Kidney Damage Treatment Diet

Kidney Function Restoration Program

You'll Learn: This Delicious Super Food Straight From Your Fridge is Loaded With Special Compounds that reverse free radical kidney cell damage. This food (freely available from a grocery store near you) has tremendous antioxidant activity. Antioxidants soak up and destroy free radicals. Free radicals are what cause much of the damage in inflammatory, degenerative and kidney diseases. The Popular Test Used By Korean Doctors which is barely used in America to check for potent kidney destroying toxins. Ridding your kidneys of these toxins is very easy but you first have to discover if you have them. The Essential Fatty Acid has shown in hundreds of people through multiple studies to put out inflammation and correct heart complications seen in kidney disease. This Miracle Nutrient Featured in the prestigious medical Journals of Nephron, Clinical and Experimental Nephrology, Renal Physiology and other double blind studies to produce significant results in reversing kidney problems, lowering blood pressure and study participants reported a boost in energy and focus. This Naturally Occurring Amino Acid Discovered by Russian scientists in the 1920s and published in over 100 studies worldwide has shown to slow down and possible stop kidney disease, improve your red blood cells (which are malfunctioning in renal disease), and increase mood and decrease fatigue. The National kidney Disease Foundation recommends suffers of renal disease get tested and supplement their diet with this nutrient. But very few medical professionals are actually doing this. The Delicious Tropical Fruit that is cultivated in the Caribbean, South America, Asia, Australia and parts of Africa that is toxic and poisonous to an injured kidney. If you have any decrease in kidney function you must stay far away from this fruit that is abundant in the spring and summer seasons. More here...

Kidney Function Restoration Program Summary


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Carbon disulphide nephropathy

Cardiovascular disease and nephrotic syndrome. At age 50 he developed congestive heart failure and progressive neuropsychiatric abnormalities, including memory failure, apathy, homicidal ideation and impotence. Over the next 5 years he developed progressive renal failure and dementia. Haemodialysis was initiated and a right nephrectomy was performed because of the presence of a renal mass. Renal tissue remote from the mass showed focal sclerosing glomerulonephritis and extensive interstitial changes. He developed end stage renal disease and progressive dementia, because of the dementia his family decided to withdraw dialysis support and he died of renal failure. The patient had been employed for 15 years in the spinning department of a viscose rayon manufacturing plant. Air sampling at the plant detected high carbon disulphide concentrations (200-500 ppm), well above the occupational exposure limits (Klemmer and Harris, 2000).

Electrodialysis Descriptions and Definitions

Dialysis is described as the process of selective or fractional diffusion, separation, of dissolved substances and substances in colloidal suspension across a porous membrane. There is a clear distinction between such processes and osmotic mechanisms. In the case of dialysis, both solvent and solutes pass through the porous membranes, leaving behind large colloidal molecules and structures. Wash water flow Figure 4.1 Single cell dialysis. When an electric field is also impressed across a dialysis cell, or chamber, further separation of ionic species is possible depending upon the type of membranes and electric charge configurations. With strictly microporous membranes that have no electric charge characteristics of their own, the ion migrations are accelerated into the outer compartments by attracting oppositely charged electrodes. However, care must be taken in maintaining low ionic concentrations in the electrode compartments to minimize migration of ionic species back into the...

Acute isopropanol ingestion treated with haemodialysis

A 28 year old man was admitted to hospital 45 minutes after ingestion of approximately 1,000 ml of rubbing alcohol over a 10 minute period. The patient was hypotensive, with a rectal temperature of 36.1 oC. His respirations were 14 per minute and shallow. He was comatose and unresponsive to any stimuli, with absent corneal and deep tendon reflexes. Pupils were dilated. He was given IV fluids and the urine was positive for acetone. He underwent haemodialysis approximately 5 hours post ingestion. At this time the isopropanol concentration was 4,400 mg l (acetone 400 mg l). After 2 hours of dialysis he was agitated with a normal blood pressure. After a further 3 hours of dialysis he was calmer and responded to simple commands. The isopropanol concentration was 1,000 mg l (acetone 100 mg l) and dialysis was stopped at this point. He made an uneventful recovery (King et al., 1970).

Acute renal failure due to occupational exposure

A 34 year old man working in a factory manufacturing computer ribbons was exposed to trichloroethylene for 8 hours while cleaning the ink off old ribbons for subsequent reuse. He wore gloves but no mask and used 7.5 l of trichloroethylene (99.5 pure). He began to feel unwell the next day with drowsiness and a distaste for alcohol and cigarettes. He became short tempered and began vomiting after meals. Swelling of the feet and face began one week after exposure with bilateral loin tenderness, frequency of micturition and dysuria. He attended hospital 3 weeks after exposure. On examination he was hypertensive, with bilateral renal angle and suprapubic tenderness. Pronounced pedal oedema was also present. Chest X-ray revealed small bilateral pleural effusions but the lung fields were clear. His ECG was normal. The diagnosis was acute interstitial nephritis. He made a slow recovery and eight months later his renal function was normal (David et al., 1989).


The principles of operation are quite simple and straightforward to comprehend, apply and manipulate for the purposes of achieving certain application criteria. In essence, a dialysis cell consists of four basic components two electrodes and two membranes. Electrodes are, of course, opposite in electrical polarity, and the membranes have ion-selective properties. The positive ion selective, which permits (+) ions to be transported more easily than negative ones, is usually fabricated of carboxylic group, or sulfonic acid compounds, and is referred to as a cation membrane. An ED system is usually comprised of a series of electro-dialysis cells that separates dissolved ionic materials from processed water compartments into waste water sections by means of selective transfer through ion exchange membranes. The ions are transported across these membranes by passage of electric current from a dc power supply.

