Ionizing Radiation Ebooks Catalog

How To Beat Electrical Sensitivity

This ebook is the complete guide to learning about electrical sensitivity and how to prevent getting it in your life. You will learn what electrical sensitivity is, and what causes it. Once you have started learning about it you will learn how to get rid of it and protect yourself from the dangers of electrical sensitivity. You will also learn how to heal yourself. This book is the product of careful research by the scientific and medical communities into the dangers and preventative measures of electrical sensitivity. ES is one of the most under-diagnosed conditions in the world right now, and this ebook is designed to education people as to how it works and how to prevent it. Do not let it take hold of your family; take control and prevent it now! Do not let yourself get any more hurt; learn about this condition and fight it! Continue reading...

How To Beat Electrical Sensitivity Summary

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Author: Lloyd Burrell
Official Website: www.electricsenseinterviews101.com
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The Shadow Side Of The Wireless Revolution

This ebook seeks to get rid of a lot of the myths that surround electromagnetic waves. The advent of wireless phones and devices has changed the face of our world, but there are sinister side effects to the entire wireless revolution. The ebook is designed to information the public of the dangers of EMF radiation and how to protect you and your family from the dangers that it contains. The chapters cover topics such as how to determine how sensitive (if at all) you are to the dangers of Electromagnetic Frequency Radiation. The next chapter contains the options and studies of real scientists and health professionals, so that you can be fully educated on what goes on inside your body and how to prevent danger. The other chapters discuss how to petition for more safety regulations, how to keep yourself safe, and how to avoid getting hurt. Protect your family from dangerous radiation today!

The Shadow Side Of The Wireless Revolution Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: Camilla Rees
Official Website: electromagnetichealth.org
Price: $9.95

Specialpurpose Sources Of Ionizing Radiation In The Environment Types And Applications

Special-purpose sources of ionizing radiation in the extended environment (not limited to the outdoor environment) range in size from low-level sources incorporated in consumer products used in the home to high-level sources located in industrial and medical facilities. Exposure to the radiation from such sources may be planned and based on risk-benefit considerations (e.g., exposure of a patient resulting from a procedure in a medical facility), or it may occur accidentally in the workplace (e.g., exposure of a worker in a facility where special-purpose sources are used). The dose of ionizing radiation received from any of these sources will contribute to the total dose that a person receives in the course of everyday living.

Properties And Reactions Of Atomic Nuclei Radioactivity And Ionizing Radiation

Atomic nuclei are either stable or unstable (radioactive). Because radioactivity is a major source of the ionizing radiation component of the environment, most of this chapter will be devoted to the quantitative aspects of radioactivity and to the nature, properties, and effects of ionizing radiation. is 6.71 x 108 kj mol. In this exoergic reaction,8 which can be written in short notation as 23Na(n, 7)24Na,9 a nucleus of the only stable isotope of sodium captures a neutron having negligible kinetic energy (about 0.03 eV per neutron or about 2.9 kj mol) to become a nucleus of 24Na. The reaction energy is transferred to the surroundings as electromagnetic radiation (7 radiation) and to a relatively small extent as recoil energy (kinetic energy, heat) of the 24Na atom. On a per-event basis, reaction (13-3) is exoergic by 6.96 MeV per nucleus of 23Na, and reaction (13-2) is exothermic by 9.23 eV (0.00000923 MeV) per molecule of CH4. It is not customary to express the energy for nuclear...

Definition of genetic terms

Ecogenetics is defined as the study of heritable variability in response to any environmental agent (e.g., chemicals, heavy metals, ionizing radiation, drugs, and foodstuff). Pharmacogenetics is a subset of ecogenetics and is the study of differences in response to pharmaceutical agents due to heredity. The recently coined term pharmacogenomics refers to the field of new drug development based on our rapidly increasing knowledge of allelic variants of all genes contained in the human genome. However, the two terms phar-macogenetics and pharmacogenomics are often used interchangeably.

