Control techniques based on the removal of the vegetation on which tsetse flies depend for their habitat (e.g. selective clearing), and killing the wild animals on which they depend for their food have been undertaken.33,34 These techniques can be effective but it is labour-intensive and unecological. Nowadays, control is mainly based on the use of traps to catch and kill tsetse flies, which can greatly reduce the vector population and significantly affect the disease transmission. Various models of traps have been designed, such as biconical, pyramidal ones placed in ''strategic'' sites. The insecticide impregnation of either biconical traps (see Figure 1.12) or blue cloth screens hung from vegetation in the vector habitat has allowed a control of 90% of the vectors of the G. palpalis group.

Figure 1.12 Biconical trap of Challier-LaveissiƩre used for Glossina (G. fuscipes fus-cipes) by the Mbororos herders in Central African Republic (Photo courtesy of Dominique Cuisance).
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