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Table 12 physical characteristics influencing the duration and magnitude of exposure for the major environmental

In ecotoxicology, a great deal of research effort has been focused on understanding the relationships between chemicals and soil, sediment, and water properties. The models and methods developed from this work are likely to be broadly applicable to exposure assessments for mixtures, although work is needed to validate this assumption. The importance of food chain transfer as an exposure route is greatly influenced by the properties of the chemical involved (e.g., persistence) and the physiology of the species within the particular food web. For example, Hendriks et al. (2001) modeled bioaccumulation of organic chemicals and Hendriks and Heikens (2001) modeled metal accumulation and demonstrated the need to include both chemical properties (log Kow in case of organic chemicals) and species characteristics (body size, metabolic rate, trophic position, route of exposure) in order to allow for an effective assessment of bioaccumulation.

What Causes Oxidative Stress

Oxygen is essential not only for energy metabolism and respiration it also plays a role in degenerative processes (Marx 1987). It is a biradical, which means that it has two unpaired electrons with parallel spins (see Table 4.1). While oxygen does have unpaired electrons, which would normally make it rather reactive, the fact that

Environmental Stress Responses

Exposure of microorganisms to harsh physico-chemical parameters such as extreme temperatures, caustic chemicals, and other stresses can be thought to bring out a myriad of physiological responses such as changes in the membrane properties, decrease in metabolic rates, denaturation of vital proteins etc. Bacterial strains which are exposed to changing environmental conditions are likely to respond by effecting changes in the fatty acid composition of membrane lipids so as to protect themselves from substrate toxicity and membrane damage. This phenomenon has

Toxicodynamics 241 General Aspects

Toxicodynamics is the study of the toxic actions on living systems, including the reactions with and binding to cell constitutents, and the biochemical and physiological consequences of these actions (IUPAC 1997). In many respects, the level of complexity of toxicodynamics in ecotoxicology can be perceived as far higher than in human toxicology. The main argument is the simple fact that ecology is dealing with a large number of species interacting in a dynamic environment and human toxicology is only dealing with humans (as covered in detail in Section 2.2.2). In terms of effects, the interest for humans is usually in very specific endpoints, such as individual birth weight, tumor induction and growth, liver or any target organ necrosis, or even enzyme induction. Hence, in human TD research the endpoints of main interest are usually very specific, and with a mechanistic link to the effect of interest and preferably at the precursor level. Contrastingly, ecotoxicology usually deals...

Mechanisms of Toxicity

Particularly for the higher chlorophenols, the primary toxic mechanism associated with exposure is the uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (Farquharson et al. 1958 Weinbach and Garbus 1965). Although the kinetics of chlorophenol-induced uncoupling have primarily been studied in in vitro mitochondrial preparations, the associated metabolic effects (such as increased body temperature and dyspnea) have been verified in vivo (Farquharson et al. 1958). The ability of chlorophenols to uncouple oxidative phosphorylation increases with increasing chlorination. Toxic manifestations include central nervous system depression followed by increased respiration, hyperthermia, a blood pressure rise, progressive neuromuscular weakness, and cyanosis. The results of a number of in vitro studies (Cascorbi and Ahlers 1989 Izushi et al. 1988 Mitsuda et al. 1963 Narasimhan et al. 1992 Shannon et al. 1991 Stockdale and Selwyn 1971) indicate a concentration-dependent triphasic effect of...

Interfering with the Mechanism of Action for Toxic Effects

The mechanism of toxic action for 2-CP or 4-CP is not known. Although these chemicals may be weak uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, inconsistent findings of increased metabolic rate after exposure suggest that this mechanism may not be the mechanism of greatest consequence (Angel and Rogers 1972 Farquharson et al. 1958 Weinbach and Garbus 1965). Convulsive seizures, of unknown origin, are the most characteristic clinical signs of acute overdose (Angel and Rogers 1972 Borzelleca et al. 1985a). Treatment for the prevention of seizures includes the common anticonvulsant sequence of diazepam, phenytoin, and phenobarbital (Bronstein and Currance 1988 Ellenhorn and Barceloux 1988). The use of anticonvulsants on infants and children must be closely monitored to prevent overdosage and toxic effects of drugs.

Oxidative stress and oxidative damage

Lipids are also damaged under conditions of increased oxidative stress. Many studies demonstrate an increase in malondialdehyde, a lipid oxidation product produced when oxidative stress increases. The definitive nature of the malondialdehyde products are not yet known, but it is clear that lipid oxidation occurs under many conditions of increased oxidative stress. Recent rigorous characterization of lipid oxidation products shows that 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) is a lipid oxidation breakdown product, which has potent biological action. HNE mediates glutathione consumption and inactivates glutathione peroxidase in cultured cells. HNE reacts with lysine residues on proteins9 and HNE-protein adducts are present in normal human kidney, in human kidney cancer,10 and in rat kidney cells following iron overload.11 Humphries and Szweda12 demonstrated that HNE selectively inactivates a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (a-KGDH). This enzyme is critical as a rate-limiting complex in mitochondrial...

