Hydrogen Safety

Like any other fuel or energy carrier hydrogen poses risks if not properly handled or controlled. The risk of hydrogen, therefore, must be considered relative to the common fuels such as gasoline, propane, or natural gas. The specific physical characteristics of hydrogen are quite different from those common fuels. Some of those properties make hydrogen potentially less hazardous, while other hydrogen characteristics could theoretically make it more dangerous in certain situations. Since...

Product Development

Product development from recycled materials is a must to maximize the benefits. This leads to a number of economic opportunities to remanufacture products with the recovered material. Just as market forces cannot be ignored when introducing a new product, they must also be taken into account when introducing remanufactured products. The market analysis for these products may be more difficult than new ones because customers are more concerned with product durability and cost of maintenance. The...

Municipal Solid Waste

Municipal solid waste is considered one of the major environmental problem all over the world, especially in developing countries. Solid waste in general can be classified into industrial solid waste, agricultural solid waste and municipal solid waste. Municipal solid waste (MSW) consists of hazardous and nonhazardous waste. It is a fact that solid waste composition differs from one community to another according to their culture and socioeconomic level. However, solving the problem in rural...

The Road Ahead

An organized attempt is urgently needed to re-think environmental priorities and think of new strategies in the developing countries to safeguard the comfortable survival of millions of people in these countries. The legal, social, and the technological issues need to be harmonized to evolve such strategies. The systems approach advocated by industrial ecology is criti- cally necessary to optimize the use of resources in these countries. For a discussion of the use of industrial ecological...

Rotary Kiln Incinerator

The rotary kiln is often used in solid liquid waste incineration because of its versatility in processing solid, liquid, and containerized wastes. The kiln is refractory-lined. The shell is mounted at a slight incline (about 5 degrees) from the horizontal plane to facilitate mixing the waste materials. A conveyor system or a ram usually feeds solid wastes and drummed wastes. Liquid hazardous wastes are injected through a nozzle(s). Noncombustible metal and other residues are discharged as ash...

Indicator Pollutants For Drinking Water Supply Source

Nutrients, including phosphorus and nitrogen compounds that can stimulate algae growth in receiving waters. For example, in Florida's fragile Everglade's ecosystem, phosphorus is a pollutant of concern and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) is planning and implementing source controls, treatment facilities, and regional programs to reduce phosphorus loads. Taste and odor compounds that are commonly produced in drinking water reservoirs by blue-green algae. Total organic carbon...

Kitakyushu

The Kitakyushu Eco-town Project has created a major industrial park for recycling companies that draw inputs from throughout western Japan. The Environment Bureau of Kitakyushu led the development with research and education support from the city's universities and research institutes, such as Fukuoka University, Institute for Resource Recycling & Environmental Pollution Control System, University of Kitakyushu, and Kyushu Institute of Technology. A zero-emissions industrial park includes an...

Hydrogen Production Methods

While hydrogen is the most plentiful element in the universe, making up about three-quarters of all matter, free hydrogen is scarce. The atmosphere contains trace amounts of it (0.07 ), and it is usually found in small amounts mixed with natural gas in crustal reservoirs. A few wells, however, have been found to contain large amounts of hydrogen, such as some wells in Kansas that contain 40 hydrogen, 60 nitrogen, and trace amounts of hydrocarbons (Goebel et al. 1984). The earth's surface...

Concrete Examples Three Case Studies

We would like to briefly present three case studies that highlight some of these issues (Erkman and Ramaswamy 2003). These case studies were carried out during the period 1996-1998. Although the data has not been updated, the core issues remain unchanged. The case studies of the Tirupur textile industries and the leather industry, illustrate how redefining the problem from a perspective of resource conservation and on the basis of resource flow data could point to totally new directions for...

Mixing Extrusion and Product Manufacturing Stage

In the third and last stage of plastic reprocessing, manufacturing processes takes place, which include extrusion, injection molding, blow molding and film blowing. The extrusion processes is similar to the one used in the pelletizing unit except that the die takes the form of the output product. In case of tube production the die is made of a steel plate pierced with a hole. The extruded material has to be cooled to solidify by water bath. Similar to the extrusion, the injection molding...

Implications for Economic Development

The fundamental economic initiatives just described seek to convert national, local, and global economies to a sustainable form. This means human needs would be satisfied increasingly with renewable resources, nonrenewable resources would be conserved, natural resources would be restored as sources of natural capital, and both natural and human systems would be restored rather than further degraded. Achieving these worthy goals will have significant financial costs but far greater economic...

