A

absence of metal bioavailability and toxicity to benthic biota 210

absorption spectroscopic approaches 202 acclimation 332-336, 363 acclimation-induced sensitivity 336

accumulation bottoms 65-67 accumulation of copper in soils 119

acid digestion 166, 171, 199, 239 acid neutralizing capacity 164, 167

acid production 256 acid sulfate soils 254 acid-consuming capacity 170 acid-producing potential 169 acid-volatile sulphide (AVS) 170-196

activation and repression of gene transcription 336 acute Cu toxicity for D. magna 284

acute Cu-BLM for D. magna 283 acute toxicity 9, 186, 275, 278, 280,285-286, 291, 293, 297303, 312, 329, 349-350, 360361, 368 acute toxicity of nickel 302 acute Zn-BLM for rainbow trout, fathead minnow and Daphnia magna 283 acute-chronic ratio (ACR) 296 adaptive physiological regulation mechanisms 223, 226 adaptive uptake mechanism 270

additivity of single observed toxic effects 241 adenosine triphosphate (ATPase) 266

adsorption 11, 77, 84, 104, 133, 145, 150, 158-159, 168-169, 172, 183, 194, 205, 214, 216, 218-219, 220-221, 231-236, 247-249, 253-257, 262, 269, 282, 286, 301, 324-325, 376 adsorption edge 218, 222 adsorption experiments 159, 218,

221, 257, 286 adsorption isotherms 221, 249, 262

adsorption kinetics between Cu and surface hydroxyl sites on soil oxides and clay minerals 247

adsorption sites 158 adsorption to surface membranes 194

aerobic sediments 170, 311, 318 Ag 97, 163, 185, 223, 224, 275277, 286, 300 age distribution of perch 130 aging 11-12, 196, 204, 224-225, 236, 254-256, 320-324, 329, 359

agricultural soils 4, 8, 43, 44, 47, 71, 98-99, 106-112, 117-120, 236, 239, 258-260, 327, 341, 374, 377 alabandite 203

alfalfa Medicago sativa 239-240, 258

algal cells 205, 286, 301

Algal Growth Inhibition Test 78 alkalinity 78, 98, 101, 102, 104,

253-254, 278, 284, 299, 302 alloy metals 16 American oysters Crassostrea virginica 287 ammonia 204

amorphous FeS 188, 190, 210 amphipod Ampelisca abdita 179, 186

amphipod Hyalella azteca 180 amphipods 174, 178, 292, 308311, 314-320 anaemia 336

anaerobic sediments 170, 308, 318

animal behaviour 172, 194 animal manure 44 anode mud 30

anodic stripping voltametry 161, 168

anoxic sediments 10, 145, 163, 167, 170, 173-179, 187-194, 198, 204, 207-210, 230-231, 309, 314-316, 347, 370 antagonistic effects 17, 121-222, 279

antagonistic effects of Ca2+ and Mg2+ on metal toxicity 279 antagonistic interaction between

Cd and Zn 226 anthroposphere 2, 4, 15, 18, 49, 52-55, 60-61, 67, 71, 95, 98, 136, 372 antifouling treatments 43 antimony 86, 89, 96 application rate 8, 99, 112-120,

259, 262 aquatic macrophyte (crop)

Euryale ferox Salisb. 268 aquatic sediments food source 215

aqueous speciation 150-152, 158 aqueous speciation and bioavailability of Zn 152 aquifer 49, 60-162, 347 Arenicola marina (deposit feeder) 228

artefact of the used SEM/AVS

procedure 208 artefactual oxidation 210 As 15, 18, 21, 35, 38, 40, 59-66, 74, 81, 92-93, 99, 102, 108113,120-126, 129, 134, 143, 146, 147-154, 161-178, 186, 191, 198, 202, 207-220, 226230, 233, 236, 243, 248, 254, 263-267, 270, 274, 277, 287, 297-298, 303-305, 309, 313314, 318, 323, 328, 331, 334335, 338-339 asselids cadmium concentration 215 assimilation efficiency (AE) 222, 223

association and dissociation rate constant of the ML complex 156 atacamite 76

atmospheric deposition 52, 56,

66, 81, 193, 261 Auger spectroscopy 220 authigenic minerals 197 availability of Zn, Ni and Cd to ryegrass (Lolium perenne) in sewage-sludge treated soils 262

AVS normalisation 176, 180, 318

AVS oxidation 196

AVS variations with sediment depth 195 AVS-approach 187 Aznalcollar mine tailing spill 161 azurite 102

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