Variation in DNA repair capacity

The reduced repair capacity phenotypes for damage induced by gamma radiation, bleomycin (a radiomimetic agent), and benzo a pyrene-diol epoxide (BPDE) behave as independent traits.77 This is consistent with the expectation that damage induced by bleomycin and ionizing radiation is primarily strand breaks and oxidized bases, repaired by genes in the NHEJ, HR, and BER pathways, while BPDE induces bulky adducts (like UV-induced pyrimidine dimers) that are repaired by the NER pathway. Scott and colleagues have found decreased repair capacity for ionizing radiation induced damage in G0 cells from breast cancer cases using a micronucleus based lymphocyte assay6978 79 as well as reduced repair capacity in G2 cells from other individuals.69,79 The independence of the G0 and G2 repair capacities was interpreted as indicative of the two assays measuring independent mechanisms or pathways, e.g., G0 cells primarily using genes in BER and NHEJ pathways, G2 cells using HR and DRC pathways.69 80 81...

Assessing the Overall Performance of a Process

The problem with all such standards is that the question of the standard's applicability for measuring something in the process-of-interest is never asked beforehand. Consider the known, and very considerable, physical difference between the way extremely high-frequency tiny-wavelength EM waves and much lower-frequency much-greater wavelength audible-sound waves

Important Concepts And Processes Of The Environmental Photochemistry Of Organic Contaminants

Light absorption is inherently the key factor for accomplishing photoinduced reactions. In the environment, irradiated light can be absorbed by organic molecules, metal complexes, and semiconductors and other species. When these species are placed in the oscillating electromagnetic field exerted by radiation, their interactions will lead to a redistribution of energy between the absorbing species and radiation. The process can excite an electron from a lower energy level to a higher one when the energy difference in these two levels is equivalent to the energy of a photon of radiation. In this process, the molecule absorbs energy of a photon from the radiation that is, the energy flows from the electromagnetic radiation to the absorbing species. The absorption of a photon by a molecule occurs at a very short timescale (usually femtoseconds) without any change of molecular geometry (the Franck-Condon principle). The absorption properties of these species can be investigated and...

Basic Principles of XRay Fluorescence

X-rays are electromagnetic waves with a spectrum spanning wavelengths from about 80 run (about 15 eV) down to about 0.001 nni (about 1.2 MeV), overlapping to some extent the region of y-rays (Table 1). Electromagnetic radiation (usually above 1 MeV) generated by nuclear processes is usually called -radiation while the radiation below 80 nni wavelength generated by electrons slowed down in the outer field of an atomic nucleus or by transitions between bound states of electrons in the electronic shells of an atom is called X-radiation. Table 1. Spectrum of electromagnetic radiation from y-rays to TV and fm radio waves (IR - infrared light UV - ultraviolet light) Table 1. Spectrum of electromagnetic radiation from y-rays to TV and fm radio waves (IR - infrared light UV - ultraviolet light)

Analysis of a collection of published spectra

We have expanded the application of the clustering methods to include spectra generated with a wide range of environmental chemicals.36 These are listed in Table 13.4 along with the results of the clustering analysis. We have presented the results for five, six, and seven groups and with and without inclusion of chromium spectra (see below). If we examine the assortment of spectra into the seven groups, we see that the UV spectra (except for UVB) remain grouped together. The spontaneous mutations split into groups according to species and vector (pZ189 vs. pSP189). Most of the diolepoxides of chrysene derivatives form their own cluster as do the diole-poxides of benzo c phenanthrene. Agents that cause oxidative damage tend to group with spontaneous mutations. Ionizing radiation spectra group

Grouping of chromiuminduced spectra with others

In order to compare these Cr-induced spectra to a broader range of mutation spectra, we have employed the clustering methods and we have expanded the collection of mutation spectra to include published spectra in which pZ189 was treated with Cr(III) in the presence of amino acids to form DNA Cr amino acid complexes4748 (Table 13.4, bottom). This analysis for seven groups revealed that the two chromium spectra (Cr-in vivo and Cr-in vitro) group with each other and together with ionizing radiation spectra (group 7). Interestingly, most of the spectra from chromium-induced crosslinks grouped together (group 2) with several other agents that form DNA adducts and also with H2O2-in vitro. These results suggest that the mutational specificity of the chromium-induced crosslinks differs from that of the chromium-induced oxidative damage. Furthermore, they suggest that mutational specificity of chromium in vivo may be more like chromium-induced oxidative damage than like chromium-induced...

