Production of Spinosad

Spinosyn Insecticide

Spinosad is produced directly from the fermentation of a strain of Saccharo-polyspora spinosa. Production strains of S. spinosa have been selected for increased titers of spinosyns A and D, however, no genetic engineering techniques have been used in this process and no genetically-modified organisms are used in the production process. After fermentation, the spinosyn A and D mixture is extracted from the fermentation broth, precipitated and dried to create technical spinosad, which is then...

Cyclodiene Insecticides

Preparation Reaction Heptachlor

Cyclodiene insecticides are comprised of compounds obtained by a Diels-Alder reaction, and were first marketed after World War II. The key synthetic intermediate is hexachlorocyclopentadiene 26 that can be obtained by chlorination of cyclopentadiene 25, but also from pentane, cyclopentane or neopentane see Scheme 2.2 .68 A Diels-Alder cycloaddition between cyclopentadiene and 26 gave an intermediate called chlordene 27, whose chlorination afforded mainly a mixture of cis- and trans- isomers on...

Use In Europe As An Extract Of Sophora Flavescens Bioinsecticides

The scientific literature continues to document the biological diversity of plant secondary metabolites that are known to affect pest insects. Botanicals have a long history of use and are referenced in recordings from ancient civilizations and folklore.1,2 Likewise, the natural history of insect-plant chemical interactions spans the past 400 million years, or as some authors like to say, terrestrial plants have engaged in chemical warfare against insects and other herbivores over that vast...