How Can Hccpd Affect My Health

Your kidneys and liver may show signs that you have been exposed to HCCPD. Some people who were exposed to HCCPD had increased amounts of protein in their urine and increased levels of other compounds in their blood. These are signs that kidney and liver effects may have occurred after exposure to HCCPD. Other people who were exposed did not show these effects.

Techniques of Colour Removal

Increase in population, poverty and economic stagnation in many developing countries have left the society with economic problems and strategies for development which have increased the demand of water resources for agricultural, industrial and drinking water supply. Many countries promoted the reuse of treated waste water in order to minimize water consumption and to cause less pollution. Various treatment methods such as reduction, precipitation, coagulation and flocculation, flotation, adsorption on activated carbon, ion exchange, reverse osmosis and electro-dialysis are being also used in order to alleviate the problem of water pollution by dyes in the environment. Most of these methods used are expensive or ineffective, especially when the dye concentrations are in the order of 1-100 mg L 10 . Hence, more effective and economical viable technologies are required for the colour removal from textiles effluent. Adsorption on activated carbon and other adsorbents from biomass is...

Phenotypic studies methods A Epidemiologic methods 1 Study design

Cohort kidney transplant studies, one an international cohort14 and the other a cohort of kidney transplant patients.15 The response rate is an indicator of whether the sample is representative of the population being studied however, the response rate is rarely reported.

Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environment

Case was lead, which used to be added to petrol to help its combustion characteristics in car engines. The negative effects of lead emissions became visible only after cars became used in great numbers. Lead leads to cognitive retardation in children and causes learning disabilities, hearing loss, reduced attention span, and behavioural abnormalities as well as kidney damage. Cognitive and growth defects also may occur in infants whose mothers are exposed to lead during pregnancy. Once this became clear, lead in petrol was phased out in most developed countries, though not without opposition. It is still not phased out worldwide.

Solute Concentration Electrical Conduction

When designing and assessing the performance of electro-dialysis systems it is frequently convenient to perform the associated calculations in terms of dissolved solids concentrations, or Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) numbers. TDS is normally expressed as the portion of solids present in solution as parts per million of the weight of the total solution. Obviously, in the usually encountered low concentrations, the total weight of the solution is essentially that of the solvent water.

Biomarkers of effectssusceptibility

A number of markers for kidney damage6 are now widely used in monitoring workers exposed to inorganic mercury (Table 15.2). Increased excretion of albumin in urine is used as a marker of damage to the filtration mechanism of the glomerular membrane. Damage to the membrane is believed to be mediated by an autoimmue mechanism triggered by inorganic mercury. Table 15.2 Molecular Biomarkers of Kidney Function Table 15.2 Molecular Biomarkers of Kidney Function

Cell Potential and Membrane Resistance Contributions

In the development of the previous equations for an operating dialysis cell, we did not take into account the contribution of membrane resistance and back-emf factors. Even though they were identified as parameters, they were ignored in the mathematical development. As n becomes greater, the contribution of R., interface resistance becomes smaller. Equation (4.82) should be substituted for (4.11) to be more rigorous in the analyses. However, the approximations made in the previous sections are certainly valid for dialysis systems operating as demineralizers with ten or more cells in series.

Acute exposure Inhalation

Haemodialysis is indicated if the patient has a severe or unresponsive acidosis, ocular signs, or methanol or formic acid concentrations > 500 mg l. Although less effective, peritoneal dialysis has been used and could be considered where haemodialysis facilities are not available. Dialysis should be continued until the methanol concentration is < 200 mg l. During haemodialysis, ethanol treatment should be continued, but as ethanol is also readily dialysed, it will be necessary to increase the dosage by 100 mg kg hour, or more, to maintain a blood ethanol concentration of 1,000-1,500 mg l. It is preferable in this situation to add ethanol to the dialysate to achieve a concentration of 1,000 mg l (Chow et al., 1997).

Oxidase7ethoxyresorufinodeethylase Mfoerod

EROD activity is measured in the H4IIE cells as follows. The cells are seeded at 7,000 cells per well in 250 L of Dulbecco's modified Eagles culture media (Tillitt et al., 1991). After an initial incubation period of 24 hours, the cells are dosed with 5 L volumes of enriched SPMD extracts (cleanup of extracts generally includes dialysis and size exclusion chromatography SEC ) and incubated for an additional 72 hours. Sample dose is typically expressed as g-equivalents triolein or whole SPMD per mg cellular protein. Multiple exposures are performed at each of six (typically) sample concentrations, using a dilution series. Afterwards, the microtiter plates are washed three times with distilled water to lyse the cells. EROD activity (pmol mg-1 cellular protein per min) in each sample is measured

Neurotoxicity Endpoints

Following dialysis and treatment by SEC, the sample extracts were solvent exchanged into sterile DMSO. Subsequently, four rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss RBT ) were placed in each of seven tanks (each tank is considered as a treatment and a replicate is an individual fish within a tank) in 18 C well water (280 mg L-1 hardness as CaCO3) using flow-through conditions. RBT were fed once daily throughout the study. Following a 48 hour acclimation, RBT were injected interperitoneally with 100 L of a 1 1 mixture of an SPMD extract or appropriate controls in DMSO or corn oil. Controls included non-deployed SPMD extracts, SEC blanks, and DMSO blanks. The same injection procedure was repeated 6 days later. RBT were sacrificed 11 days after initial exposure to the extracts, and the plasma, liver, gills, and brain were immediately removed from each fish and maintained at -80 C until assayed.

