Neonicotinoids as Resistance Management Tools

Neonicotinoid insecticides all belong to the same mode of action class, and cross-resistance to the established chemistry of other modes of action such as pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates or fiproles is not reported. Neo-nicotinoids are therefore considered to be useful tools in resistance management strategies. Even though neonicotinoid insecticides have been used for a prolonged period of time (since 1991), there has been little resistance development in some well-known high risk pests, such as Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Myzus persicae Sulzer (Homoptera: Aphidi-dae), and in many cases reported resistance is still manageable and/or geographically localized.107 In the last five years, however, there have been an increasing number of reports concerning resistance development in some important target pests, albeit still regionally restricted in many cases. The extensive use of neonicotinoids worldwide, unless carefully regulated and coordinated, is likely to increase exposure to this important class of chemistry and enhance conditions favouring resistant phenotypes.107 After 20 years of use, insect pests such as whiteflies, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)107 and Tria-leurodes vaporariorum (Westwood);108 the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stall);109 the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer);110 the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say);111 and a few others like the mango leafhopper, Idioscopus clypealis (Lethierry), have developed resistance to neonicotinoids in some parts of the world.36

Although resistance reports are increasing in established markets, neonicoti-noids still find uses where they are considered as invaluable new chemical options

Figure 4.13 Border application of thiacloprid (Biscaya OD 240) in winter oilseed rape for the control of pyrethroid resistant pollen beetles, Meligethes aeneus. The inner part of the field was treated by a pyrethroid. The lack of efficacy is seen by the prevention of flowering in many parts due to pollen beetle feeding on buds. (Source: Bayer CropScience).

Figure 4.13 Border application of thiacloprid (Biscaya OD 240) in winter oilseed rape for the control of pyrethroid resistant pollen beetles, Meligethes aeneus. The inner part of the field was treated by a pyrethroid. The lack of efficacy is seen by the prevention of flowering in many parts due to pollen beetle feeding on buds. (Source: Bayer CropScience).

for resistance management purposes. One such example is the recent introduction of thiacloprid and acetamiprid in European winter oilseed rape for the control of pyrethroid-resistant pollen beetles, Meligethes aeneus.112 Figure 4.13 demonstrates the efficacy of thiacloprid applied to the margin of a winter oilseed rape field where the rest of the field was treated with a pyrethroid insecticide.

Thiacloprid shows excellent control of resistant beetles, whereas in most parts of the pyrethroid-treated crop, flowering was prevented due to pollen beetle feeding. The example shown demonstrates that neonicotinoids will remain important chemical options for pest control and management in the future.

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