical products and technology division, August 18, 2008.

23. American Chemistry Council, "Phthalates Information Center," http://www .americanchemistry.com/s_phthalate/index.asp.

24. G. Wildbrett, "Diffusion of Phthalate Acid Esters from PVC Milk Tubing," Environmental Health Perspectives 3 (1973): 29-35.

25. Frederick C. Gross and Joe A. Colony, "The Ubiquitous Nature and Objectionable Characteristics of Phthalate Esters in Aerospace Technology," Environmental Health Perspectives 3 (1973): 37-48.

26. W. J. Olewinski, G. Rapier, T. K. Slawecki, and H. Warner, "Investigation of Toxic Properties of Materials Used in Space Vehicles, Technical Documentary Report No. AMRL-TDR-63-99," December 1963, Biomedical Laboratory, Aerospace Medical Division, Air Force Systems Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, Prepared Under Contract No. AF-33(657)-8029, General Electric Company, Missile and Space Division, Philadelphia, PA.

27. Paul R. Mahaffy, David Beaty, Mark Anderson, Glenn Aveni, Jeff Bada, Simon Clemett, David Des Marais, et al., "Science Priorities Related to the Organic

Contamination of Martian Landers," unpublished white paper, November 2004, Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG), http:// mepag.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/index.html.

28. Dean Finney, Phthalate Esters Panel of the American Chemistry Council teleconference, August 2008.

29. Rebecca Goldin, "Toy Tantrums: The Debate over the Safety of Phthalates," STATS, January 30, 2006, http://stats.org/stories/2008/the_risks_phthalates_ mar24_08.html. See also American Chemistry Council, "Media Alert: Consumer Products that Do Not Contain Phthalates," July 14, 2008, www.ameri-canchemistry.com/s_phthalate/sec.asp?CID=2054&DID=8630.

30. Ted Schettler, personal communication with author, August 2008. Dr. Ted Schettler, MD, is science director of the nonprofit Science Environmental Health Network.

31. Meeker et al., "Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate Metabolites."

32. Jennifer Weuve, Brisa N. Sánchez, Antonia M. Calafat, Ted Schettler, Ronald A. Green, Howard Hu, and Russ Hauser, "Exposure to Phthalates in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Infants: Urinary Concentrations of Monoesters and Oxidative Metabolites," Environmental Health Perspectives 114, no. 9 (2006): 1424-31. See also Tom Deutschle, Rudolf Reiter, Werner Butte, Berger Heinzow, Tilman Keck, and Herbert Riechelmann, "A Controlled Challenge Study on Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) in House Dust and the Immune Response in Human Nasal Mucosa of Allergic Subjects," Environmental Health Perspectives 116, no. 11 (2008): 1487-93. See also Rie Yanagisawa, Hirohisa Takano, Ken-ichiro Inoue, Eiko Koike, Kaori Sadakane, and Takamichi Ichinose, "Effects of Maternal Exposure to Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate during Fetal and/or Neonatal Periods on Atopic Dermatitis in Male Offspring," Environmental Health Perspectives 116, no. 9 (2008): 1136-41.

33. DPB Information Centre, "DBP: A Specialty Plasticiser," www.dbp-facts.com.

34. Bette Hileman, "Panel Ranks Risks of Common Phthalate: Additional Research Underscores Concerns about DEHP That Were First Expressed in 2000 Report," Chemical & Engineering News 83, no. 46 (2005): 32-36.

35. Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction, National Toxicology Program, "NTP Brief on the Potential Human Reproductive and Developmental Effects of Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP)," draft, May 2006, http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov/chemicals/dehp/DEHP%20Brief%20Draft1.pdf.

36. E.O. Dillingham and J. Autian, "Teratogenicity, Mutagenicity, and Cellular Toxicity of Phthalate Esters" Environmental Health Perspectives 3 (1973): 81-89.

37. M. R. Parkhie, M. Webb, and M. A. Norcross, "Dimethoxyethyl Phthalate: Em-

bryopathy, Teratogenicity, Fetal Metabolism, and the Role of Zinc in the Rat," Environmental Health Perspectives 45 (1982): 89-97.

38. National Toxicology Program, Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction, "Thalidomide," http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov/common/ thalidomide.html.

39. Department of Health and Ageing, NICNAS, "Existing Chemical Hazard Assessment Report: Bis(2-methoxyethyl) Phthalate," June 2008, at www.nic-nas.gov.au/publications/car/other/DMEP%20hazard%20assessment.pdf.

40. The study was also conducted by the NTP's predecessor, the National Cancer Institute Carcinogenicity Bioassay program, a mouthful of a name that is a reminder of how, historically, materials' toxicology programs have focused on cancer effects.

41. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (part of the World Health Organization) also listed DEHP as a "possible carcinogen following the 1982 U.S. National Toxicology Program studies." In 2000, however, the IARC revised its judgment saying that the rodent data were not relevant to people, so in its view DEHP was "not classifiable as a human carcinogen," a classification later adopted by the European Commission.

42. American Chemistry Council, "Questions and Answers," www.american chemistry.com/s_phthalate/sec.asp?CID=1762&DID=6479.

43. American Chemistry Council, "What the Precautionary Principle Is?" www .americanchemistry.com/s_phthalate/sec.asp?CID=1914&DID=7593.