Sedimentwater systems

Or for the slow reaction rate of certain trace metal ligand exchanges. Therefore, in many occasions, it is today considered more efficient to make direct determinations of some of the critical parameters, such as the concentration offree metal ions in the porewater, e. g. by using ion-selective electrodes, anodic stripping voltametry or by separating the low-molecular solutes by means of dialysis prior to chemical analysis.

Populations That Are Unusually Susceptible

No specific population that would be particularly susceptible to chlorophenol intoxication has been identified. Because of the extensive hepatic conjugation and renal clearance of these compounds, individuals with liver or kidney dysfunction may be the most sensitive population. The results of recent studies indicate that individuals with cirrhosis of the liver (Macdonald et al. 1992 Ohta 1991) or hepatitis (Ohta 1991) show impaired Phase II conjugation. Chronic renal failure is associated with the inability to clear conjugated metabolites, resulting in elevated, steady-state whole body concentrations of glucuronide and sulfate metabolites (Martin et al. 1991). Patients with acute tubular necrosis, with or without cirrhosis, show markedly elevated urinary -glucuronidase concentrations (Solis-Herruzo et al. 1986) and, theoretically, a high body burden of unconjugated metabolites. These data suggest that chlorophenol-exposed individuals with preexisting liver or kidney disease may be at...

Exposure Of Laboratory Animals To Spmd Extracts

To ascertain whether waterborne bioavailable contaminants were present in ponds in North-Central Minnesota, Bridges et al. (2004) deployed 16 standard SPMDs at each of two sites for 30 days. At one site, a high rate of amphibian deformities had been documented (ranging from 60 to 75 in the mink frog Rana septentrionalis and 4 to 20 in the northern leopard frog Ranapipiens , Canfield et al., 2000). The reference site had a stable amphibian population (Helgen, 1999) exhibiting no unusual rates of deformities. Following dialysis and SEC cleanup as described in Chapter 5, the extracts from the deployed SPMD samples within each site were pooled into a single composite sample. Extracts from fabrication, field and process blanks were similarly treated. The composite samples in high purity hexane were solvent-exchanged into sterile DMSO so that each 1-mL extract contained residues equivalent to about one day of exposure (i.e., represents the amount of bioavailable residues sequestered by a...

Reducing Peak Absorption Following Exposure

Humans may be exposed to HCCPD by inhalation, ingestion, or dermal contact. Exposure may be prevented by wearing respiratory protection, protective clothing, and gloves. Inhalation and ingestion have been associated with lung, liver, and kidney damage in animals (Abdo et al. 1984 Rand et al. 1982a, 1982b), although comparable data do not exist for humans. Several methods can be used to reduce absorption and thereby reduce the severity of the lesions.

Metalligand interactions

We know that DOM decreases metal toxicity due to decreasing the free ion activity, although total dissolved metal fractions may increase.We also know that the free Me2+ activity increases in response to total metal content and increased solution acidity, which supports the the assumption that the free metal activity is controlled by complexation-adsorption rather than mineral solubility equilibria. Metal ion activity calculations based on chemical equilibrium reactions also seem limited due to the lack of kinetic considerations. In-situ techniques like ion-selective electrodes, or DGT (see section 5.5.3), dialysis or millipeeper methods (for porewater recovery), may overestimate ion activities as they also respond to and interfer with other elements (like sulphides, metals, DOM), or they are not able to monitor concentration shifts during organisms exposure.

Toxicity of Arsenic 2231 Human

Acute arsenic poisoning may cause vomiting, dryness of the mouth and throat, muscle cramps, colicky abdominal pain, tingling of the hands and feet, circulatory disorders, and nervous weakness, the skin may become cold and clammy, hallucinations, delirium, and diarrhoea may also appear, fatal shock can develop due to renal failure. Death may result within a short time due to hepatic failure, renal failure, or heart attack (Gorby 1994 Bissen and Frimmel 2003a). The human body can detoxify the inorganic arsenic compounds As(III) and As(V) by methylation to a certain amount to reduce the affinity of arsenic for tissue. The possibility of methylation of arsenic is limited to an arsenic uptake of 400-500 mg day (Pontius et al. 1994 Bissen and Frimmel 2003a). Arsenic compounds are excreted in the urine after 3-4 days (Yamauchi and Fowler 1994 Pontius et al. 1994 Bissen and Frimmel 2003a). The individual sensitivity to arsenic differs. Humans who are not accustomed to the consumption of...

Relative Amounts Accumulated

Data from the Meadows et al. (1998) study was further analyzed (Echols et al., 1996) by using principle component analysis (PCA) to compare PCB congener concentrations in technical Aroclor mixtures, contaminated spring water, caged brown trout, SPMDs and hexane filled dialysis bags (Sodergren, 1987 also, see description in Chapter 1). As stated earlier, caged fish were not fed and exposure conditions were quite stable during the 28 d exposure. Figure 7.6 shows the results of the PCA. The clustering of fish and SPMDs together indicates the close similarity of the concentration profiles of major congeners. This PCA plot further supports the good correlation between SPMD and brown trout rate constants shown in Figure 7.3. However, in vitro bioassay of the SPMD and trout extracts using thePLHC-1 (fish Poeciliopsis lucida hepatoma cells) ethoxyresorufin- O -deethylase (EROD) test indicated that the toxicity of the two types of extracts differ substantially (Meadows, 2005). When the EROD...