Limitations of Companyto Company ByProduct Exchange

There are outstanding examples of the effectiveness of the company-to-company by-product exchange strategy, but it may only be feasible in a broader eco-industrial network or region. The original inspiration was the case of Kalundborg in Denmark, where materials, energy, and water exchanges evolved among a group of companies in a region and their host community. Here a large power plant's outputs were the basis for a series of interfirm deals to use by-products economically among a refinery, a...

The Ultimate for Industrial Waste Reuse The EBIC

All of the previous descriptions of combined treatment lead to the main conclusion of this prologue. Because of the aforementioned inadequacies of combined treatment a new solution is evolving. I have designated its terminology as the environmentally balanced industrial complex (EBIC). This new system has evolved not only because the previous solutions were inefficient, but also because industry and society have grown exponentially to a degree that our environmental resources are imperiled...

City of Guigang Plans to Become an Ecoindustrial City

The Guitang Group's example has inspired the town of Guigang to adopt a 5-year plan to become an Eco-industrial city. The heavy dependence of its economy on the sugar industry makes it important to improve the efficiency of its many processing plants. In fulfillment of the plan smaller sugar producers are sending their by-products to Guitang's eco-industrial complex to achieve higher resource utilization. Targets for the city utilization of sugarcane slag reaches more than 80 , use of spent...

Disadvantages of incineration

Incinerator construction requires high capital cost. Incineration operation and management require high cost and skilled workers Wastes require energy to be burnt. The air pollution control systems are very expensive. On the other hand, the emissions and the ash resulting from incineration are extremely dangerous. If not properly controlled, they cause air pollution that can have dangerous effects on human health. Rejects and or ash produced from the incineration process should be land-filled....

Liquid Feed Incinerator

A large number of hazardous liquid waste incinerators used today are of this type. The waste is burned directly in a burner or injected into a flame zone or combustion zone of the incinerator chamber through atomizing nozzles. The heating value of the waste is the primary determining factor for the location of the injection point of the liquid waste. Liquid injection-type incinerators are usually refractory-lined chambers (horizontal or vertical flow, with up or down options), generally...

The advantages of briquetting

Decrease the volume of waste Efficient solid fuel of high thermal value Low energy consumption for production The raw materials suitable for briquetting are rice straws, wheat straws, cotton stalks, corn stalks, sugar cane waste (baggase), fruit branches, etc. However, in the suggested complex cotton stalks and fruit branches are best utilized by briquetting. The briquetting process starts with collection of wastes followed by size reduction, drying, and compaction by extruder or press. Biogas...

Agricultural Waste

Rural communities have a historical agricultural tradition for thousands of years and future plans for expansions. In order to combine the old traditions with modern technologies to achieve sustainable development, wastes should be treated as a by-product. The main problems facing rural areas nowadays are agricultural wastes, sewage and municipal solid waste as explained before. They represent crisis for sustainable development in rural village and to the national economy. However, few studies...

Metadisciplinary Approaches

We have written in the past about the emergence of the new metadiscipline of sustainability science and engineering. The prefix meta refers to after and beyond, thus, a metadiscipline is a higher level discipline. Unlike interdisciplinary approaches that focus on activities at the interface between disciplines, we called this new field a metadiscipline approach because it provides an over-arching framework for adopting and incorporating knowledge across many fields of study to inform human and...

References

Development of Circular Economy in China. Presentation at Yale University Industrial Symbiosis Symposium, January 2004, New Haven, CT. Bi, Jun, Jie Yang , Zengwei Yuan, Juan Huang. 2004. Circular economy An industrial ecology practice under the new development strategy in China. Center for Environmental Management & Policy, Nanjing University. Chertow, Marian. 2004. Industrial Symbiosis and Eco-Industrial Parks. Yale University School of Forestry & Environmental Studies....

Protecting the Environment with Technology

The cornerstone of a chemical control program that can be independent of chemical standards must be based on water quality monitoring using existing commercially available state-of-the-art analytical instrumentation to fingerprint wastewater, raw drinking water resources, and treated water products on either a batch or continuous basis. By obtaining the chemical fingerprint of a wastewater or raw drinking water, the pattern of the pollutants can be identified and selectively treated until the...

Procedure for Industry in Attaining Zero Pollution

In planning for an EBIC several subjects and associated steps need to be considered and taken prior to actually starting an EBIC system. They include, at a minimum, the following 11 subject steps. 1. Suren Erkman. Institute for Communication and Analysis of Science and Technology, Geneva, Switzerland. 1. Selecting and educating the EBIC developer 4. Optimizing production sizing of participating plants 5. Informational meeting with participating plants and regulatory officials 6. Designing the...