Herbicide translocation and plasmodesmata in older plants

Older plants have greater dry mass, leaf area, and, consequently, a greater transpiratory rate. For example, consider a barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli) seedling with 3 - 4 leaves, when herbicide is typically applied, and another plant at the stage of 2 - 3 tillers both plants may present high metabolic rates because they are in full growth, but the numerical volume of acropetal water flow is surely higher in the plant at the stage of 2 - 3 tillers under the same environmental conditions (Taiz & Zeiger, 2004). When using a soil-applied herbicide, which is absorbed by the roots of both plants, it would be efficiently translocated via xylem due to the high transpiratory flow in both plants. However, the barnyard grass plant at the stage of 2 - 3 tillers is less susceptible to the herbicide than the plant with 2 - 4 leaves. Besides the causes already discussed by Vidal et al. (2002), in mature cells in a plant in active growth, the SEL of plasmodesmata is smaller and herbicide...

Bacterial Responses to Oil Contamination Functional Diversity

The other part of our investigation consists of estimating the metabolic response to the presence of pollutant, especially its biodegradation potential. For this purpose, we investigated the diversity of two families of genes coding for enzymes involved in hydrocarbon biodegradation. The genes for naphtalene dioxygenase and benzyl succinate synthase were chosen as model genes for aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation, respectively.

General Considerations

Studies have clearly demonstrated that dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria can use Fe(ffl) and Mn(IV) as electron acceptors for energy metabolism under anaerobic conditions, leading to formation of the reduced forms, Fe(H) and Mn(II).2 Thus, bacteria may not only create the reducing conditions required for iron and manganese reductions, but may also benefit from direct involvement in the reductions.

Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect

Toxicokinetic studies with chlorophenols have been conducted in humans, mice, rats, rabbits, and dogs (Azouz et al. 1953 Bray et al. 1952a, 1952b Exon and Koller 1982 Fenske et al. 1987 Hattula et al. 1981 Phornchirasilp et al. 1989a Somani and Khalique 1982 Spencer and Williams 1950). The results of these studies provide a limited profile of toxicokinetics information after oral exposure. These results do not adequately characterize the metabolic rate differences between the various isomers. More comprehensive toxicokinetic studies using radiolabelled isomers administered at several dose levels in two rodent species and one or more nonrodents are needed. These data may be supplemented by hepatic and renal biopsy data and urinary metabolite analysis obtained in exposed individuals.

Bioavailability of Selenium

Se speciation, mobility, bioavailability, and uptake in soil-plant systems are very much affected by the presence of microorganisms in the environment through the control of Se oxidation states (Fernandez-Martinez and Charlet, 2009) Bacteria can use selenate and selenite as terminal electron acceptors in energy metabolism, or they can reduce and incorporate Se into organic compounds The dissimilatory process by which the selenium oxya-nions are used during the respiration of organic carbon has been shown in several bacteria strains (Macy, Lawson, and Demolldecker, 1993 Zhang, Zahir, and Frankenberger, 2003). Some produce elemental Se nanospheres that accumulate inside and outside the bacteria cell wall (Oremland et al , 2004). Most of the gaseous Se is in a dimethylselenide form, which is the product of soil microbial activity (Siddique et al ., 2006) . Soil factors that influence the volatilization of Se through the direct control of microorganism methylation reactions are pH,...

Table 21 The parameters most frequently used in human and mammalian pBTK models

Partition coefficients can be estimated using in vitro approaches such as ultracen-trifugation or equilibrium dialysis, or in silico approaches that are mechanistically based (Haddad et al. 2000a Poulin et al. 2001 Poulin and Theil 2002 Rodgers et al. 2005 Rodgers and Rowland 2006) or that use QSAR approaches (Fouchecourt et al. 2001 Beliveau et al. 2003, 2005 Beliveau and Krishnan 2005). The mac-romolecular binding parameters, which can greatly influence the distribution of a chemical in blood and tissues, can usually be determined by the same in vitro techniques. Many in vitro models are used to determine the values of biochemical parameters for example, metabolic rate constants (i.e., intrinsic clearance, Vmax, Km) can be determined using isolated hepatocytes, microsomal fractions, cytosolic fractions, or postmitochondrial fractions preparation. Many of these approaches for determining values for hepatic clearance parameters in vitro have been successfully extrapolated to in vivo...