Environmental Impacts Issues

Each defective replacement is likely to induce some long-term damage. For instance, hydrocarbon molecules can be treated as a replacement of carbohydrates (it is fatal when it reaches lung diaphragms), lead can replace zinc, and so on. Recently it was noticed that plastic baby bottles release dioxins when exposed to the microwave (Mittelstaedt, M. 2006b). From this, two essential points may be inferred plastics always release some toxins, and microwave exposure enhances molecular breakdown. In other words, something clearly unsafe following microwave irradiation was, in fact, already unsafe, prior to radiation exposure.

The Physical Environment

The predominance of biological agents as the principal focus of environmental health at the regional and national level in the United States has diminished greatly over time, particularly over the second half of the 20th century. Although many physical hazards cause environmental health problems affect modern life, ionizing radiation is the hazard on which environmental health specialists are called to spend the greatest amount of time. There was great enthusiasm for the widespread use of x-rays and ionizing radiation from natural radioactivity during the early 20th century. The use and overuse of radiation was rampant as seen in the widespread and uncontrolled utilization of radiation for common consumer applications. For example, from the mid 1920s to the 1950s in Europe and North America, fluoroscopes were used commonly in shoe stores for the simple purpose of evaluating fit. The device permitted the salesperson and customer to visualize the bones and soft tissues of the customer's...

Applications of FISH

Since radiation is thought to cause equal levels of damage across all chromosomes,15 and chromosomes 1 through 6 (the largest chromosomes) make up 40 of the genome,16 it is hypothesized that measurement of damage in these large chromosomes can be extrapolated to the whole genome.11 This may not be true for chemical exposures as certain chemicals may have selective or preferential effects on certain chromosomes.17 For example, we showed that epoxide metabolites of 1,3-butadiene had more effect on certain chromosomes than others.18 Indeed, the hypothesis of equal levels of damage across the genome may not hold true even for low doses of radiation, as inversion of chromosome 10 has been shown to be highly sensitive to low intensity radiation exposure.19 Interestingly inv(10) rearranges the RET gene and is associated with thyroid cancer, potentially caused by linear energy transfer (LET) radiation.

Synchrotronbased Fourier Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy

The infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum is divided into three regions on the basis of energy the near (14,000-4000 cm1), the mid- (4000-400 cm1) and the far infrared (400-10 cm1). Far-infrared spectromicroscopy is of interest and, as noted by Miller et al. (2003), has considerable potential, but less is known about the spectra generated and, because of the long wavelength, spatial resolution is very limited (100 mm or worse). The mid-infrared region is the most useful for examining organic contaminants in the environment, so our discussion will focus on this approach. The absorption of midinfrared

Pulse Sciences Inc XRay Treatment Abstract

X-ray treatment is based on in-depth deposition of ionizing radiation. X-rays, or energetic photons, collide with matter to generate a shower of lower energy secondary electrons within the contaminated waste material. These secondary electrons then react to form highly reactive radicals, which in turn react with contaminants to form compounds such as carbon dioxide, water, and oxygen. Using this technology, wastes can be treated in containers, as the X-rays will pass through the walls of standard 55-gal drums, thus minimizing handling requirements.

Naturally Occurring Sources Of Radioactivity In The Environment

Primordial radionuclides in the environment are given in Table 14-2. Except for 40K, the independent primordial radionuclides with atomic number below 90 do not contribute significantly as sources of ionizing radiation because of a very low abundance in nature (i.e., a low abundance of the element or the radioisotope or both) or because of an exceedingly long half-life, which results in a very low specific activity. Nuclides 232Th, 235U, and 238U are environmentally important as significant sources of ionizing radiation themselves, as parents of the three naturally occurring series, as fissile or fertile material for nuclear power reactors, and as fissionable material for nuclear weapons. The neptunium (4n + 1) series is not found in nature because the half-life of the longest-lived member, 237Np (2.14 x 106 y), is too short for any of the original 237Np to remain on the earth.