Gaseous Hydrogen Storage

Because of hydrogen's low density, its storage always requires relatively large volumes and is associated with either high pressures (thus requiring heavy vessels), or extremely low temperatures, and or combination with other materials (much heavier than hydrogen itself). Table 7.2 shows achievable storage densities with different types of hydrogen storage methods. Some novel hydrogen storage method may achieve even higher storage densities, but have yet to be proven in terms of practicality,...

Potential Industrial Complexes

Diagram Paper Mill Complex

There are many possible examples of potential industrial complexes which may accomplish the objectives set forth in Chapter 4. I list some here and provide brief descriptions of their configuration mostly in schematic ways. The reader may also be aware of others which may also meet our requirements for workable EBICs. Those in this chapter do not contain mass balances nor any other detailed operating data editions. FIGURE 11.4. Schematic diagram of environmentally balanced phosphatic fertilizer...

Industrial Waste

Since the beginning of human history, industry has been an open system of materials flow. People transformed natural materials plants, animals, and minerals into tools, clothing, and other products. When these materials were worn out they were discarded or dumped in the same condition as they are, and when the refuse buildup bothered them, the habitants changed their location, which was easy to do at that time due to the small number of habitants and the vast areas of land. Among the goals of...

Ground Realities of Developing Countries

Among the many specific aspects of developing countries that have to be born in mind, is the fact that the pattern of resource flows in developing countries and hence the resultant environmental threat could be very different than what it is in the industrialized West. Typically, the flows of materials through the large, organized manufacturing facilities in the developing countries could be very small in relation to the overall material flow. Table 12.1, showing the comparative Fresh Water...

Slush Hydrogen

Slush hydrogen is a mixture of liquid and frozen hydrogen in equilibrium with the gas at the triple point, 13.8 K. The density of the ice-like form is about 20 higher than that of the boiling liquid. To obtain the ice-like form, one has to remove the heat content of the liquid at 20.3 K until the triple point is reached and then remove the latent heat of fusion. The cold content of the ice-like form of hydrogen is some 25 higher than that of the saturated vapor at 20.3 K. It is of great...

Introduction

During the 20th Century, we wrote and published countless books on the environment beginning with Theories and Practices of Industrial Waste Treatment in 1963. Most, if not all, of these books centered on the theoretical aspects of environmental components. By the end of the century environmentalists worldwide possessed all the basic ingredients to enable them to ameliorate a rapidly deteriorating resource quality condition. Some real progress was made in improving environmental quality, but...

Eco Chains in China The Guitang Group

An important strategy for implementing the Circular Economy was inspired by a Southern China case that evolved over several decades. The term used in CE planning is eco-chain, where resource use is optimized through a chain of uses for any by-product. The Guitang Group (GG) in Guigang City developed a sugar production based eco-chain internally and now extends it to its competitors in the city. China produces 10.5 million tons of sugar annually from 539 sugar mills, the majority from sugar...

Case Study of Economic Proof of Industrial Complexes

In this section I offer practical data proof, in one instance, that it is substantially less costly to produce two industrial products and reuse all wastes within one complex than to produce the same products at separate locations and discharge the untreated wastes to the surrounding environment. The original researchers2 of this project have attempted to use real data to put a monetary value on the indiscriminate and wanton discharge of these plants' production wastes into the environment....

Solutions Environmental Health Infrastructure

Through the creation of certain agencies and reorganization of others, U.S. federal capability in the protection of environmental quality has been greatly enhanced during the past 40 years. These actions allowed the government to begin to meet, in a substantial and meaningful way, the challenges to public health posed by new hazards in the chemical and physical environments. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created in 1970 by Executive Order of President Richard M. Nixon....

H2o

Depleted oxidant and product gases out FIGURE 7.3. Operating principle of various types of fuel cells. The reversible potential changes with temperature and pressure in general it is lower at higher temperatures (reaching -1.0V at 1,000K), and it is higher at higher pressures or higher concentrations of reactants. The actual voltage of an operational fuel cell is always lower than the reversible potential due to various irreversible losses, such as activation polarization, concentration...

Biographies

Agardy, Ph.D. is President of Forensic Management Associates, a company focused on environmental litigation support and expert witness services. Dr. Agardy received a B.S. in civil engineering from the City College of New York in 1955, an M.S. in sanitary engineering from the University of California at Berkeley in 1958, and a Ph.D. degree in sanitary engineering from the University of California at Berkeley in 1963. He taught civil and sanitary engineering at San Jose State...

Bioprocess Control

In a conventional suspended growth-activated sludge process, dilute soluble organic pollution is converted into concentrated particulate biomass. Ultimately, this biomass must be separated from the purified wastewater before discharge to the environment can occur. In general, a secondary gravity clarifier is the most commonly employed technology for biomass separation. In a clarifier, the biomass settles to the bottom of the vessel under the influence of gravity while the purified wastewater...