Examples of zinc essentiality and zinc tolerance

As for copper, it is also emphasized in the "Environmental Health Criteria" for zinc (IPCS, 2001) that essentiality and tolerance must be taken into consideration when assessing the impact of zinc on biological systems. The following examples again taken from the IPCS document may reflect the critical role of essentiality for the bioavailability of Zn:

"Zinc is an essential element in the environment. The possibility exists both for a deficiency and for an excess of this metal. For this reason it is important that regulatory criteria for zinc, while protecting against toxicity, are not set so low as to drive zinc levels into the deficiency area."

"Zinc is important in membrane stability, in over 300 enzymes, and in the metabolism of proteins and nucleic acids. The adverse effects of zinc must be balanced against its essentiality. Zinc deficiency has been reported in a wide variety of cultivated plants and animals, with severe effects on all stages of reproduction, growth and tissue proliferation. Zinc deficiencies in various crops have resulted in large crop losses worldwide. Zinc deficiency is rare in aquatic organisms in the environment, but can be induced under experimental conditions."

"Zinc tolerances in terrestrial plants, algae, microorganisms and invertebrates have developed in the vicinity of areas with elevated zinc concentrations."

The main causes of zinc deficiency in crops are : (1) low total zinc concentrations in soils (in sandy, calcareous and sodic soils), (2) low zinc availability (high pH, calcareous soils), and (3) high levels of phosphate and nitrogen and restricted root zones due to soil compaction or high water table. In many parts of the world soils have been treated with zinc amendments, which has resulted in a declining trend in the occurrence of zinc deficiency. However, high yielding crops (e.g. wheat) will have a greater zinc requirement that those grown less intensively (Alloway, 2002). In a Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)-sponsored study in 15 countries around the world, it was found that zinc deficiency is soils was the most commonly occurring micronutrient deficiency problem. Zinc deficiency was recorded in 49% of the trials and 25% of these were acute forms with visible symptoms on crops (Sillanpaa, 1990).

Several important food crops can be seriously affected by zinc deficiency with maize and rice being the most sensitive crops, while wheat is moderately sensitive. Both animals and humans have critical zinc requirements, which means that in areas where zinc deficiency in crops is widespread, there may also be a high risk of detrimental effects on the health of livestock and people. The areas with highest risk of zinc deficiency in crops are situated in India, Pakistan, some parts of Africa, northwestern part of Sout America and Mexico, while Europe is a relatively low-risk area (Alloway, 2002).

As a matter of fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recently (2002) pointed out zinc deficiency as one of the most important risk factors to cause impairment of human health. When calculating the leading risk factors, as causes of disease burden among people in developing countries, zinc deficiency came up as number 5, while the rank of zinc deficiency is number 11 when the global situation is considered. WHO (2002) concludes that zinc supplementation and fortification of the food may be recommended in all regions of the world.

This page intentionally left blank

REFERENCES

Aastrup, M. and Thunholm, B. (2001) Heavy metals in Stockholm groundwater - concentrations and fluxes. Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus 1: 25-41.

Adams, W.J., Kimerle, R.A. and Barnett, J.W.Jr. (1992) Sediment quality and aquatic life assessment. Environ. Sci. Technol., 26: 1865-1875.

Adriano, D. C. (2001) Trace Elements in Terrestrial Environments, 867 pp., Springer Verlag.

Ahlf, W. and Forstner, U. (2001) Managing contaminated sediments. I. Improving chemical and biological criteria (Review Articles). J. Soils Sediments 1:1-7.

Aldrich, A.P., Kistler, D. and Sigg L. (2002) Speciation of Cu and Zn in drainage water from agricultural soils. Environ. Sci. Technol., 36(22): 48244830.

Alkhatib, E. and Castor K. (2000) Parameters influencing sediment resuspension and the link to sorption of inorganic compounds. Environ. Monit. Assessm. 65(3): 531-546.

Allen, H.E. (1999) Soil bioavailability and its application to criteria-setting and risk assessment. ICA Environ. Program Comm., Ecol. Techn. Subcomm., Brussels, June 16, 1999.

Allen, H.E. (2002a) (Ed.) Bioavailability of Metals in Terrestrial Ecosystems: Importance of partitioning for bioavailability to invertebrates, microbes, and plants, 158 pp., SETAC.

Allen, H.E. (2002b) The biotic ligand model addresses effects of water chemistry on metal toxicity. ICMM Fact Sheet on Environmental Risk Assessment, N:o 7, January 2002, International Council on Mining and Metals, London, U.K.

Allen, H.E. and Hansen, D. (1996) The importance of trace metal speciation to water quality criteria. Water Environ. Res., 68: 42-54.

Allison, J.D. and Brown, D.S. (1991) MINTEQA2/PRODEFA2, A geochemical assessment model for environmental systems: Version 3.0 User's Manual. EPA/600/3-91/021. NTIS (Acession No. PB91 182 469).

Alloway, B. (2002) Zinc - The vital micronutrient for healthy, high-value crops. International Zinc Association (IZA), Brussels, Belgium.