Materials Used for Building Construction

Buildings can provide some shielding from extraterrestrial radiation and from 7 radiation from rocks and soil outside the buildings. However, certain materials of construction (e.g., stone, especially granite), containing uranium or a high potassium content, can raise the dose of ionizing radiation received by the occupants of a building.

Implanted Sources Used in Medical Therapy

Ever since radium became available, small radioactive sources have been implanted in or near tumors to destroy them. Both 226Ra (encapsulated in a needle) and 222Rn (encapsulated in a glass or gold seed) have been used with limited success. Today, this type of radiation therapy, called brachyther-apy, utilizes small rods, beads, seeds, or rice-sized pellets containing radionuclides emitting low-energy ionizing radiation such as 103Pd (16.99 d, EC, e, x rays 21 keV), 125I (59.4 d, EC, e, E7 35.49 keV), 90Y (2.67 d, 0), 192Ir (73.83 d, EC, 0, 7 rays, mainly 0.316 MeV) and 252Cf (2.646 y, a,e, low-intensity 7-rays and neutrons from spontaneous fission). Because of the limited depth of penetration of the radiations from these radionuclides, the risk of irradiation of nearby healthy tissue is low. The availability of imaging methods and improved delivery techniques facilitates precise positioning of the implants. A controversial application of ionizing radiation is intravascular therapy to...

Nuclear Fission Power Plants

Limitations on the Use of Ionizing Radiation for the Treatment of Food Conditions for using ionizing radiation for safe treatment of food sources of ionizing radiation are limited to (1) y rays from sealed units of the radionuclides 60Co or 137Cs, (2) electrons generated from machine sources at energies not to exceed 10 MeV, and (3) x rays generated from machine sources at energies not to exceed 5 MeV.

Dose Received by Workers

0bviously a nuclear power plant is a very complex system, with many regions containing sources of ionizing radiation. During shutdowns for refueling and so on, and during normal operation and maintenance, workers must follow set procedures to limit their exposure to values that are, hopefully, below those specified in the operating license for the plant. During routine operation, workers must properly handle radioactive effluents of the type described in the next section.

Further Study on MRFs

Dust and bioaerosol measurements, including measurements for endotoxin and glucan, were made using methodologies reported in the previous papers.7'8'12'13'24'31'35'39 Also measured were Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), cadmium and mercury, using similar methodologies to those reported in previous papers.4'5'40 Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) were measured for the first time in MRFs in the UK. Cross-sectional questionnaires were given as a personal interview to each operative working within the nine MRFs (n 159) during 1999. The questionnaire has recently been standardised and used in a research project on health effects among waste handlers in the BIOMED2 programme It is a proposed standard questionnaire for workers in the waste industry. Questions covered previous work history, type of work carried out, relevant out-of-work activities and smoking habits. These were followed by questions on symptoms specifically related to work, e.g. cough (dry or with phlegm), chest tightness, eye,...

The Potential of Some Cultivated Plants in Phytoremediation of Uranium

Picture Corn And Its Parts

Research with the purpose of environmental protection and reduction of ionizing radiation on the regional level (Serbia), was conducted by researchers from the Institute for Technology of Nuclear and Other Mineral Raw Materials , Belgrade. Investigations have lasted for several decades, where it was determinated the degree of accumulation of cultivated plants mostly proposed human nutrition for their application for phytoremediation. Screening plant species had the aim of planting exposed sites in Serbia.