Coalbed Methane Produced Water In The Western Us

The USGS examined acute and chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), a standardized test species used in aquatic toxicology studies (see Table 5.2 Skaar et al., 2006 Farag et al., 2010). Laboratory tests simulating water characteristics in the Powder and Tongue rivers implicated bicarbonate, rather than sodium, as a cause of significant acute toxicity to the minnows (Farag et al., 2010). The study additionally included assessment of responsiveness of other fish species, amphibians, and invertebrates (see Table 5.3). As shown in Table 5.2, the 50th and 75th percentile concentrations of bicarbonate from groundwater samples collected from the Powder River Basin were 712 mg L and 1,103 mg L, respectively. Minnow survival was significantly lower in all treatments having sodium bicarbonate concentrations exceeding 400 mg L (291 mg L bicarbonate) and was reduced from 89 percent survival in controls to 2.4 percent at sodium bicarbonate concentrations of...

Fatal acute dermal and inhalational exposure

A 22 year old male arrived in hospital unconscious in impending cardiac arrest. There was a glue-like odour on his breath and his clothes were damp. He was resuscitated and ventilated. Blood gas analysis revealed acidosis. He had erythema of the face, trunk, arms and thighs. He had been painting a bathroom using a primer containing toluene 65 , acetone 20 and acrylic resin 12 . About an hour after starting he had been found unconscious in the bath with an empty can of primer beside him. It was thought that he had been overcome by the fumes, collapsed and spilt the primer over himself. The depth and extent of skin injury progressed with blistering resembling second degree burns over the neck and chest, approximately five hours after exposure the skin was irrigated. The burns covered more than 70 of the total body surface area and by the second day had worsened with extensive necrosis and massive fluid loss. The urine was dark brown, acidic (pH 5) and contained high concentrations of...

Materials Separation Processes

The essential principle of electrodialysis is that electrical potential gradients will make charged molecules diffuse in a given medium at rates far greater than attainable by chemical potentials between two liquids, as in conventional dialysis. When a d.c. electric current is transmitted through a saline solution, the cations migrate toward the negative terminal, or cathode, and the anions toward the positive terminal, the anode. By adjusting the potential between the terminals or plates, the electric current and, therefore, the flow of ions transported between the plates, can be varied.

Trace Inorganic Contaminants

Barium Barium salts are used mainly in the manufacture of paints, linoleum, paper, and drilling muds. Fortunately, the principal form is the sulfate, which is highly insoluble. A limit of 2.0 mg L has been placed on barium because prolonged tests with experimental animals has shown muscular and cardiovascular disorders and kidney damage. Cadmium Cadmium is used extensively in the manufacture of batteries, paints, and plastics. In addition, it is used to piate iron products, such as nuts and bolts, for corrosion prevention. It is from plating operations that most of the cadmium reaches the water environment. At extreme levels, it causes an illness called Itai-Itai disease, characterized by brittle bones and intense pain. At low levels of exposure over prolonged periods, it causes high blood pressure, sterility among males, kidney damage, and flu-like disorders, it has recently been discovered that significant amounts are contained in cigarette smoke. Lead Lead is highly toxic and is...

Passive Sampler Development

In 1980, Byrne and Aylott (1980) were the first to patent a simple device that passively sampled organic contaminants from water. The device consists of a reservoir of nonpolar organic solvent separated from water by selected non-porous polymeric membranes. The word nonporous refers to polymeric films or membranes, where solutes essentially dissolve into rubbery or amorphous regions of the polymer, as there are no fixed holes (other than defects) in the matrix for diffusive transport. The membranes used in the Byrne and Aylott device included cellulose, vinyl chlorides, polyvinylidene fluoride, and polytetrafluoroethylene. No publications other than the patent are known to exist for the use of this device. Sodergren (1987) first reported the development and testing of an in situ mimetic (mimics key elements of complex biological processes in simple media) passive sampling device for the accumulation of waterborne HOCs. This device consisted of 3 mL of hexane sealed in a hydrophilic...

Protection Against Low Levels of Cadmium

Cadmium is acutely toxic The lethal dose is about 1 g. Humans are protected against chronic exposure to low levels of cadmium by the presence of the sulfur-rich protein metallothionein, the usual function of which is the regulation of zinc metabolism. Because it has many sulfhydryl groups, metallothionein can complex almost all ingested Cd2+ the complex is subsequently eliminated in the urine. If the amount of cadmium absorbed by the body exceeds the capacity of metallothionein to complex it, the metal is stored mainly in the liver and kidneys. Indeed, there is evidence that chronic exposure to cadmium eventually leads to an increased chance of acquiring kidney disease.

Steinkopff Prize 1993 recipient Duan Vudelic

A stronger tendency towards applied research has always been a part of Prof. Vucelic's character. Hence, in the past few years he has tried to apply pure biophysical methods to medical research. This has resulted in a new method for the diagnosis of skin diseases based on the propagation of acoustic waves through complex skin interphases and to a new hypothesis about the cause of Balkan nephropathy.

Sustainable Energy Development

Proposing wrong solutions for various problems has become progressively worse. For instance, the US is the biggest consumer of milk, most of which is fortified with calcium. Yet the US ranks at the top of the list of osteoporosis patients per capita in the world. There are similar standings regarding the use of vitamins, antioxidants, sugar-free diet etc. Potato farms on Prince Edward Island in eastern Canada are considered a hot bed for cancer (The Epoch Times 2006). Chlorothalonil, a fungicide, which is widely used in the potato fields, is considered a carcinogen. The United States EPA has classified chlorothalonil as a known carcinogen that can cause a variety of ill effects, including skin and eye irritation, reproductive disorders, kidney damage, and cancer. Environment Canada (2006) published lists of chemicals that were banned at different times. This indicates that all the toxic chemicals used today are not beneficial and will be banned from use some day. This trend continues...

