Microbial Communities

For the use of microbes in bioremediation actions, it is mandatory to isolate, cultivate and select strains. Soil bacteria in general can be described as metabolically very heterogenous. At least 150 diverse metabolic pathways and 900 different reactions of bacteria have been revealed (Scheffer and Schachtschabel 2010). Hence, it seems rather a problem of the appropriate screening assay to derive isolates for the desired bioremediation application than to find the corresponding biochemical...

Metal Chelation

Regarding the deleterious effects of heavy metals on the living organisms, it is considered that mainly the osmotically free forms of the metal ions are genuinely toxic, as they are prone to bind nonspecifically to biomolecules or to interfere with the essential metals' metabolism. To avoid the growth impairments caused by the potentially toxic heavy metals, hyperaccummulating plants must possess biochemical defense mechanisms. Plants developed a number of strategies to resist this toxicity,...

Superoxide Dismutase

The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting from Fenton reactions of heavy metals in soil and from metal-loaded humic substances, as well as during chromium reduction (Paciolla et al. 1999 Schutzendubel and Polle 2002 Ramirez-Diaz 2008) is one of the toxic effects of heavy metals. Aerobic bacteria express protective systems, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and peroxi-dase, which can thus be seen as additional resistance mechanisms. On the one hand, SODs buffer metal...

References

Adriano DC (2001) Trace elements in terrestrial environments biogeochemistry, bioavailability, and risks of metals, 2nd edn. Springer, New York Agerer R (2001) Exploration types of ectomycorrhizae - a proposal to classify ectomycorrhizal mycelial systems according to their patterns of differentiation and putative ecological importance. Mycorrhiza 11 107-114 Arnolds E (1988) Dynamics of macrofungi in 2 moist heathlands in Drenthe, the Netherlands. Acta Bot Neerlandica 37 291-305 Baldrian P...

Common Chemicals Involved in Soil Contamination

Soil pollution is caused by chemicals of both organic and inorganic contaminants. The most prominent chemical groups of organic contaminants are fuel hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated aromatic compounds, detergents and pesticides. Inorganic species include nitrates, phosphates and heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium and lead inorganic acids and radionuclides (radioactive substances). Among the sources of these contaminants...

Plant Microbe Interactions in the Rhizosphere

In the era of sustainable crop production, the plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere play an important role in transformation, mobilization, solubilization, etc., of nutrients from a limited nutrient pool, and subsequently uptake of essential nutrients by plants to realize their full genetic potential. An understanding of the mechanisms, which is important for the initiation and establishment of the association between host and bacterium, can be reached from the analyses of influences...

Use of Legumes for Soil Bioremediation

Interactions between mycorrhizal fungi and rhizospheric microorganisms likely influence the soil bioremediation (Turnau et al. 2006). The legume (Fabaceae)-nitrogen-fixing bacteria symbiosis can play a key role. Legumes can be advantageous for phytoremediation of Trzebionka tailings because the substrate is poor in nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus. Legumes are often the first colonizers of poor and degraded soils (Cardinale et al. 2010). The use of human-introduced fertilizers can...

Silene vulgaris

S. cucubalus, Bladder Campion, Aufgeblasenes Leimkraut, Silene enfle) belongs to the subfamily Silenoideae Caryophyllaceae. S. vulgaris occurs all over Europe and has a large ecological amplitude. It prefers, however, light and well-drained rocky or sandy calcareous substrates. It is also able to grow on serpentine and on silicates up to the alpine zone. Various ecotypes have been described that differ in their morphology. According to Korber-Ullrich (1996), the plants...

Metal Content of Plants

Plants that are used for phytostabilization of the tailings, which are rich in potentially toxic metals, should be chosen over those that are heavy metal excluders so as to avoid introduction of these elements into the food chain. To evaluate the phytostabilization potential of plants introduced into the tailing of ZG Trzebionka or being established during natural succession, total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was employed (Turnau et al. 2010). Among 24 investigated plants, four grass...

Sources of Soil Contamination

Ecosystems have been polluted with diverse kinds of chemicals which are released by various human and natural activities. Excessive levels of inorganic fertilizer related chemicals introduced into soil, such as ammonia, nitrates, phosphates which accumulate there or lead to contamination of water courses and air, have resulted in noteworthy environmental damage. Metals such as lead, arsenic, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel and mercury are continuously being added to our soils through various...

Arabidopsis arenosa L Lawalre 12411 Biology and Ecology

Cardaminopsis arenosa) commonly occurs on nutrient-poor, non-metalliferous skeletous soils, e.g., dry grasslands, roadsides, sandy areas, and in heavy metal polluted sites (Banasova et al. 2006). Przedpelska and Wierzbicka (2007) tested A. arenosa plants originating from a Zn-Pb-Cd metalliferous site, in laboratory conditions and they found significant heritable morphological differences between the metallicolous and non-metallicolous populations. It seems that the only data on...

Bioremediation and Heavy Metal Uptake Microbial Approaches at Field Scale

Frank Schindler, Matthias Gube, and Erika Kothe Pollution of the biosphere with toxic heavy metals is a widespread ecological problem resulting from anthropogenic activities such as fossil fuel burning, ore mining and smeltering, industrial and municipal waste disposal, and agricultural activities (Nriagu 1979 Adriano 2001 Kratz and Schnug 2006). In Western Europe alone, about 300,000 sites have been contaminated with heavy metals (Gade 2000 McGrath et al. 2006). The retention time of metals in...

Heavy Metal Effects on Transcriptomics of ECM Fungi

Detoxification mechanisms in the mycobiont are probably achieved via several physiological processes rather than through a single mechanism (Hartley et al. 1997). This is seen in studies with EST (expressed sequence tags) data of Cd-treated mycelium of Paxillus involutus (Jacob et al. 2004) and microarrays of Table 10.1 Differential gene expression was observed for gene fragments by Northern blot analyses after growth of the ECM fungus Tricholoma vaccinum in 0.5 mM NiCl2-containing Table 10.1...