Repair of DNA damage

To counter the impact of this extensive damage to the DNA that is constantly occurring in each cell, organisms have developed several, generally nonredundant, pathways for repairing different DNA lesions. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) removes photoproducts induced in DNA by exposure to UV radiation and also the bulky DNA adducts formed following exposure to a multitude of chemicals.28-32 The NER pathway involves more than 30 proteins, at least 13 of which form a single multiprotein complex. Two DSB repair pathways repair damage produced directly by exposure to ionizing radiation or indirectly by incomplete repair of single strand damage.33,34 Homologous recombination repair (HR) relies on extensive nucleotide sequence complementarity between the intact homologous partner chromosome or sister chromatid and the damaged structure for strand exchange.35 Non-homologous end joining repair (NHEJ) requires little or no sequence homology and is mediated by direct end-joining.36 The more...

Water Quantity And Quality Water Cycle and Geology

When speaking of water, we are concerned primarily with surface water and groundwater, although rainwater and saline water are also considered. In falling through the atmosphere, rain picks up dust particles, plant seeds, bacteria, dissolved gases, ionizing radiation, and chemical substances such as sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. Hence, rainwater is not pure water as one might think. It is, however, very soft. Water in streams, lakes, reservoirs, and swamps is known as surface water. Water reaching the ground and flowing over the surface carries anything it can move or dissolve. This may include waste matter, bacteria, silt, soil, vegetation, and microscopic plants and animals and other naturally occurring organic matter. The water accumulates in streams or lakes. Sewage, industrial wastes, and surface and groundwater will cumulate, contribute to the flow, and be acted on by natural agencies. On the one hand, water reaching lakes or reservoirs permit bacteria,...

Van Der Waals Interactions

Van der Waals forces or interaction energies between molecules and colloidal particles are considered to arise from three types of interactions, resulting in what are known as Keesom-van der Waals, Debye-van der Waals, and London-van der Waals forces. These are also termed orientation, induction, and dispersion forces, respectively. Interactions between polar molecules are termed Keesom forces. Interactions between nonpolar molecules that can develop a dipole moment in an electric field are termed Debye forces. The Keesom and Debye interactions have been characterized using classical electrostatics. The third interaction, the London-van der Waals interaction, is quantum mechanical in origin. It acts between all atoms and molecules including totally neutral ones such as carbon dioxide. The resulting forces are often called dispersion forces because of their relationship to the dispersion of electromagnetic radiation including ultraviolet and visible light. The London-van der Waals...

Principles Of Isotope Analysis

Elemental Analyzer Setup

More recently, new method for isotope analysis based on laser spectroscopy rather than mass spectrometry have been developed (e.g., Lis, Wassenaar, and Hendry 2008). The method relies on differences in vibrational frequencies of molecules depending on the isotope that is present in the chemical bond. The higher the mass of the isotope, the lower the vibrational frequency. By measuring the absorption of electromagnetic radiation at different wavelengths, the abundance of different isotopes can be quantified. The method is available to measure isotope ratios in H2O, CO2, and CH4 and generally less expensive equipment is required than for mass spectrometry. While first instruments coupled to

Biomarkers of genetic integrity or damage

The Comet assay has been used to measure DNA damage in individual human lymphocytes using relatively low doses of ionizing radiation and chemical genotoxins.97 Refinements to the methods are being made to extend its applicability to other environmental exposures and lifestyle factors such as smoking98 and other target tissues including sperm cells.99-102 A small study of human semen samples, for example, detected DNA fragmentation using the Comet assay with DBCP, two estrogens (p-estradiol and the phytoestrogen daidzein) and 1,2-epoxybutene (a metabolite of 1,3-butadiene).102

Radioactivity of elements

Thus the Z number of the nucleus is decreased by 1 from K (Z 19) to Ar (Z 18), but the mass number is unchanged. This so-called gamma radiation (g) is essentially a photon that carries a large amount of electromagnetic energy. This transformation is very important for the atmosphere as it produces the stable form (isotope) of argon which emanates from the potassium-containing rocks of the earth and accumulates in the atmosphere.