Table 21 The parameters most frequently used in human and mammalian pBTK models

Partition coefficients can be estimated using in vitro approaches such as ultracen-trifugation or equilibrium dialysis, or in silico approaches that are mechanistically based (Haddad et al. 2000a Poulin et al. 2001 Poulin and Theil 2002 Rodgers et al. 2005 Rodgers and Rowland 2006) or that use QSAR approaches (Fouchecourt et al. 2001 Beliveau et al. 2003, 2005 Beliveau and Krishnan 2005). The mac-romolecular binding parameters, which can greatly influence the distribution of a chemical in blood and tissues, can usually be determined by the same in vitro techniques. Many in vitro models are used to determine the values of biochemical parameters for example, metabolic rate constants (i.e., intrinsic clearance, Vmax, Km) can be determined using isolated hepatocytes, microsomal fractions, cytosolic fractions, or postmitochondrial fractions preparation. Many of these approaches for determining values for hepatic clearance parameters in vitro have been successfully extrapolated to in vivo...

Arsenic Toxicity of Food Chain

1999) and, because arsenate has a similar structure as phosphate, it can substitute for phosphorus in the body, which can lead to replacement of phosphorus in the bone for many years (Arena and Drew 1986 Ellenhorn and Barceloux 1988). Because arsenate is hydrolyzed easily (in the cell), it prevents subsequent transfer of phosphate to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP the energy currency of the cell) and thus depletes the cell of its energy (Winship 1984). Arsine, the most toxic of the arsenicals (Buchet and Lauwerys 1983 Leonard 1991), is known to cause hemolysis of red blood cells, leading to hemolytic anemia, which is primarily responsible for the development of oliguria renal failure (Fowler and Weissberg 1974 Fowler 1977). It has been suggested that arsine interaction with sulfhydryl group of proteins and enzymes (Levinsky et al. 1970) may be responsible for inhibition of erythrocyte sodium-potassium pump. It also is known that arsenic decreases DNA...

Impact of Mussel Consumption to Human Health 9441 Beneficial Effects If Mussel Consumption

Cd, a metal with high toxic effects, which is strongly bioaccumulated in mussels, has an elimination half-life of 10-30 years and accumulates in the human body, particularly the kidney, Amiard, et al. (2008). Cd may act as an acute and chronic type of poison. In chronic exposure, the first sign is kidney damage, usually diagnosed by increased excretion of low molecular weight proteins, Widmeyer et al. (2004). Over time, Cd can accelerate osteoporotic process, since a high calcium dose can inhibit Cd absorption. The reverse situation - the inhibition of calcium absorption by Cd - has also been reported. This interaction is of special importance because of the suggested role of Cd in the development of bone softening due to decalcification, a characteristic of ltai-itai disease, Han et al. (2000) .

Carbon Chloroform Extract CCE and Carbon Alcohol Extract CAE Tests No Longer Routinely Used Carbonchloroform extract

Chromium The total chromium MCL and WHO guideline73 is 0.1 mg 1 in drinking water. Chromium is found in cigarettes, some foods, the air, and industrial plating, paint, and leather tanning wastes. Chromium deficiency is associated with atherosclerosis. Hexavalent chromium dust can cause cancer of the lungs and kidney damage.74 1.1-Dichloroethylene This chemical is used in industry and is found in drinking water as a result of the breakdown of related solvents.78 The solvents are used as cleaners and degreasers of metals and generally get into drinking water by improper waste disposal. This chemical has been shown to cause liver and kidney damage in laboratory animals such as rats and mice when exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause adverse effects in laboratory animals may also cause adverse health effects in humans exposed at lower levels over long periods of time. The EPA has set the enforceable drinking water standard for 1,1-dichloroethylene at 0.007 mg 1...

Similarity of Uptake Rate Constants

Meadows et al. (1998) conducted a 28 d exposure of brown trout (Salmo trutta), standard SPMDs and hexane filled dialysis bags (Sodergren, 1987) to spring water (total organic carbon < 1 mg L-1) contaminated with PCBs. Trout were not fed during the exposure, and temperature and flow conditions remained constant throughout the exposure. A good correlation (r2 0.89) was found between the uptake rate constants (ku Fs) for whole body trout and the uptake rate constants

Heavy Metals Toxicity

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metals and is considered non-essential for living organisms. Cadmium has been recognized for its negative effect on the environment where it accumulates throughout the food chain posing a serious threat to human health. Cadmium pollution has induced extremely severe effects on plants (Baszynski 1986) . Cadmium , which is widely used and extremely toxic in relatively low dosages, is one of the principal heavy metals responsible for causing kidney damage, renal disorder, high blood pressure, bone fraction and destruction of red blood cells (Drasch 1993). Because of the toxicity and bioaccumulation, Cd2+ has been considered as a priority pollutant by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Krishnan and Anirudhan 2003). The permissible limit for Cd2+ as described by World Health Organization is 0.01 mg dm-3. The main anthropogenic pathway through which Cd2 + enters the water bodies is via wastes and wastewaters from industrial processes such as...

