E

early sediment diagenesis 163,

193,218 earthworm Eiseniafetida 241, 328

EC50 78, 200, 245, 284, 288, 297298, 305-306, 328, 333, 380, 383

ecological relevance and effectiveness of the test procedures 336 ecological risk analysis 94 ecotoxicicty tests 324 ecotoxicological risk 47, 323 EDTA-extractable Cu 244 effect of sludge processing 263

effect of variation in water chemistry on the toxicity of metals to aquatic organisms 282

effective concentration (CE)

concept 238, 242 Eh profiles 231 Eisenia fetida 331 electrical double layers 221 electrochemically labile 237 electrolytic refining 30 Electron Microscopy 205 Electron Spin Resonance (ESR)

248,256 Electrophoretic Mobility 256 electrostatic effects 220 electrostatically weakly bound metals 239 element-specific detectors 150 embryonic malformations 308, 318

emissions 5, 13, 40-59, 64-65, 68, 71, 85-91, 94, 97,122-123, 135-136, 371-373 end-of-life vehicles 34 Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy

197, 201, 205, 380 environmental risk 1-2, 13, 97, 123, 133-134, 144, 199, 236, 276-277, 290, 309, 319, 356 enzyme function 319 EqP approach 173, 174, 176, 178 equilibrium partitioning (EqP) 173,177, 194, 205, 223, 325 ERM ratio 184

essential metals 12, 92, 108-109, 151, 223, 237, 242, 317-318, 324, 333, 334, 337, 349 essentiality of copper 336 estuarine water 159 EU permitted metal loading rates 106

European copper cycle 27, 33 European limit values established for agricultural soils 260 eutrophication 319 EXAFS 202-203, 249, 256, 369, 380

exchangeable metals 162, 268 exposure of soil and sediment organisms 266 exposure time 224-225 Extended X-ray Absorption Fine

Structure' (EXAFS) 202 extracellular adsorption 301 extracellular structures 201, 206 extractability/leachability 200 extractants 227 extraction efficiency 168, 171,

189, 192, 197 exudates 242, 301, 326

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