Microwave assisted solvent extraction MASE

MASE utilises electromagnetic radiation to desorb organics from their solid matrices. MASE typically operates at 2.45 GHz. The use of a microwave oven for sample preparation originates from inorganic or elemental analysis. In this case the electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy inorganic and organic matter using a combination of strong acids and peroxides. The first application of microwaves for the extraction of organics from solid material appeared in 1986 30 . In recent years, different systems have become commercially available and they are based on extraction in a closed high pressure vessel with microwave absorbing solvents, extraction with a non-microwave absorbing solvent in an open vessel and or extraction with a non-microwave absorbing solvent in a closed vessel applying a Weflon stir bar that heats the solvent. The performance of MASE has been compared to other recently introduced techniques like ASE and SFE and similar recoveries were obtained for soil and sediment...

Malignant Neoplasms Cancer

Cancer is any malignant growth in the body. It is an uncontrolled multiplication of abnormal body cells. The cause of the various types of cancer is unknown, circumstantial, or unclear except for cigarette smoking and exposure to ionizing radiation. There does not appear to be a dosage or level of exposure to cigarette smoking or ionizing radiation below which there is no risk. Viruses, genetic background, poor health, and exposure to various agents in our air, water, food, drugs, and cosmetics are believed to contribute to the disease. Some environmental substances become carcinogenic only after metabolism within the body, and gene-environment interactions are believed to be crucial in determining an individual's risk to developing cancer from exposure to toxins.

Radioisotopes

Radioisotopes are unstable nuclides that decay with specific half-life times to other nuclides under the emission of radiation. The most important decay modes are a-decay (emission of a helium atom), P-decay (emission of an electron P- or a positron P+), and y-decay (emission of electromagnetic energy). Before exploring the tracer potential of radionuclides, let us first review the rules governing radioactive decay. The disappearance of radioactive atoms is a statistical logarithmic process in which a subset of atoms undergoes decay in a given time period. The activity, A, decreases according to the law of radioactive decay (Equation 1.6)

Insitu Methods

Electroremediation This method is based on the phenomenon of pollutant migration in an electric field. Migrating particles have to have a permanent electric charge or have to be polarized, so the technique is used to remove heavy metals or polar compounds. Electrodes are inserted into the ground on opposite sites of the contaminated area. Contaminants under the influence of an electromagnetic field migrate through the soil within the cathode or anode area, where they are removed in a few possible ways chemical precipitation, adhesion to the electrodes' surfaces, removing and processing the contamination beyond the remediate site. However, such treatment results acidification of soil and often produce unwanted chemicals due to oxidation-reduction processes involved in remediation techniques.

Laboratory methods

The mutagen sensitivity assay was developed by T.C. Hsu in 198948 and has been used to measure repair of double strand breaks and single strand breaks induced by bleomycin, benzo a pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE), ultraviolet (UV) radiation, ionizing radiation, and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO), all of which are different aspects of DNA repair.49 This assay consists of a short-

Introduction

Interest in radioactivity may be considered to date from 1895, when Roentgen discovered a new form of radiation from cathode-ray tubes. The radiations caused certain salts to become luminescent and also affected photographic plates. They are called roentgen rays or X rays. With a few modifications, the cathode-ray tube became the modern roentgen or X-ray tube that has been used so extensively in medical and industrial applications. Gamma rays released by radioactive materials and X rays are both electromagnetic waves the gamma rays usually having somewhat shorter wavelengths.

Microwaves

Microwave-assisted operations are a very promising type of electromagnetic field application to intensify chemical processes 110-116 . Microwave frequencies range from 0.3 to 300 GHz but, to avoid interference, industrial and domestic microwave appliances operate at standard allocated frequencies, most often at 2.45 GHz.

System

Several different types of radiation sources are used. In the radio frequency range, simple triode oscillators are used. These low-cost devices have been built in unit sizes up to about 1.5 MW. Microwave radiation sources are more complex. Air-cooled magnetrons, available in ratings up to about 25 kW, are most commonly used for both industrial and residential commercial applications. Magnetrons are basically a tube comprising of a rod-shaped cathode within a cylindrical anode. When power is supplied to the magnetron, electrons flow from the cathode to the anode, setting up an electromagnetic field. The frequency of the field is determined by the dimensions of the cavities which line the walls of the anode. When power is supplied to the magnetron, oscillators in the cavities form microwaves. A less common microwave radiation source is the water-cooled klystron which is available in ratings up to about 1 kW, used only to limited extent in very large industrial installations.

