Hepatitis Ebook

Alternative Hepatitis C Treatments

The therapeutic goals of Natural treatment for Hepatitis C are as follows: Decrease iral load Normalize liver enzyme levels. Enhance/regulate immune system function. Strengthen and promote healthy liver function. Protect the liver, prevent further damage. Virological response; i.e. viral clearance, viral reduction or elimination of the virus. Starve the virus by limiting levels of iron. Optimizing cellular levels of glutathione in the body, making detoxification of the liver possible and enhancing the immune system. Stimulate regeneration of the damaged liver cells. Use of antioxidants to combat the effects of free-radicals generated by the virus. Reduce inflammation. Slow viral replication. Replace all of the inflammation-damaged liver cells. Regulate immune function/prevent auto-immune problems. Cancer preventative measures. Reverse fibrosis to prevent and improve cirrhosis

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Two outbreaks of liver toxicity in two factories

Chloroform poisoning has been reported in two factories in Singapore. Thirteen workers from a factory manufacturing electrical household goods were diagnosed with viral hepatitis between October 1973 and July 1974. They all had jaundice and all but two had anorexia, nausea and vomiting. The occupational nurse noticed that all the victims worked in the same part of the factory. An open container of a degreaser containing 99.5 chloroform and 0.5 ethanol was found in this area. The air concentration of chloroform was more than 400 ppm. Blood concentrations in nine workers, five with jaundice and four others were 1.0-2.9 mg l (Phoon et al., 1975). Another 11 cases of infectious hepatitis were diagnosed between May and August 1980, with a further five between November 1980 and October 1981 in workers at a factory making cassette recorders and digital clock radios. Again all the cases were from the same department where chloroform was applied to plastic casings. The plastic melted and the...

Occupational exposure

A 40 year old man presented to hospital with abdominal pain, nausea and headache two weeks after starting work as a fabric coating machine operator. He stated that other workers suffered similar effects. Liver function tests showed an elevated AST. Alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin concentrations at this time were normal. Tests for hepatitis A IgM antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen were negative. An abdominal ultrasound was normal. He was thought to have toxic hepatitis and was removed from his work his symptoms resolved. The ALT was elevated at three times normal 3.5 months later. A liver biopsy showed changes consistent with resolving toxic injury, including evidence of diffuse regeneration, binucleated hepatocytes and variation in nuclear size. There was also spotty unicellular necrosis, enlarged Kupffer cells within the sinusoids and diffuse steatosis. There was no evidence of chronic disease. Transaminase concentrations returned to normal 6 months after removal from...

Statistics of Water Borne Diseases

The World Heath Organization (WHO) reported that 80 of diseases and one third of deaths in developing countries are due to consumption of contaminated water. According to UNICEF, 3.8 million children under the age of 5 years died in 1993 from diarrhoeal diseases worldwide. On a global basis, around two million deaths per year are attributed to waterborne diseases and especially diarrhea in children (Gordon et al. 2004) . It has been estimated that around 37.7 million Indians are affected annually by waterborne diseases such as viral Hepatitis, Cholera, Jaundice and Typhoid. 1.5 million Children are estimated to die of diarrhea alone and 73 million working days are lost due to waterborne diseases each year. Figure 14.1 and Table 14.2 reflects the cases of waterborne diseases like diarrhea and cholera occurring in various states of India.

Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance

In 1982, 656 foodborne outbreaks with 19,380 cases and 24 deaths were reported to the U.S. PHS CDC.38 The most frequently isolated bacterial pathogens were Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium botulinum, hepatitis A virus, and Norwalk virus. The latter two viruses accounted for 21 outbreaks and 5,325 cases. The most common contributing factors were (1) improper holding temperature, (2) food from an

Management of Hospital Wastes with Potential Pathogenic Microbes

Abstract With respect to health and environmental hazards, healthcare waste has been identified as the second most hazardous waste after radioactive waste. Biomedical waste is potentially associated with pathogenic micro-organisms and various types of infections such as gastroenteric infections, respiratory infections, ocular infections, genital infections, skin infections, anthrax, meningitis, AIDS, haemor-rhagic fevers, septicaemia, bacteraemia, candidaemia, hepatitis A, B and C. According to World Health Organisation (WHO), the reuse of infectious syringes contributes to about eight million Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), more than 2.3 million Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and about 80,000 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections per year worldwide. Various types of hospital wastes that cause infection are - human and animal anatomical wastes, micro-biology and bio-technology wastes, waste sharps, soiled solid wastes and liquid wastes, etc. The diseases are spread through direct human...

