B

back-flow 42

background concentration 132,

272, 296, 327, 336 background level 12, 64, 137,

274, 322 background levels 5, 62, 124, 126, 173, 271-274, 298, 332 bacterial biosensors, i. e. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonasfluorescens 245 bacterial cell walls 205-206 bacterial reduction of Fe and Mn oxides in a Ferrasol 253 bacterial strain (Ralstonia eutropha AE2515) as highly selective for Ni 271 bacterial surfaces 206 Baltic Sea 7, 49-51, 55-56, 60-61, 65-69, 88, 90-91, 136-137, 254,

273, 362

benthic colonisation 182 benthic fauna 11, 127-128, 307,

313,316,319 benthic invertebrates 178, 180, 187, 194, 230, 311, 320, 347, 363

bidentate inner-sphere complex 256

binding capacities of Cu 175 binding characteristics of BLs 286

binding constants for metal-gill interactions for one species can be generalised to other fish species 299 binding constants, log KMeBL, for metal-gill interactions 300

binding phases 158, 163, 174, 176-177, 180, 187, 189, 191, 197, 228 bioaccessibility 141, 229 bioaccessible fraction 267 bioaccumulation 91, 94, 141-142, 163, 194, 213, 215, 222-223, 227, 310, 312, 317-318, 350, 353, 377 bioaccumulation factor 91, 96 bioassay 175, 282, 294, 327, 331, 348

bioavailability concept 289 bioavailability modifying factors 305

bioavailability of sediment-bound trace metals 310, 319 bioavailability parameters 287, 305

bioavailability parameters for chronic toxicity of zinc to rainbow trout, daphnids and algae 287 bioavailability profiles 200 bioavailability-modifying parameters in soils 324 bioavailable fraction 12, 17, 83, 133, 138, 276, 321-325, 328229

bioavailable zinc 329 bioconcentration factors 330, 345 bioindicator 271 biological factors 142, 222, 225, 309

biological kinetics 207, 211 biological surfaces 201, 287 biological templates 206 biomimetic approach 228 biomonitoring 269 biosensor 78, 83, 152, 271, 373

biotic ligand 9, 186, 275, 280281, 297-303, 341, 348-349, 361, 368 Biotic Ligand Model 3, 9, 17, 186, 275, 279, 281, 289, 291, 349, 354, 375, 379 bioturbation 170, 183, 206-208,

211, 231, 271, 308-320 biouptake 156-157, 216-217, 223 bivalve Corbicula fluminea as an indicator of uptake of metals from the water column 320 bivalve Mytilus edulis 224 bivalves 172, 194, 225-226, 269271, 287, 310-312, 320, 344, 347, 351, 373, 376 BL binding constants 285-286,

299-300 BLM can explicitly account for variation in toxicity 299 BLMs for crustaceans (Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fathead minnow 283 bluntnose minnows 296 body concentrations 213, 270, 336

bottom currents 183 bottom-dwelling fauna 127 brochantite 76, 102 buffering capacity 81, 256, 265 building and demolition waste 45 building applications 73 burrowing 11, 172, 183, 194-195,

206-207, 213, 226, 309 burrowing mode 194 burrowing organisms 11, 172, 183, 195, 206-207, 213

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