Identification of Data Needs

A NOAEL of 10 mg kg day in rats was identified in a 13-week oral study (Abdo et al. 1984). The LOAEL in this study was 19 mg kg day based on hyperplasia of the forestomach, a site that is lacking in humans. Accordingly, the NOAEL of 10 mg kg day for forestomach hyperplasia was not selected for use in deriving an MRL. However, nephrosis was present in both mice and rats at higher dose levels. The NOAEL of 19 mg kg day for nephrotic lesions in rats was used to derive an intermediate-duration oral MRL of 0.1 mg kg day from the study by Abdo et al. (1984). Additional research evaluating intermediate-duration exposures is not recommended at this time. Chronic-Duration Exposure and Cancer. There are no human studies of chronic-duration exposure to HCCPD or of the tumorigenic effects of this compound. Long-term inhalation studies in animals have been conducted, but the oral and dermal routes have not been studied. There are no available pharmacokinetic data for chronic exposure by any route....

Effect of the feed water composition

A number of studies performed with either NF RO membranes (Agbekodo et al., 1996 Berg et al., 1997 Devitt et al., 1998a Boussahel et al., 2000 Zhang et al., 2004) or dialysis membranes (Devitt & Wiesner, 1998b Dalton et al., 2005) have shown that the retention of pesticides is significantly influenced by the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) in water. This fact is of considerable importance since a large percentage of pesticide residues is present in surface and ground waters together with organic matter i.e. humic and fulvic acids, polysaccharides, etc. (Kulikova & Perminova, 2002). In general, humic substances (HS) are a ubiquitous component of natural water systems that may function as an auxiliary phase to alter the speciation and transport behaviour of other xenobiotic compounds present in water (Wersaw, 1991). Thus, organic micropollutants, like pesticides, may exist either as free dissolved species or as a complex with HS. Moreover, triazine retention was found to...

Environmental Importance of Heavy Metals

Heavy metals are a group of elements with a density greater than 5 g cm3. Fifty three of the ninety naturally occurring elements are HMs (Schutzendubel and Polle, 2002). Metals, such as Cd, Cu and Zn, are primarily of geogenic origin in soils, but anthropogenic activities such as, mining, smelting, metal-working industries, combustion of fossil fuels, phosphate fertilization, addition of sludge to soils, etc., lead to the emission of HMs and their accumulation in ecosystems. Contamination of soils by HMs is a critical environmental concern due to their potential adverse ecological effects. Heavy metals are potential threats for human health and the environment, through their accumulation in the soil, water and in the food-chain (Yadav, 2009). Heavy metals can enter in the human diet and accumulate gradually in the human body. It can result several adverse health effects (e.g. kidney damage or osteoporosis) (Wu et al., 2010). The regulatory limits of Cd, Cu and Zn in agricultural soils...

Atsdr Minimal Risk Levels And Worksheets

Effects noted in study and corresponding doses Nephrosis was evident in both sexes at dose levels of 38 mg kg day or greater and effects were confined to the terminal portion of the proximal convoluted tubules in the inner cortex. The lower NOAEL of 10 mg kg day for the absence of forestomach lesions was not used as the basis of the MRL because humans do not possess a forestomach. Kidney weights were not affected. Because the batch of HCCPD used in the study also contained hexachlorobutadiene (0.5 ) as and impurity, there may be some synergistic effect between the two chemicals at the highest doses. Forestomach hyperplasia was reported in females at dose levels of 19 mg kg day or greater. This effect was also seen in male rats, but occurred at doses of 38 mg kg day or greater. Focal inflammation of the forestomach was also observed in females (19 mg) and males (38 mg). Although the number of animals with inflammation increased in the exposed group compared to controls, it should be...


Toxicity from acute exposure to carbon disulphide is rare and most adverse effects have been reported from chronic exposure. Carbon disulphide is a potent neurotoxin and is narcotic at high concentrations. Target organs are the central and peripheral nervous systems, including the optic and auditory nerves, the liver, heart, testes and skin. Less pronounced are the toxic effects of carbon disulphide on the pancreas, kidney, the haematopoietic system and the hormonal regulatory system. At high concentrations carbon disulphide is embryotoxic. Epidemiological studies of workers in the viscose rayon industry have shown that the main toxic effects are on the neurological system (both central and peripheral) and the cardiovascular system (coronary heart disease and ECG changes). Ocular effects are also widely reported (alterations in the retinal microvasculature and impaired colour discrimination) and liver and kidney damage can occur (WHO, 1979 BUA, 1991 Gehring et al., 1991 Feldman, 1999).

Heavy Metals

Cadmium, a nonessential, toxic metal to plants, which provides a good example of a heavy metal, can inhibit root and shoot growth, affect nutrient uptake and homeo-stasis, and is frequently accumulated by agriculturally important crops. Thus, diseases are caused when Cd-enriched crop products are consumed by animals and humans. It is known to disturb enzyme activities, to inhibit DNA-mediated transformation in microorganisms, to interfere in the symbiosis between microbes and plants, as well as to increase plant predisposition to fungal invasion (Kabata-Pendias and Pendias 2001). In humans, it may promote several disorders in the metabolism of Ca and vitamin D, leading to bone degeneration and kidney damage (itai-itai disease) (Adriano 2001).


Toxicity may occur through ingestion, inhalation, injection or prolonged skin contact. The initial effects of chloroform toxicity are those of CNS depression. These effects come on rapidly following ingestion or inhalation. Hepatotoxicity occurs 10-48 hours post exposure with the liver function tests peaking 3-4 days post exposure. They usually return to normal within 6-8 weeks. Renal failure is usually evident within 24-48 hours. Death may occur early from arrhythmias or 4 to 5 days later due to severe liver damage.