44. Hugh Taylor, personal communication with author, March 2007.

45. Patricia Hunt, personal communication with author, March 2007. American Chemistry Council, "FAQs: The Safety of Baby Bottles, Nalgene Sports Bottles, and Food Containers Made with Polycarbonate Plastic," www.plastics info.org/s_plasticsinfo/sec_level2_faq.asp?CID=704&DID=2838.

46. Paul Foster, Chemical Heritage Foundation conference, March 2007.

47. For a list of these hospitals, see Health Care Without Harm's website at www .noharm.org/us/pvcDehp/hospitalsreducingpvc.

48. Shanna H. Swan, personal communication with author, March 2007, and Ted Schettler, personal communication with author, August 2008.

CHAPTER 6: THE PERSISTENT AND PERNICIOUS

1. Division of Spell Prevention and Response, Contaminated Site Progrm, "St. Lawrence Island," October 2008, www.dec.state.ak.us/spar/csp/sites/ stlawrence.htm.

2. Mirex, also known as dechlorane, is one of the dozen contaminants subject to restriction under the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants.

3. Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation Contaminated Sites Database, "Cleanup Chronology Report for St. Law NEC Facility Wide," www .dec.state.ak.us/spar/csp/search/IC_Tracking/Site_Report.aspx?Hazard_ID =207.

4. D. O. Carpenter, A. P. DeCaprio, D. O'Hehir, F. Akhtar, G. Johnson, R. J. Scrudato, L. Apatiki, et al., "Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Serum of the Siberian Yupik People from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska," International Journal of Circumpolar Health 64, no. 4 (2005): 322-35.

5. Olivier Humblet, Linda Birnbaum, Eric Rimm, Murray A. Mittelman, and Russ Hauser, "Dioxins and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality," Environmental Health Perspectives 116, no. 11 (2008): 1443-48.

6. U.S. EPA National Center for Environmental Assessment, "Dioxin," June 29, 2007, http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/CFM/nceaQFind.cfm?keyword=Dioxin.

7. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services et al., "Questions and Answers about Dioxins," January 2003, www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/dioxinqa.html.

8. Linda S. Birnbaum, presentation at Dioxin 2007 conference, Tokyo, Japan, September 2007.

9. U.S. EPA Persistent Bioaccumulative and Toxic (PBT) Pollutant Chemical Program, "Dioxins and Furans," January 15, 2008, www.epa.gov/pbt/pubs/ dioxins.htm.

10. Linda S. Birnbaum and Daniele F. Staskal, "Brominated Flame Retardants: Cause for Concern?" Environmental Health Perspectives 112, no.1 (2004): 9-17.

11. Ronald A. Hites, "Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in the Environment and People: A Meta-Analysis of Concentrations," Environmental Science & Technology 38, no. 4 (2004): 945-56.

12. Bromine Science and Environment Forum, "Human Health Research," August 2008, www.bsef.com/env_health. (This website has since been changed and alternate information is now supplied at http://www.bsef.com/our-substances/deca-bde/scientific-studies, where organization now describes the risks posed by deca-BDE as "low and manageable," by TBBPA as "no risk" to human health but toxic to aquatic organisms, and mentions no health or environmental impacts related to HBCD.)

13. Arnold Schecter, Dioxin 2007, Tokyo, September 2007.

14. U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System, "2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-Decabro-modiphenyl ether," July 1, 2008, www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0035.htm.

15. Adrian Covaci, Andreas C. Gerecke, Robin J. Law, Stefan Voorspoels, Martin Kohler, Norbert V Heeb, Heather Leslie, et al., "Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in the Environment and Humans: A Review," Environmental Science & Technology 40, no. 12 (2006): 3679-88.

16. Derek C. G. Muir and Phillip H. Howard, "Are There Other Persistent Organic Pollutants? A Challenge for Environmental Chemists," Environmental Science & Technology 40, no. 23 (2006): 7157-66.

17. K.J. Fernie,J. Laird Shutt, R.J. Letcher, I.J. Ritchie, and D. M. Bird, "Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of DE-71 and HBCD Alter Eggshell Thickness and Reproductive Success of American Kestrels," Environmental Science and Technology 43, no. 6 (2009): 2124-30.

18. Birnbaum and Staskal, "Brominated Flame Retardants."

19. R. F. Cantón, A. A. Peijnenburg, R. L. Hoogenboom, A. H. Piersma, L. T. van der Ven, M. van den Berg, and M. Heneweer, "Subacute Effects of Hexabro-mocyclododecane (HBCD) on Hepatic Gene Expression Profiles in Rats," Tox-icological Applied Pharmacology 231, no. 2 (2008): 267-72.

20. Kellyn Betts, "More Clues to HBCD Isomer Mystery," Environmental Science & Technology 39, no. 7 (2005): 146A-147A.

21. Birnbaum and Staskal, "Brominated Flame Retardants"; see also L. T. van der Ven, T. van de Kuil, A. Verhoef, C. M. Verwer, H. Lilienthal, P. E. Leonards, U. M. Schauer, et al., "Endocrine Effects of Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) in Wistar Rats as Tested in a One-Generation Reproduction Study and a Subacute Toxicity Study," Toxicology 245, nos. 1-2 (2008): 76-89.

22. Janet Raloff, "Allergic to Computing?" Science News, www.sciencenews.org/

view/generic/id/1704/title/Food_for_Thought_Allergic_to_computing%

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