Populations That Are Unusually Susceptible

No specific population that would be particularly susceptible to chlorophenol intoxication has been identified. Because of the extensive hepatic conjugation and renal clearance of these compounds, individuals with liver or kidney dysfunction may be the most sensitive population. The results of recent studies indicate that individuals with cirrhosis of the liver (Macdonald et al. 1992 Ohta 1991) or hepatitis (Ohta 1991) show impaired Phase II conjugation. Chronic renal failure is associated with the inability to clear conjugated metabolites, resulting in elevated, steady-state whole body concentrations of glucuronide and sulfate metabolites (Martin et al. 1991). Patients with acute tubular necrosis, with or without cirrhosis, show markedly elevated urinary -glucuronidase concentrations (Solis-Herruzo et al. 1986) and, theoretically, a high body burden of unconjugated metabolites. These data suggest that

Molecular epidemiological studies of aflatoxin and human liver cancer

HCC is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and there is a striking geographic variation in incidence. For example, in the People's Republic of China, HCC accounts for over 300,000 deaths annually, the third leading cause of cancer mortality.5 During the 1960s and 1970s, several epidemiolog-ical studies were conducted in Asia and Africa that showed there was an association between high aflatoxin exposure, estimated by sampling foodstuffs or by dietary questionnaires, and increased incidence of HCC.6 While these early studies could not account for additional factors such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, this information provided a strong motivation to further investigate the circumstantial relationship between aflatoxin ingestion and liver cancer incidence. The use of biomarkers in cohort studies has clearly shown the chemical-viral interaction in the induction of HCC. However, aflatoxin exposure in the absence of chronic hepatitis B infection is...

Aflatoxin exposure and HBV infection in children

The use of biomarkers in cohort studies has clearly shown the chemical-viral interaction in the induction of HCC. However, aflatoxin exposure in the absence of chronic hepatitis B infection is also etiologically associated with liver cancer. These findings provide the compelling basis to increase efforts in HBV immunization programs and in the development of concerted programs to lower dietary aflatoxin exposure as means of lowering human cancer risk. These epidemiological studies have also compelled the case to understand if a mechanistic interaction between HBV infection and enhanced aflatoxin metabolism. Early studies in adults infected with HBV and exposed to aflatoxin showed no interaction between these two risk

Recent Advances in Detection

There have been significant advances in virus tests. It is now possible to look for their genetic material without waiting for them to grow. The reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) can be used to look for specific pathogens and a variety of viruses in marine environments. The following viruses have been found in marine environments (1) enteroviruses, which are polio, coxsackie, and echoviruses (2) hepatitis A (3) adenovirus (4) Norwalk virus and (5) rotavirus. These viruses cause a veritable laundry list of illnesses. The tests are reasonably fast (about a day) but costly (about 1000 per assay if you add up all the costs), and they require highly trained operators. I estimate that there are one dozen people in the United States who could probably perform the test without additional training or experience. Many more could learn, if given a detailed protocol. There are only a few published reports of using this method with marine samples, one being that of Griffin...

Occurrence of inflammatory episodes

Acute or chronic inflammatory response. In addition, there are many diseases or conditions that are associated with tissue inflammation, among which are arthritis, hepatitis, atherosclerosis, asthma, and others. Finally, studies over the last two decades indicate that we commonly experience episodic exposure to bacterial endotoxin, a potent initiator of inflammation.

Cases of acute mycotoxicosis in humans

Over past centuries the presence of mycotoxin, mainly aflatoxin and trichothe-cenes in food, has been reported to recurrently cause outbreak of acute intoxication even resulting in death. The most recent was reported in 2004 in eastern Kenya, where, due to aflatoxin contamination of home-grown maize, 317 cases of acute hepatic failure were identified with 125 cases occurring in persons who subsequently died. The case-control study conducted by Azziz-Baumgartner et al. in 2005 68 proved that aflatoxin concentration in maize, serum AFB1-lysine adducts concentrations and positive hepatitis B surface antigen titres were all associated with the case status. In addition, it was found that male mortality due to aflatoxicosis was higher than female mortality, similarly to that found for the 1974 outbreak of aflatoxicosis in India 69 . From an outbreak of hepatitis associated with consumption of corn contaminated with aflatoxins, over 100 deaths occurred in India in 1976, the ingested dose...