Álvarez, E.A., Mochón, M.C., Sánchez, J.C.J. and Rodríguez, M.T. (2002) Heavy metal extractable forms in sludge from wastewater treatment plants. Chemosphere, 47 (7): 765-775.

Andersson, P.-G. (2000) Slamspridning pá ákermark. Lángliggande fältförsök med kommunalt avloppsslam frán Malml och Lund. Lägesrapport för áren 1998-1999. Hushállninsgsällskapens Rapportserie nr 10.

Andersson, P.-G. and Nilsson P. (1992) Slamspridning pá ákermark -fältförsök med kommunalt avloppsslam frán Malmö och Lund under áren 1981-1991. Lägesrapport III. Bulletin serie VA nr 67, Lunds Tekn. Högskola, Avd. VA-Teknik, Lund.

Andersson, P.-G. and Nilsson P. (1993) Slamspridning pá ákermark. Svenska vatten- och avloppsverksfören., VAV. VA-Forsk, rapport nr 199306.

Andersson, P.-G. and Nilsson P. (1996) Slamspridning pá ákermark -fältförsök med kommunalt avloppsslam frán Malmö och Lund under áren 1981-1995. Malmöhus läns Hushállninsgsällskap, Rapport nr. 1.

Andersson, P.-G. and Nilsson P. (1999) Slamspridning pá ákermark -fältförsök med kommunalt avloppsslam frán Malmö och Lund under áren 1981-1997. VAV AB, VA-Forsk, Rapport nr 1999-22.

Andrén, O. and Balandreau, J. (1999) Biodiversity and soil functioning -From black box to can of worms. Appl. Soil Ecol., 13: 105-108.

Ankley, G.T., Di Toro, D.M., Hansen, D.J. and Berry, W.J. (1996) Technical basis and proposal for deriving sediment quality criteria for metals. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 15(12): 2056-2066.

Anonymous. (1999) Network on Harmonization of Leaching/Extraction Tests, Newsletter 5 (http://www.leaching.net).

Antoniadis, V. and Alloway B.J. (2001) Availability of Cd, Ni and Zn to ryegrass in sewage sludge-treated soils at different temperatures. Water, Air, Soil Pollut., 132(3): 201-214.

Ayres, R.U. (1997) The life-cycle of chlorine. Part I. Ind. Ecol., 1(1): 81-94.

Baldwin, D.H., Sandahl, J.F., nLabenia, J.S. and Scholz, N.L. (2003) Sublethal effects of copper on coho salmon : Impacts on nonoverlapping repector pathways in the peripheral olfactory nervous system. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 22(10) : 2266-2274.

Battelle (1984) Sediment quality criteria development workshop. Office of Water Regul. And Standards. Criteria and Stand. Div., Washington, D.C.

Bedsworth, W.W. and Sedlak, D.L. (1999) Sources and environmental fate of strongly complexed nickel in estuarine waters: The role of ethylenediaminetetraacetate. Environ. Sci. Technol., 33(6): 926-931 .

Behra, R., Landwehrjohann, R., Vogel, K., Wagner, B. and Sigg, L. (2002) Copper and zinc content of periphyton from two rivers as a function of dissolved metal concentration. Aquatic Sciences, 64 3: 300-306.

Bergbäck, B. (1998) Metaller i Stockholm: Kunskapssammanställningar av metallflöden via olika verksamheter i Stockholm. Naturvardsverket Rapport 4952.

Bergbäck, B., Johansson, K. and Mohlander, U. (2001) Urban metal flows -A case study of Stockholm. Water, Air, Soil Pollut.: Focus 1: 3-24.

Bergkvist P. (2002) Kan rötslamsburet cadmium urlakas fran akermarken pa Ultuna? (Extended Abstract), Avd. Biogeofysik. Stockholm University.

Berry, W.J., Hansen, D.J., Mahony, J.D., Robson, D.L., Di Toro, D.M., Shipley, B.P., Rogers, B., Corbin, J.M. and Boothman, W.S. (1996) Predicting the toxicity of metal-spiked laboratory sediments using acid-volatile sulfide and interstitial water normalizations. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 15(12): 2067-2079.

Bertling, S., Odnevall Wallinder, I. and Leygraf, C. (2002a) The capacity of limestone to immobilize copper in runoff water. - A laboratory investigation. Proc. 15th Internat. Corrosion Conf., Granada, Spain.

Bertling, S., Odnevall Wallinder, I., Leygraf, C. and Berggren, D. (2002b) Immobilization of copper in runoff water from roofing materials by limestone, soil and concrete. Proc. 15th Internat. Corrosion Conf., Granada, Spain.

Bertling, S., Odnevall Wallinder, I., Leygraf, C. and Berggren, D. (2002c) Environmental effects of zinc runoff from roofing materials - A new multidisciplinary approach. In: Townsend, H.E. (Ed.) Outdoor and Indoor Atmospheric Corrosion. ASTM STP 1421. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, 2002.

