C

Ca and Mg competition 159

CaCl2-cxtractable zinc from artificial soils 329 cadmium 5-6, 11, 16, 27, 41-42, 47-51, 117, 123, 170, 174-176, 182, 272, 277, 280, 301, 310, 317, 330, 343, 346-352, 357, 360, 365-369, 371, 375-377 calcite 197

capacitance model 218, 221 capacity of organisms to adapt to certain trace metal levels 269 Capitella capitata 186 carbonate 7, 101, 104-105, 162, 168, 197, 204, 227, 241, 257, 263, 285, 325 cathode copper 30 cathodic stripping voltametry 160 Cd 5-6, 11, 16, 41-51, , 112, 117, 120, 123, 143-146, 150, 158163, 170-182, 185-205, 208215, 222-232, 236, 240-251, 254, 258, 261-273, 277, 280, 301, 308-310, 314-321, 330, 343, 346-352, 357-361, 366371, 375-377 Cd fluxes in the soil solution 262 CdS 177, 188-202, 207-210, 317 CEC 260, 268, 325, 329, 332, 379

cellular iron metabolism 336 cellular respiration 336 chalcocite 189

chemical equilibrium models 280 chemical equilibrium models 167 chemical extractability 310 chemical extraction 161-168, 198-202, 223, 241, 261-264, 347

chemical sorption 169 Chironimus riparius 186, 320 Chironomus tentans 186 chloro-complexes 160

chromium speciation 151 chronic Cu BLM 297 chronic effects 186, 287, 326, 372

chronic toxicity of zinc to the mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi) in soft water 304 chronic toxicity to copper 295 chronic toxicity to D. magna of copper and zinc 283 cinnabar 189

cladoceran taxonomic group 296 clam Ruditapes philippinarium 269

cobalt 280, 301

coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) 296 colloidal complexation 269, 270 colloidal metal-bearing particles

205-206, 270 colloidally bound metals 140 colloid-bound metals 159, 270 community sensitivities 336 competition between metal ions and cations and hydrogen for binding sites on the biological surface 285 competitive adsorption 11, 158,

234, 236, 333 competitive ligand exchange 159 complex stability constants 154 Complexation 156, 169, 382 complexation equilibria 150, 159, 214

complexation of metal ions 157 complexation of metals with colloidal organic matter 269 component additivity' (CA)

approach 219 compost 249, 261-265 concentrations of nickel in gills 285

concept of additivity 150, 158 concrete 7, 45, 49, 58, 73, 75, 79,

80, 87, 344 conditional binding constants of cupric ions to the biotic ligands (BL) in gill tissue of both fish and daphnids 291 conditional complex formation constant (log Kcond) 162 conditional stability constants

150, 157, 301, 304 connective tissue biosynthesis 336

construction and demolition waste

33, 351 consumption of nickel 22 copper accumulation in these soils 119

copper complexation capacity 294

copper cycles 28, 38, 352 copper deficiencies 109-110 copper exposure 301-302, 371, 376

copper loading 8, 118-119 copper ores 29-30 copper pipes 51, 101, 105 copper production 3, 21-22, 28, 35

copper roofs 7, 58, 77-79, 364 copper sensitivity in aquatic organisms 292 copper solid waste categories 33 copper solubility 102-104 copper speciation in the drinking-

water 104 copper toxicity 276-278, 282, 285, 288-290, 293-294, 297300, 326-327, 348-349, 353, 368

copper waste 37 copper(II)oxide 102

coprecipitation 248, 255-257 coprecipitation with Fe

(hydr)oxides 256 corrosion 4, 7, 19, 43-44, 58, 7176, 80-85, 100-105, 132-133, 148, 333, 343-344, 353-361, 364-365, 370 corrosion products 72, 75-76, 80 corrosion rate 73, 81 coulombic effects 219 coupled diffusion of free and complexed Zn 157 covellite 189 Cr(III)/HS complexes 154 Cr(lIl)-ROS fractions 153 critical biotic ligand concentration

186, 276, 280, 286, 299, 300 critical fraction of BL sites 286 critical leaf tissue concentration of zinc 328 critical total Cu levels in soils 259

critical copper concentration in plant tissue 326 critical metal concentrations 324 crop yields 8, 99, 110, 115, 119, 261

crops 111, 326

crustacean (Mysidopsis intii) 303 crustaceans (Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia) 283 Cryogenic Scanning Electron

Microscopy 197 Cs-137 inventories 66 Cu accumulation in fish gills 269 Cu adsorption affinity constants 269

Cu binding compound/cofactor

CBC 248 Cu binding sites (ligands) 284 Cu bioavailability 200, 228, 244, 294

Cu deficiency 261 Cu exposure 229, 320 Cu phytotoxicity 244 Cu regulation capacity 271 Cu toxicity 228, 264, 275, 278,

284, 294, 325-326 Cu(II)-ROS complexes 153 Cu/HS complexes 154 Cu-binding constants of the sulphide 229 CuCO3 9, 98, 102, 285, 291, 300 Cu-deficient soils 261 CuOH+ 9, 284-285, 291, 300 CuOH+ toxicity 285 cupric ion 72, 78, 79, 98, 102105, 258, 260, 275, 291, 300, 323, 327 cupric sulfate 261 cupric-ion-specific electrode 323 cuprite 76 cyanobacteria 260

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