Biological Properties of the Spinosyns 571 Speed of Action

The spinosyns are fast acting. Spinosyn-intoxicated insects exhibit lack of coordinated movement and cessation of feeding that can occur within minutes of first exposure. These effects are followed by mortality that can occur within one to 24 hours after first exposure (see Figures 5.3 and 5.4). A lethal dose in lepidopterous larvae can be accumulated in exposure periods of one to 30 minutes.83 In laboratory bioassays, mortality may continue to increase up to three days after initial exposure, but in the field, full control is normally observed within one to two days after a crop is treated.84 Spinetoram demonstrates faster action than spinosad when injected into lepidopterous larvae (see Figure 5.3), or when exposed to surface residues (see Figure 5.4).8

100 90 80

Figure 5.3 Injection toxicity of spinosad and spinetoram to fourth instar Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm) larvae.

□ Spinetoram

1

i

i

Hours of exposure

Figure 5.4 Contact toxicity of spinosad and spinetoram to second instar Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm) larvae. (Exposure to 250 ppm spray residues on glass Petri plates).

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