In surface waters

The development of highly sensitive and element-specific detectors, like electrothermal vaporization atomic absorption and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission, mass spectroscopic instrumentation, and of electrochemical methods, like ASV, and hence the tremendous lowering of the analytical detection limit (down to ppt levels) for total concentrations of almost all metals, has concomitantly supported developments to further improve the selectivity and reproducibility of chemical and instrumental separation methods (like exchange resin, dialysis membrane, competitive chelation or chromatographic techniques) to identify and quantify particular metal species in complex natural waters (see Reuther 1999 and Allen 2002). As a first approach the distribution of metal compounds in aqueous phases can be defined according to their size as dissolved (< 1 nm), colloidal (1 nm - 0.2 m) and particulate metals (> 0.2 m). Resulting partitioning or distribution coefficients (kd) provide an...


Citrinin CAS number 518-75-2 was first isolated as a pure compound from a culture of Penicillium citrinum in 1931 28 . Later, yellowish coloured rice imported from Thailand to Japan in 1951 was found to be contaminated with P. citrinum and subsequent investigations showed that isolates of the fungus produced citrinin. Citrinin is a mycotoxin, which is produced by A. ochraceus, P. citrinum, and related species, which contaminate grain. It causes nephropathy in livestock and has been implicated as a cause of Balkan nephropathy in humans. It frequently co-occurs with OTA with which it showed a documented synergistic effect 29,30 .

Membrane Operation

Membrane operation is a specific, but not exotic, operation. In fact it is a hybrid of classical heat and mass transfer processes (Figure 4.1). Direct contact mass transfer operations tend to reach equilibrium due to a difference of chemical potential between two phases that are put into contact. In the same way, temperature equilibrium is aimed at during heat transfer operations, for which driving force is a temperature gradient. In contrast, for membrane operations, by using the specific properties of separation of the thin layer material that constitutes the membrane, under the particular driving force that is applied, it is possible to deviate from the equilibrium that prevails at fluid-to-fluid interphase with classical direct contact mass exchange systems and to reorientate the mass transfer properties. In particular, this is the case with classical operations such as microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), reverse osmosis (RO), gas separation (GS), pervaporation (PV),...

Reducing Body Burden

HCCPD that is absorbed in the body is distributed to the lung, liver, and kidney (Lawrence and Dorough 1981). Although the major routes of elimination are the urine and feces, the disparity between elimination and retention as a function of route is not fully understood. It should be noted that the metabolic fate and the identity of metabolites have not been fully characterized. In the absence of data, it is difficult to speculate on methods for reducing HCCPD in body tissues. Considering the reactivity of HCCPD, it is unlikely that dialysis or hemoperfusion would be effective in reducing body burden.


Contaminant stratification is commonly seen in aquifers when multilevel short-screened wells are utilized 35 . In the absence of in-well mixing, this stratification can manifest itself within the screened interval of the well, as shown by investigations of standing water in monitoring wells using dialysis cells isolated between baffles to limit in-well mixing and vertical flow 24,36 .

Laboratory Methods

In 1974, Benes and Steines 8 placed dialysis membranes filled with distilled water into 1-L beakers containing a solution of radioactively labelled metals. Water was analysed from both the samplers and the beaker over the course of a week, revealing the differences in uptake kinetics as well as equilibration concentrations of the spiked compounds in these early aquatic passive sampling devices. This simple batch depletion experimental design has been applied as a useful starting point for testing numerous passive sampler designs. Sodergren's 9 n-hexane-filled dialysis bags were exposed to PCB, HCB and DDT in the same fashion in 1987 and two years later the first work on SPMD kinetics by Huckins et al. 7 followed suit, exposing prototype SPMDs to 1-L well water spiked with radiolabelled PCBs, mirex and fenvalerate. Additionally, Huckins' study exposed spiked SPMDs to clean well water, providing kinetics data for diffusion in both directions. For Benes and Steines' and Huckins' work,...


Of the 81 patients who had 12-lead electrocardiograms, 15 showed abnormal findings. The most frequent abnormalities were sinus tachycardia and nonspecific ST-T changes. Of 29 the patients who had serum pH < 7.35, 13 had metabolic acidosis, 1 had respiratory acidosis, and 15 had mixed-type acidosis. Of the 105 patients who had CXR, 22 revealed abnormal infiltrates or patches. Three patients had renal failure that necessitated hemodialysis, and all resulted in fatalities. Seven patients had co-ingestants, including sedative drugs (2), hypnotics (3), wine (3), and paraquat (1). The average survival time of the fatality cases was 2.8 0.8 days.

Terrestrial Systems

Dissolved metal concentrations similar to those observed in zero-tension lysime-ters.90 91 The free-metal ion concentrations in these solutions, after collection, can be determined by the same techniques used for samples from the aqueous environment (e.g., ion-specific electrodes, anodic stripping voltammetry, ion-exchange resins or Donnan dialysis). Given the appropriate water quality data (major cations, major anions, pH, dissolved organic matter), the speciation of dissolved metals in soil pore water can in principle be calculated with the WHAM or NICA-Donnan chemical equilibrium models, but as discussed earlier for aqueous systems, the applicability of these models to natural samples remains to be demonstrated.

Regenerative Effects

Another organ that has been identified as a target for high-MW phthalate esters is the kidney. Effects on the kidneys vary depending on the length of expo-sure.Following short-term exposure, there is evidence of renal tubular degeneration and proliferation, and cyst formation 47 . Over an extended period of exposure, mineralization of the renal tubules may occur, as well as chronic nephropathy. These cellular changes also occur in untreated animals and are part of a normal aging process 48,49 . Thus, exposure to high-MW phthalates may not be solely responsible for the effects observed. Instead, it is possible that these larger substances enhance the normal process of aging in laboratory animals. Therefore, the relevance to humans is unclear 50 .

