Ionic Liquids

Hydroformylation and Carbonylation Reactions in Ionic Liquids

Hydro Formalistion Reactions

As mentioned above, the poor solubility of higher olefins in water still hampers their hydroformylation in aqueous media. Since 2003, ILs have entered the hydroformylation field as an alternative to the aqueous phase thanks to the higher solubilities of long-chain olefins in these non-conventional solvents.124 Of course, as a prerequisite, the transition metal catalyst has to dissolve in the IL, too. Moreover, an efficient confinement in the IL phase has to occur to prevent catalyst leaching...

Hydroformylation and Carbonylation Reactions in Aqueous Biphasic Systems

Reaction Steps For Carbonylation

The solubility of transition metal catalysts in water is determined by their overall hydrophilic nature, which may arise either as a consequence of the charge of the complex ion as a whole or may be due to the good solubility of the ligands. Examples of ionic organometallics soluble in water are Na+ Re(CO)5 and (z5-C5H5)Fe(CO)2- P(C6H5)3 +I . They are precipitated by large counter-ions such as P(C6H5)4 +, B(C6H5)4 and (C6H5)3P N P(C6H5)3 + . The transition metal catalysts themselves are known...

Ionic Liquids in Biocatalysis for Fine Chemicals

Biocatalysis are increasingly being used to assist in synthetic routes to complex molecules of industrial interest.79 In the last years, there has been a particular interest in the use of biotechnological processes to transform complex natural compounds (biopolymers) into more simple compounds. More in detail, fermentation processes have been performed to transform biomass in primary or secondary metabolites to produce energy and building blocks.''80 However, the biggest role of biocatalysis...

The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry

In 1998, Anastas and Warner teamed up to write the best selling and most cited book in the field of Green Chemistry, Green Chemistry Theory and Practice, which explicated the 12 principles of Green Chemistry.7 The principles, intended as guidelines for practical chemistry, provided a road map for chemists both of academia and industry to promote pollution prevention through environmentally conscious design of chemical products and processes. The 12 principles are 1. It is better to prevent...