Impact of Mussel Consumption to Human Health 9441 Beneficial Effects If Mussel Consumption

By 2002, fish fisheries and aquaculture products contributed 12 to the total protein for human consumption, although there are no detailed global statistics on the provision of other essential minerals and components, FAO (2006). The total content of minerals in raw marine fish and invertebrates is in the range of 0.6-1.5 wet weight, Ozden et al. (2010). An epidemiological study in Japan showed that seafood was the largest source of vitamin B6 (16-23 of the total intake) and B12 (77-84 ) in the diet, Yoshino et al. (2005) . Many species of fish and shellfish are rich sources of Omega 3 fatty acids, Ackman et al. (2000) and the health benefits associated with the consumption of seafood products are particularly important for the prevention of heart-related diseases and for many vulnerable groups, such as infants and children, and pregnant and lactating women, Cozzolino et al. (2001), Christophoridis et al. (2009) and the positive impact of seafood consumption on bone mineral density...

Epidemic Control At The Individual Level

Prohibitions save thousands of lives each year.19 Condom use and the availability of sterile syringes have been shown to reduce the incidence of HIV, hepatitis, and other sexually transmitted and injection-borne infections.20 In order to reduce West Nile virus infection from mosquito bites, the use of personal insect repellent and staying indoors at dusk (when the disease carrying insects were active) is encouraged in epidemic areas.21 Hand washing by foodservice staff also prevents transmission of foodborne diseases, as do industrial hygiene standards for food processing and inspections of facilities.22 Protective masks are recommended for tuberculosis patients, and gain widespread public use during the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).23 During the twentieth century, the burdens of many infectious diseases were drastically reduced due to widespread vaccination campaigns. Smallpox, the only infectious disease to have been actively eradicated by human beings, was...

Indicators Of Fecal Contamination Coliform And Streptococci Bacteria

Detecting and preventing fecal contamination is of prime importance for all drinking water systems and recreation water managers. Fecal wastes may contain enteric pathogens (disease-causing organisms from the intestines of warm-blooded animals) such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoans (which include Cryptosporidium and Giardia). Fecal contaminated water is a common cause of gastrointestinal illness, including diarrhea, dysentery, ulcers, fatigue, and cramps. It also may carry pathogens that cause a host of other serious diseases, such as cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A, meningitis, and myocarditis.

Source And Protection Of Water Supply General

Surface-water supplies are all subject to continuous or intermittent pollution and must be treated to make them safe to drink. One never knows when the organisms causing typhoid fever, gastroenteritis, giardiasis, infectious hepatitis A, or dysentery, in addition to organic and inorganic pollutants, may be discharged or washed into the water source. The extent of the treatment required will depend on the results of a sanitary survey made by an experienced professional, including physical, chemical, and microbiological analyses. The minimum required treatments are coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and chlorina-tion, unless a conditional waiver is obtained from the regulatory agency. If more elaborate treatment is needed, it would be best to abandon the idea of using a surface-water supply and resort to a protected groundwater supply if possible and practical. Where a surface supply must be used, a reservoir or a lake that provides at least 30 days actual detention,...

Monoclonal Antibodies

A well-documented example of a plant-produced antibody is the tobacco expressed secreted form of the Guy' s 13 antibody directed against the adhesion protein of caries-causing S. mutans, which yielded 500 g recombinant protein per gram fresh weight. This plant-derived antibody successfully prevented oral colonization by S. mutans in a human trial '82 . Other examples of therapeutic and diagnostic plantibodies include those directed against cancer epitopes, such as carcinoembryonic antigen and colon cancer surface antigen. An anti-herpex simplex virus (HSV) antibody made in soybeans has been shown to prevent HSV transmission in animal models '83 . Again, despite this promise, currently only one PMP monoclonal antibody is approved for use, CB-Hep1, that is used in the manufacture of a hepatitis vaccine in Cuba.