Solid Phase Samplers

Examples of equilibrium samplers include solid-phase microextraction (SPME) (Leslie et al. 2002 Kraaij et al. 2003 Van der Wal et al. 2004a, b Conder and La Point 2005 You et al. 2006,2007 Jonker et al. 2007 Trimble et al. 2008), dialysis membranes (e.g., Akkanen and Kukkonen 2003), polyethylene membranes (e.g., Adams et al. 2007 Tomaszewski and Luthy 2008), and polyoxymethylene (Jonker and Koelmans 2001 Hong and Luthy 2008). Although specific laboratory procedures may differ for the various types of passive samplers, the overall aim and

Impact and Toxicity

Example Fertility Diet

Phenolic toxicity has been studied on selected microbes (e.g. protozoa, yeast and bacteria), algae, duckweed and numerous invertebrates and vertebrates. Human consumption of phenol contaminated water can cause severe pain, blood changes, liver injury and muscular effects, and even death (Flocco et al., 2002 Aksu, 2005). In addition, chronic toxic effects on human include vomiting, difficulty in swallowing, anorexia, liver and kidney damage, headache and other mental disturbances (Srivastava et al., 2006). A probable oral lethal dose to humans is 50-500 mg kg-1. Similarly, chronic effects on animals include shortened lifespan, reproductive problems, lower fertility and changes in behaviour (Flocco et al., 2002). In areas of petroleum industry it was frequently observed that phenols induced genotoxic effects in animals and human (Paisio et al., 2009 and references therein) and depending on the organism tested, the acute toxicity of phenol, estimated by the LC50 value, varied from 6.5 to...

Tin and Lead

Anorexia Organ Damage

The toxicity of lead in the environment has caused extensive concern in recent years. The current U.S. limit for lead in water is 0.015 mg liter. Like mercury, Pb(II) forms comparatively covalent bonds with appropriate donor groups in complexes, generally favoring sulfur and nitrogen over oxygen donors, and it may owe some of its physiological action to replacement of other metals in some enzymes. Low levels have subtle effects on the nervous system, while higher levels can lead to many symptoms, such as severe effects on the nervous system, including loss of sight and hearing, as well as symptoms of gout, headache, insomnia, anemia, kidney damage, diarrhea, stomach pains, intestinal paralysis, and eventually death.

Acute Effects

At first thought to be the result of particularly virulent pathogen, the cause was eventually tracked down to the use of the diclofenac (a painkiller and anti-inflammatory) to treat lameness and mastitis (inflammation of the udder) in cattle 23 . Vultures feeding on the unburied carcasses of animals previously treated with diclofenac would also ingest the drug. Although not exposed to particularly large doses of the compound, they proved particularly susceptible to it, suffering renal failure, visceral gout (the accumulation of uric acid throughout the body cavity following kidney malfunction) and eventually death, in a comparatively short period of time. This is the first known case of a pharmaceutical causing major ecological damage over a large geographic area and threatening species with extinction. There are also human health risks associated with this problem. Without vultures to dispose of them, the number of unattended animal carcasses in India has increased. This has in turn...

Chronic exposure

Klemmer and Harris (2000) reported nephropathy in a man occupationally exposed for 15 years to carbon disulphide. Ten years after his last carbon disulphide exposure, the patient developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to the combined effect of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and unilateral nephrectomy, necessitated by the presence of a renal mass.

Pyrazine herbicides

Nitrogenase Photosystem

The most successful pyrazine derivative was diquat-dibromide (see Fig. 1, the structure I). This non-selective, contact herbicide has been used to control many submerged and floating aquatic macrophytes which interferes with the photosynthetic process, releasing strong oxidizers that rapidly disrupt and inactivate cells and cellular functions (at present banned in many EU countries). Severe oral diquat intoxication has been associated with cerebral haemorrhages and severe acute renal failure (Peiro et al., 2007). Also quinoxaline herbicides (containing the pyrazine fragment) are very useful herbicides. Among them propaquizafop (Fig. 1, II) and quizalofop-ethyl (Fig. 1, III) are the most important derivatives (Frater et al., 1987 Sakata et al., 1983).


Another application of bioreduction was demonstrated by Komori et al. (118). In this study, anaerobic Cr-reducing bacteria were contained within dialysis tubing and subsequently submerged in contaminated water. Chromate that diffused through the tubes was reduced and precipitated within the dialysis tubing. A laboratory study employing this technique demonstrated 90 removal efficiency when the initial Cr6+ concentration was 208 mg L_1. A major disadvantage of this system is that the process is gradient-driven, and therefore, diffusion of Cr into the dialysis tubing decreases as the Cr6+ concentrations are lowered. As a result, relatively long residence times are needed to attain acceptable removal rates.


Tracey and Sherlock (1968), described a 59 year old man with an episode of carbon tetrachloride related acute renal failure, accompanied by evidence of acute liver damage. He recovered uneventfully and his liver function tests returned to normal. Seven years later he died from hepatocellular carcinoma and the authors concluded that carbon tetrachloride, which is a potent hepatocarcinogen in experimental animals, may have been carcinogenic in this individual.

Systemic Effects

No kidney damage was seen in rats or mice exposed by inhalation to 0.01-0.4 ppm for 13 weeks (NTP 1994 Rand et al. 1982a), or to 0.01-0.2 ppm for 2 years (NTP 1994). However, 15-month exposures to 0.01-0.2 ppm were associated with an increase in volume and or specific gravity in the urine in both rats and mice (NTP 1994). Based on animal data, chronic exposure to HCCPD from a hazardous waste site might result in impaired kidney function due to changes in tubules.

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