Ionic Liquids

Biocatalysis For Industrial Green Chemistry

Purines And Pyrimidines

Zhi Li, Martin Held, Sven Panke, Andrew Schmid, Renata Mathys, and Bernard Witholt Eidgen ssische Technische Hochschule Z rich, Switzerland Biocatalysis can make an important contribution to green chemistry due to several distinctive features, such as mild reaction conditions, nontoxicity, high chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivity, and high turnover frequency. The potential of biocatalysis for the synthesis of chemicals is evident1-3 and examples of several industrial processes that are...

Methyl Methacrylate Process

THE OXIDATION OF ISOBUTANE TO METHACRYLIC ACID AN ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MMA PRODUCTION Nicola Ballarini, Fabrizio Cavani, H l ne Degrand, Eric ti nne, Anne Pigamo, and Ferruccio Trifiro Dipartimento di Chimica Industr ale e dei Materiali, Universita di Bologna, Bologna, Italy 14.1 THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR METHYLMETHACRYLATE PRODUCTION Polymethylmethacrylate production currently amounts to more than 2.8 million tons per year on a worldwide scale, and the average yearly demand has been steadily...

The Fourcomponent Reaction And Other Multicomponent Reactions Of The Isocyanides

Epoxy Resin Reaction With Ionic Liquids

Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Technische Universit t M nchen, Germany The usual syntheses of products from three or more educts require several preparative processes, and its intermediate or final product must be isolated and purified after each reaction. As the number of steps increase, the amounts of solvents and the preparative work grows, while the yields of products decrease and more and more solvents and by-products must be removed. In such reactions, scarcely all...

Zeolite Catalysts For Cleaner Technologies

University of Poitiers, Poitiers, France The name of zeolites, which originates from the Greek words zeo (to boil) and lithos (stone), was given some 250 years ago to a family of minerals (hydrated aluminosilicates) that exhibited intumescence when heated in a flame.1 However, the history of zeolites really began 60 years ago with the development of synthesis methods. Commercial applications in three main fields ion exchange, adsorption, and catalysis were rapidly developed, the corresponding...

Green Chemistry Catalysis And Waste Minimization

Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands A growing environmental awareness and increasingly stringent environmental legislation have focused the attention of chemical manufacturers on what has become known as sustainable development or green chemistry. A working definition of green chemistry is Technologies that efficiently utilize energy and (preferably renewable) raw materials and reduce, or preferably, eliminate, the generation of waste and avoid the use of toxic and or...

Isobutane 2butene

Very strong Strong Medium-weak C5-C7 TMPs DHMs C C9 Figure 13.5 The influence of acid strength on the nature of the reaction products during the isobutane 2-butene alkylation. TABLE 13.2 Isobutane Alkylation Catalyzed by Beta Zeolite and Sulfated Zirconia at Different Reaction Temperatures A clear example of the possible use of acid and or superacid solids as catalysts is the alkylation of isobutane with butenes. Isobutane alkylation with low-molecular-weight olefins is one of the most...

Seamless Chemistry For Sustainability

Mechanism Action Hydroxychloroquine

V., Terneuzen, The Netherlands Dow Europe GmbH, Horgen, Switzerland The chemical industry manufactures and supplies the citizen of the world with thousands of chemicals essential to daily life. The industry product portfolio ranges, for example, from epoxy resins designed for paints protecting concrete or metal, to membranes for water purification or pharmaceuticals protecting human life. Two main global trends provide the industry with novel opportunities to continue serving the...

Adv Carbohyd Chem 1956 Publisher Beelik

Green Chemistry Theory and Practice, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 1998, pp. 30-48. 2. Okkerse, C. van Bekkum, H. From fossil to green, Green Chem., 1999, 107-114. 3. National Research Council, USA, Priorities for Research and Commercialization of Biobased Industrial Products, Natl. Acad. Sci. Press, Washington, DC, 2000. 4. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (a) Vision for Bioenergy & Biobased Products in The United States, October 2002 Web.pdf. (b) Roadmap for...

Ionic Liquid Applications

Ionic Liquids Based Pyridine

There now is a proven extensive organic chemistry in ionic liquids, of which a few key reactions are listed below 21,26,28 Oxidation (with air and or dioxygen) N-Alkylation and O-alkylation It is clear that there are few restrictions to the possible reactions that can be studied. Of particular interest is an article demonstrating that the nature of the ionic liquid can dramatically influence the outcome of a reaction.69 In a study of the reactions between toluene and nitric acid, three...

References

The White House, 2005 whitehouse.gov news releases 2005 05 20050518-4.html 2. Moore, M. Stupid White Men, Penguin, London, 2002. 3. BBC, BBC News Online, 2005 4. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Kyoto Protocol, 1997 http unfccc.int resource docs convkp kpeng.html 5. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Global Warming Climate, 2000 http yose-mite.epa.gov oar globalwarming.nsf content climate.html 6. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, The Potential Effects of...

Nonfood Valorization of Sucrose

Sucrose, affectionately called the royal carbohydrate,29 is a nonreducing dis-accharide, because its component sugars, d-glucose and d-fructose, are glycosidi-cally linked through their anomeric carbon atoms. Hence, it constitutes a b-d-fructofuranosyl a-d-glucopyranoside (Figure 2.7). It is widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom, is the main carbohydrate reserve and energy source, and an indispensable dietary material for humans. For centuries, sucrose has been the world's most...

How Do I Prepare Thee Let Me Count The Ways

So, the observations in the preceding section raised the obvious question Just how many ionic liquids are there For each cation series that we consider, a matrix of salts can be generated with the following common anions n Cl2 Al2Cl7 2 BF4 2 PF6 2 CF3SO3 2 CH3CO2 2 RCO2 2 COCl4 22 NiCl4 22 This therefore gives us 81 ionic liquids for each cation type (N.B. we only consider the even chain lengths, as Figure 5.6 shows us that there is no advantage to be gained in using the more expensive odd...

Enantioselective Metal Catalyzed Oxidation Processes

The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia One appropriate definition of green chemistry is the design of new synthetic pathways to perform chemical processes in a very controlled way, so as to reduce drastically, or to eliminate completely, all the environmental impact. In terms of synthetic industrial processes, this idea leads to the application of highly efficient catalysts, many of which are based on metal complex or organometallic structures. Some of the most important...

The Multiphasic System

The third liquid catalyst-philic phase was constituted in the majority of cases by Aliquat 336 tricapryl-methylammonium chloride, (C8H17)3N+CH3Cl A336 , a well-known phase-transfer agent that is liquid at room temperature, and that dissolves in toluene and in iso-octane (Figure 6.15a). The peculiarity here is that, when water (even a drop) is added to the A336 isooctane solution, three liquid phases separate out (Figure 6.15b). Figure 6.15 shows the triphasic system at rest in order to...