Molecular epidemiology of human cancer and DNA adducts

And hepatocellular carcinoma also taking into consideration the markers for hepatitis B virus.33-35 There was a strong interaction between markers of chronic hepatitis B infection and aflatoxin exposure in liver cancer risk. The importance of reducing the carcinogen exposure in prevention of liver cancer was clearly demonstrated. Therefore, DNA adducts are likely to be more closely associated with human tumor risk than other internal markers.26

Underlying inflammation and sensitivity to toxicants

Or other causes may in part determine the severity of aflatoxicosis in human cases. In addition to causing acute hepatotoxicity, aflatoxin B1 is a human and animal carcinogen. Several epidemiological studies have found that people with hepatitis have a greater risk of developing hepatocellular carcinomas from dietary aflatoxin B1.20-23 Since a defining feature of hepatitis is an hepatic inflammatory response, it may be that concurrent inflammation predisposes people to the carcinogenic effects of this fungal toxin.


Approximately half of 24 deaths observed in 2,061 Yu-Cheng victims by the end of 1983 were attributed to hepatoma, cirrhosis, or unspecified liver diseases with hepatomegaly (Hsu et al. 1985). Diagnoses were made from clinical symptoms and unspecified laboratory examinations. These findings are inconclusive due to unreported incidences and comparison values and high prevalences of hepatitis B, cirrhosis, and liver cancer in Taiwan (Rogan et al. 1989).

Water Disinfection

Typically, breakdown of documented problem outbreaks identifies acute gastroenteritis as responsible for 47 of cases hepatitis follows with 13 , then shigellosis with 13 , ciardiasis with 12 , chemical poisoning with 8 , typhoid fever with 4 and salmonellosis with 2 . Sources of contaminated water can be traced to semipublic water systems in 55 of cases municipal water systems implicated in 31 of cases and the remainder (14 ) ascribed to individual water systems.


Antigen(s) Foreign substance(s) inducing the formation of antibodies. In some vaccines, the antigen is highly defined (e.g., pneumococcal polysaccharide, hepatitis B surface antigen, tetanus, or diphtheria toxoids) in others, it is complex or incompletely defined (e.g., killed pertussis bacteria live, attenuated viruses).1 Antibodies are specific substances formed by the body in response to stimulation by antigens.

Disease Hazard

The waterborne microbiological agents of greatest concern are pathogenic bacteria, viruses, helminths, protozoa, and spirochetes. Infectious bacterial agents are associated with shigellosis and salmonella infections, while viral agents are associated with infectious hepatitis A, viral gastroenteritis, and other enteric viral diseases. Helminths are associated with ascariasis, taeniasis, dracunculiasis, trichuriasis, toxocariasis, enterobiasis, and other illnesses. Protozoa are associated with amebiasis and giardiasis, while spirochetes are associated with leptospirosis.


The first instance ofa vaccine being made in plants was in 1990 when a patent was filed for a Streptococcus mutans protein (SpaA) expressed in tobacco. Since then, many other vaccines (e.g., cholera toxin B, Hepatitis virus surface antigen, Plasmodium surface protein) have been produced, and multiple different plant species (e.g., tomato, potato, banana, and rice) have been used, particularly as an edible host is needed for oral administration. An important scientific milestone was when the E. coli heat labile enterotoxin (LT-B) was expressed in potatoes and was shown to be orally immunogenic when 5 g of transformed tuber was fed to mice over 18 days '70 ' However how this might translate to an effective dose in humans is not yet established. Numerous other workers have since demonstrated for animal models that oral or injected immunization with plant-produced antigen would provide protection against diseases such as Yersinia pestis 71 , or Avian Influenza Virus 72 .

Chronic effects

Symptoms from chronic carbon tetrachloride exposure are similar to those seen in acute exposure (see above). With long-term chronic exposure to low concentrations of carbon tetrachloride, both kidney and liver injury occur. However the milder the exposure, the greater the tendency for predominantly liver effects (Reid, 2001). Toxic hepatitis and cirrhosis have been reported after chronic exposure to high concentrations of carbon tetrachloride (ATSDR, 1992a). Persistent nausea should prompt an evaluation of liver function for toxic hepatitis.