Arsenic Toxicity of Food Chain

Arsenic being an carcinogenic element interferers with the cellular components in living creatures. Therefore, long-term intake of arsenic contaminated water and food would cause severe damage to the various metabolic systems in the living body. Arsenic (e.g., As3+) is a potentially hazardous toxic element that interacts with sulfhydryl groups of proteins and enzymes (to denature the proteins and enzymes within the cells Gebel 2000 Graeme and Pollack 1998) and reactive oxygen species in the cells, consequently causing cell damage (Ahmed et al. 2006). Arsenic can interfere with essential enzymatic functions and transcriptional events in cells, leading ultimately to multitude of multisystemic noncancer effects that might ensue (NRC 1995). For example, oxidative stress induced by trivalent methylated arsenicals inhibits glutathione (GSH) reductase (Styblo et al. 1997) and thioredoxin reductase (Lin et al. 1999) with subsequent impairment of cellular protective mechanism against oxidants....

Phytoremediation Strategies for Overcoming Salinity Problems and Use of Halophytes as Companion Plants

In recent years, salinity has become the most important issue in fields, gardens and greenhouses as well. This, of course, has forced us to control saline areas, and therefore, many control mechanisms that have been put forward. Many of them (genetics, biochemical and physical) have not brought the desired success. Since salt is due to irrigation and natural causes, so, alternative control mechanisms should be provided. Recent advancement in this area is to obtain quick results from saline-affected areas without damaging the environment, and add these areas into the arable lands. One of those amelioration procedures is phytoremediation, which is an environmental-friendly green technology that is cost-effective and energetically inexpensive (Shah and Nongkynrih 2007). This procedure is generally performed by using halophytes which are known for their ability to adapt to salinity by altering their energy metabolism (Winicov and Bastola 1997). Adaptation of halophytes to salinity is...

Enzyme Protein Concentration In Soils

Enzyme activities are associated with active microorganisms because the microbial biomass is considered the primary source of enzymes in soils. Nevertheless, there is no direct correlation between the size of the microbial biomass and its metabolic state (69). One approach to estimate the metabolic state of microbial populations in soils is to differentiate between intra- and extracellular enzyme activities. Among the many attempts that have been made to determine the state of enzymes in soils are techniques that employ elevated and decreased temperatures antiseptic agents such as toluene, ethanol, Triton X-100, dimethyl sulfoxide irradiation with gamma rays or electron beams and fumigation with compounds such as chloropicrin, methylbromide, and chloromycetin (2,3,8,70,71). None of these methods can distinguish between intracellular (activity associated with the micro-bial biomass) and extracellular activity (that portion stabilized in the three-dimentional network of clay-organic...

Biofilms And Corrosion

Biofilm Corrosion

It is equally important to consider the fact that documenting the presence of microorganisms on a corroded metallic surface, even if they are species known to produce metabolic by-products aggressive toward metals, is not sufficient evidence for their contribution to the corrosion process 17 . Similarly, the number of biofilm microorganisms detected at a corroded site does not necessarily correlate with the extent of corrosion 18 , It has been argued that the active metabolic capability of the microbes is most likely the key contributing parameter. To date, no direct evidence of a relationship between specific microbial metabolic rates and observed corrosion rates has been demonstrated, although emerging data strongly indicate that such a relationship exists 19-20 ,

Enzyme Assays And Their Effect On Data Interpretation

The soil sample itself prior to quantification, must be prevented. As is documented in the following section, there is a delicate balance between the amount of enzymatic activity and enzyme molecules, cellular metabolic state, and substrate (or inducer) level. A slight change in the soil physical structure can result in a significant change in quantity of enzyme in a soil sample in an assay mixture as a result of induction of new activity or enzyme repression. This variation in enzyme activity could result from liberation of substrate, inducers, or inhibitors from the soil matrix by disruption of the soil structure. Thus, appropriate design of a study of soil enzymes must include an appreciation of not only the basic traits of the enzyme reaction itself but also the ways that the soil properties may alter the measured activity.

Chemical Processes Involved in the Bioremediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils

Bioremediation involves the use of microorganisms to aid with the destruction of contaminants, a process called microbial metabolism. This process involves biochemical reactions or pathways that result in organism activity and growth, as well as the reproduction of the organism. The chemical processes involved in microbial metabolism make use of reactants, contaminants, oxygen, or other electron acceptors to convert metabolites to well-defined products. The microbial metabolism system enables organisms to retrieve carbon, electrons, and other vital components to survive. In some cases, the contaminant may be transformed while the microorganisms seek other sources of energy or carbon. This reaction is described as cometabolism, indicating that the transformation of the contaminant yields little or no benefit to the cell. Secondary utilization is another way to describe a nonben-eficial biotransformation. This transformation of the contaminant is an incidental reaction that is catalyzed...

