Oil Dispersion Technology

Recently, Bayer CropScience has developed a completely new formulation technology O-TEQ (oil dispersion, OD) for foliar application of both imidacloprid (Confidor OD 200)and thiacloprid (Biscaya OD 240).96 98 This formulation type is defined as "a stable suspension of ai(s) in a water immiscible fluid, which may contain other dissolved ai(s), intended for dilution with water before use''.99 The main characteristics related to this aspect are outlined in Figure 4.9.

O-TEQ can be seen as a vehicle to transport systemic neonicotinoids from the formulation into the plant, from where it can be taken up by the insect. This was achieved by improving leaf penetration, particularly under suboptimal conditions for foliar uptake. Systemicity and rain fastness of neonicotinoids reach a high level not yet observed with other formulation types. In comparison with conventional suspension concentrate (SC) formulation, retention (e.g. thiacloprid SC 480), leaf coverage and spreading of the spray deposit on the barley leaf surface are improved remarkably as shown for Biscaya O-TEQ 240 (see Figure 4.10).

Generally, the O-TEQ formulation provides minimized run-off and a better retention on the plant in the event of rainfall. Once applied to the leaf, the neonicotinoid shows a smooth spreading of the oil after the evaporation of the spray water, resulting in even coverage and distribution. Subsequently, the

A: Formulated product (Oil suspension)

B: Spray solution

A: Formulated product (Oil suspension)

Addition of water

Addition of water

B: Spray solution

Neonicotinoid Oil plus adjuvant □ Water o- Emulsifier

Figure 4.9 Schematic representation of an O-TEQ formulation of neonicotinoids (available for imidacloprid and thiacloprid) as: (A) a concentrate, and (B) after dilution with water. (Source: Bayer CropScience).

Thiacloprid SC 480 Biscaya O-TEQ 240

Figure 4.9 Schematic representation of an O-TEQ formulation of neonicotinoids (available for imidacloprid and thiacloprid) as: (A) a concentrate, and (B) after dilution with water. (Source: Bayer CropScience).

Thiacloprid SC 480 Biscaya O-TEQ 240

site of application

s i V t ïl

i % >4

á 11 # i

Edge of $pfiy deposit

Thiacloprid crystals covered an oil («adjuvant) film

Figure 4.10 Comparison of thiacloprid formulations SC 480 and O-TEQ 240: (A) translocation of thiacloprid in barley leaves 48 h after foliar application of 0.2 g a.i. l-1; (B) Uptake and translocation of thiacloprid into pear leaves after 10 mm rain 3 h after application; and (C) spray deposit of thiacloprid OD on barley leaf (electron micrograph). (Source: Bayer CropScience).

systemic neonicotinoid penetrates through the leaf cuticle and is translocated within the leaf lamina.100,101

The presence of the natural oil guarantees such an uptake over an extended period of time, resulting in a better, long-lasting control compared with more conventional formulation types. Furthermore, the excellent efficacy of neoni-cotinoids formulated with O-TEQ technology and the fact that this performance is related to an increase in the adjuvant concentration in the spray solution rather than the spray volume per hectare, means that the application of O-TEQ formulations using reduced water volumes (lower than 301 ha 1) is very reliable. This helps to offer sustainable solutions in agricultural areas where water is scarce. With the application of so-called "in-can" formulations (consumer friendly, ready-to-use), products are safer and more convenient for operators to use.

Overall, such an innovative formulation technology for neonicotinoids can help farmers particularly when unfavorable conditions prevail, allowing more flexibility and reliability of the application by reducing the impact of temperature, humidity, pH value and evaporation.

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