Focused Beam Sources

X-ray machines and neutron sources are used in research to determine the spatial arrangement of atoms by x-ray diffraction and neutron scattering in crystalline solids, respectively. X-ray machines for dental and medical radiography are commonplace special-purpose sources of ionizing radiation. Both the x-ray machines and the associated photographic film have been improved over the years to reduce patient exposure. X rays are also used for diagnostic imaging of soft tissue by computed tomography (CT) or CAT (computed axial tomography) scanning.21 The x-ray source rotates completely around the patient's body, resulting in a series of cross-sectional views. Data for x-ray transmission are processed with a computer, which provides a display of an image of the region of the body being scanned. It is appropriate at this point to call the reader's attention to a nuclear diagnostic technique, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), that uses computer analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)...

Multifarious Sources

The following are examples of other sources of ionizing radiation in the environment Direct energy conversion also has been used to obtain electrical energy from radioisotopes. Electrical power output of the order of microwatts is obtained by absorbing the ionizing radiation in a semiconductor material such as silicon, thereby generating a direct current for applications requiring polarity and negligible current. Gamma-ray sources containing 60Co or 137Cs and particle accelerators are used commercially to produce radiation-induced changes in a variety of materials. Chemical effects that occur when a substance absorbs ionizing radiation constitute the branch of chemistry known as radiation chemistry. As in photochemistry, free radicals play an essential role in the radiation-chemical reactions that occur in an absorber after an initial interaction. Radiolysis, the decomposition of compounds by ionizing radiation, is discussed in Chapter 13 (Section 13.8) for the case of water. The...

Food Irradiation

Food irradiation, sometimes called cold pasteurization'' or electronic pasteurization,'' is finding increasing worldwide use. This use of ionizing radiation has been endorsed by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Its use has been approved in over 40 countries, about 30 of which now irradiate a variety of products up to a total of 60. Belgium, France, and the Netherlands are among the countries that have established markets for irradiated food. In the United States, however, food irradiation is a controversial topic Examples of the types of food product for which processing with ionizing radiation has been developed include wheat, to disinfect insects spices and seasonings, to kill microorganisms and insects fresh fruits and vegetables, to delay maturation carrots, potatoes, onions, and garlic, to inhibit sprouting fresh fish, shellfish, and frozen fish, to extend shelf life pork, to...

High Level Dose

Nonlinear Threshold Dose Response Curve

There is no single value for absorbed dose that marks a sharp cutoff between a high-level and a low-level dose of ionizing radiation.69 For each harmful health effect, there is a range of values of dose within which the severity or the number of occurrences of the effect correlates with the dose in a statistically significant manner. Several types of relationship between dose and response have been observed. Examples are shown in Figure 13-21 for doses above background (the normal dose of ionizing radiation from natural radioactivity and cosmic radiation in the environment). The S-shaped curve in Figure 13-21a for a deterministic effect shows a threshold that is, the response decreases to zero for a given type of dose greater than zero. In other words, with increasing dose starting at zero, there is no response until the dose has reached a minimum (threshold) value. At very high doses the curve becomes flat because the cells do not survive. Presumably, the mechanism for cell repair is...

Alkyl Phenols

Endocrine disruptors can also disrupt signaling between organisms, though the effects are not completely understood. For example, legume plants, such beans, depend on special bacteria living in their roots to supply required nitrogen. These plants liberate specific chemicals into the soil that bind to the bacteria's receptors and commence the gene expression essential to locate its way to the plant. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the herbicide 2, 4-D, are potent to block these signaling to various degrees and thereby obstructing recruitment of the vital partners (Fox 2004 Fox et al. 2004). Some other hormone signals such as the peptide hormones may also be susceptible. These less studied relationships influence most body regulatory processes, such as brain functions, appetite, immunity and metabolism. Physical factors, such as low oxygen conditions, can influence hormones, too. Light and electromagnetic fields may contribute to certain type of cancers by changing performance of...