Noninfectious And Noncommunicable Diseases And Conditions Associated With The Water Environment

Flow Diagram The Lotus Outbreak 1997

Group 2 includes heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, barium, nickel, vanadium, selenium, beryllium. These metals do not degrade they are very toxic and may build up in exposed vegetation, animals, fish, and shellfish. Some of them (e.g., lead, mercury, cadmium, and beryllium) have no role in human metabolism and are inhibitors of enzymes at very low concentrations. As poisons, they can affect the functions of various organs (e.g., kidney, liver, brain) and damage the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and gastrointestinal tract. Children and pregnant women are especially vulnerable. The levels of heavy metals in drinking water are highly regulated. Heavy metals variably appear in many manufactured products, including metal goods and electronic devices, as well as naturally occurring minerals and coal deposits. Hence, there is ample opportunity for contamination of natural waters through runoff from insecure

Ecotoxicology

Pyrethrins and pyrethroids are broad spectrum insecticides, and as such they may also impact on beneficial insects, such as parasitoids, predators and bees.37 They are also highly toxic to aquatic organisms which are generally more susceptible to pyrethroids than terrestrial organisms (see Table 3.2).165,166 Birds rapidly eliminate pyrethroids via ester hydrolysis and oxidation, and generally eliminate the insecticides two to three times faster than mammals.166 The lower toxicity and higher elimination rate is most likely a function of the higher metabolic rates of birds.

Metabolism

No data were located regarding metabolism of CDFs in humans. However, some information can be derived from Yusho and Yu-Cheng patients. These subjects ingested contaminated rice oil in which 40 different CDF congeners were identified. As indicated in Section 2.3.2.2, analysis of hepatic adipose tissues of some patients revealed the presence of highly chlorinated congeners and congeners that lacked adjacent unsubstituted carbon atoms (Chen et al. 1985b Masuda et al. 1985). This indicates that the presence of unsubstituted adjacent carbon atoms favors metabolism, which is consistent with data for other chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. Highly chlorinated congeners have slower metabolic rates, possibly due to steric hindrance. The main conclusions regarding metabolic transformation of CDFs are that chlorine substituents in positions four or six, in addition to the lateral positions, inhibit metabolism more than chlorines in positions one and nine, and that metabolic rate strongly...

Arsenic Toxicity

Arsenate inhibits ATP synthesis by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation leading to the breakdown of energy metabolism. Arsenate may also replace phosphate in substituted monosaccharides 1 . The toxicity of arsenic in aquatic plants is a function of pH and usually decreases with increasing pH. In addition, phosphate addition produces an opposite effect on the toxicity of arsenic to the aquatic plants. This is thought to be a result of competition of phosphate with arsenate for uptake.

Alkyl Phenols

Thyroid hormones such as thyroxine not only control metabolic rates but are also involved in regulation and differentiation of the developing central nervous system (Waring and Haris 2005). Lesser recognized, but just as important, are substances that hamper with thyroid and androgen hormones. Antiandrogens, like the fungicide vinclozolin, produce males with malformed organs and female characteristics. Opposite effects are seen in fish exposed to the growth steroid trenbolone and plant steroid compounds found in pulp and paper mill effluent. Both masculanize, producing females with male attributes. The reproductive and immune function in Baltic seals, were adversely affected on exposure to organochlorines ensuing in marked population declines. These seals exhibit a compromised endocrine system, but precise mechanisms of action remain unclear. Eggshell thinning and altered gonadal development have been observed in birds of prey exposed to dichlorodiphe-nyltrichloroethane, resulting in...

Resistance

Insect resistance is dependent on the volume and frequency of applications of insecticides and the inherent characteristics of the insect species. Resistance to pyrethroids comes in two forms (1) non-metabolic resistance through the decreased sensitivity or reduction in the number of voltage-gated sodium channels, and (2) metabolic resistance via detoxifying enzymes, oxidases and decreased cuticle penetration. There are four mechanisms by which resistance is expressed (1) decreased sensitivity of the sodium channels due to altered structure, (2) decreased sensitivity to pyrethroids through a change in the kinetics of the channel, (3) reduced number of channels available for pyre-throids to bind, and (4) altered lipid membrane around the nerve.103 The main form of non-metabolic resistance is the kdr and super-kdr mutations.104 Farnham105 first demonstrated that kdr resistance is caused by a recessive gene, and characterized it as resistance to the knockdown effect (i.e., it lowers the...

Boost Your Metabolism and Burn Fat

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