Problem Formulation

Application of degradative microorganisms. Physical stressors are generally thought of as a change in temperature, ionizing or nonionizing radiation, or geological processes. Chemical stressors generally constitute such materials as pesticides, industrial effluents, or waste streams from manufacturing processes. In the following discussion, chemical stressors are used as typical examples, but often different classes of stressors occur together. Radionucleotides often produce ionizing radiation and also can produce toxic effects. Plutonium is not only radioactive but is also highly

Absorption of Light

In principle, electromagnetic radiation can extend essentially over an almost infinite range of wavelengths, from the very long wavelengths of thousands of miles and low energies the relationship between the two given by equation (4-3) to the very short wavelengths of 10 12 m, which is on the order of magnitude of nuclear dimensions. It is convenient to divide this electromagnetic spectrum into regions, as given in Table 4-2. The Electromagnetic Spectrum The Electromagnetic Spectrum 5Such as M. S. Linet et al., Residential exposure to magnetic fields and acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children, N. Engl. J. Med., 337, 1-7 (1997) M. L. McBride et al., Power frequency electric and magnetic fields and risk of childhood leukemia in Canada, Am. J. Epidemiol., 149, 831-842 (1999), and correction, 150, 223 (1999). National Research Council Committee on the Possible Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Biologic Systems, Possible Health Effects of Exposure to Residential Electric and Magnetic...

Optical transduction

SPR is an optical electronic technique in which an evanescent electromagnetic field generated at the surface of a metal conductor is excited by light of a certain wavelength at a certain angle. SPR is associated with the evanescent electromagnetic field generated on the surface of a thin metal film when excited by an incident beam of light of appropriate wavelength at a particular angle, and it is explained as a charge density oscillation occurring at the interface between two media of oppositely charged dielectric constants. As the evanescent field generated under total internal reflection conditions is strongest at the interface and diminishes exponentially with increasing the distance of penetration from the interface, SPR promotes the detection of only surface-confined molecular interactions occurring on the transducer surface.

BDNA repair capacity

Several variants are associated with altered DNA repair capacity. Spitzet al.,111 reported that variant alleles at amino acid residues 312 and 751 of ERCC2 (XPD) were associated with reduced repair capacity in lymphocytes from individuals in a lung cancer cohort. Being homozygous for a variant allele in either XPC or XPD was associated with reduced capacity to repair UV-induced DNA damage as assayed by the host reactivation assay in a cohort of healthy subjects (Q. Wei, pers. comm.). Not surprisingly, variation in the BER gene XRCC1 was not associated with UV repair capacity. The ERCC2 751Gln variant was associated with a reduced capacity for repairing ionizing radiation using a cytogenetic-based assay112 and for removing UV-induced DNA damage.113 Hu et al.,114 report that the APE1 148Glu allele was associated with prolonged mitotic delay in lymphocytes exposed to ionizing radiation in breast cancer patients. In addition, lymphocytes from women with at least three variant alleles of...

DNA damage

DNA is routinely assaulted by intracellular and environmental agents that cause a wide range of damage.1-3 The major intracellular agents are reactive oxygen species (e.g., superoxide and hydroxyl radicals) generated during cellular metabolism. These radicals attack DNA, producing modified bases, oxidized apurinic sites, and strand breaks. In the absence of exogenous mutagen exposure, as many as 750 thymidine glycol lesions and 1000 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine lesions are generated per cell per day.2 The classes of damage caused by these endogenous agents are also observed in cells exposed to free radical generating agents such as anticancer drugs and radiomimetic antibiotics.3,4 DNA strand breaks arise spontaneously during the course of DNA replication and are another class of potentially harmful damage.5 Ionizing radiation exposure induces strand breaks. Ionizing radiation exposure also results in generation of oxygen radicals and elevated oxidative damage. One sievert of ionizing...

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