Bertram, M., Graedel, T.E., Rechberger, H. and Spatari, S. (2002) The contemporary European copper cycle: waste management subsystem. Ecol.Econ., 42: 43-57.

Biesinger, K.E. and Christensen, G.M. (1972) Effects of various metals on survival, growth, reproduction, and metabolism of Daphnia magna D. J. Fish. Res. Board Can., 29(12): 1691-1700.

Birge, W.J. and Black, J.A. (1980) Aquatic toxicology of nickel. In: Nriagu, J.O. (Ed.) Nickel in the Environment. John Wiley & Sons, New York, Brisbane, Toronto. pp. 349-406.

Boening, D.W. (1999) An evaluation of bivalves as biomonitors of heavy metals pollution in marine waters. Environ. Monit. Assessm., 55(3): 459470.

Boothman, W.S., Hansen, D.J., Berry, W.J., Robson, D.L., Helmstetter, A., Corbin, J.M. and Pratt, S.D. (2001) Biological response to variation of acid-volatile sulfides and metals in field-exposed spiked sediments. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 20(2): 264-272.

Borgman, U. and Norwood, W.P. (1995) Kinetics excess (above background) copper and zinc in Hyalella azteca and their relationship to chronic toxicity. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 52: 864-874.

Borgmann, U. and Norwood, W.P. (2002) Metal bioavailability and toxicity through a sediment core. Environ. Pollut., 116(1) : 159-168.

Bostick, B.C., Hansel, C.M., La Force, M.J. and Fendorf, S. (2001) Seasonal fluctuations in zinc speciation within a contaminated wetland. Environ. Sci. Technol., 35(19): 3823-3829.

Breckenridge, R.P. and Crockett, A.B. (1998) Determination of background concentrations of inorganics in soils and sediments at hazardous waste sites. Environ. Monit. Assess., 51(3): 621-656.

Brix, K.V. and DeForest, D.K. (2000) Critical review of the use of bioconcentration factors for hazard classification of metals and metal compounds. OECD Aquatic Hazards Extended Workgroup Meeting, May 15, 2000, Paris, France.

Brix, K.V., DeForest, D.K. and Adams, W.J. (2001) Assessing acute and chronic copper risks to freshwater aquatic life using species sensitivity distributions for different taxonomic groups. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 20(8): 1846-1856.

Broman, D., Balk, L., Zebühr, Y. och Warman, K. (2001) Miljöövervakning i Stockholms kommun: Saltsjön och Mälaren - KEMI. Slutrapport: provtagningsâren 96/97, 97/98 och 98/99. Miljöförvaltningen i Stockholm och Stockholm vatten AB. 2001-07-12. 45 pp.

Brouwer, H. and Murphy, T. (1995) Volatile sulfides and their toxicity in freshwater sediments. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 14: 203.

Brumbaugh, W.G., Ingersoll, C.G., Kemble, N.E., May, T.W. and Zajicek, J.L. (1994) Chemical characterisation of sediments and pore water from the upper Clark Fork River and Milltown Reservoir, Montana. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 13: 1971-1983.

Brun, L.A., Maillet, J., Hinsinger, P. and Pépin, M. (2001) Evaluation of copper availability to plants in copper-contaminated wineyard soils. Environ. Pollut., 111(2): 293-302.

Brunner, P.H. and Stämpfli, D. (1993) Material balance of a construction waste sorting plant. Waste Manage. Res., 11: 27-48.

Burton, G.A.Jr. (2002) Flux of sediment-associated contamination. Fact Sheet on Environmental Risk Assessment, No. 9, Febr. 2002s. Internat. Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM).

Burton, A. et al. (2003) EU Zinc Risk Assessment conclusion (i) Programme: Summary results of the Sediment Research Projects. OH-slides presented at the "Zinc Conclusion (i) Info Session", Brussels, 26 March 2003.

Caffrey, P.B. and Keating, K.I. (1997) Results of zinc deprivation in daphnid culture. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 16: 572-575.

Campbell, P.G. (1995) Interactions between trace metals and aquatic organisms: A critique of the free-ion activity model. In: Tessier A. and Turner, D. (Eds.) Metal speciation and bioavailability in aquatic systems. John Wiley, New York, NY. pp. 45-102.

Carlson, A.R., Phipps, G.L., Mattson, V.R., Kosian, P.A. and Cotter, A.M. (1991) The role of acid volatile sulphide in determining cadmium bioavailability in sediments. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 10: 1309-1319.

Casas, A.M. and Crecelius, E.A. (1994) Relationship between acid volatile sulfide and the toxicity of zinc, lead and copper in marine sediments. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 13(3): 529-536.

CDA (1999) Annual Data: Copper supply and consumption, 1978-1998. Copper Development Association, New York.

Cela S. and Summer M.E. (2002) Soil zinc fractions determine inhibition of nitrification. Water, Air, Soil Pollut., 141(1-4): 91-104

Chapman, P.M and Wang, F. (2001) Assessing sediment contamination in estuaries. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 20(1): 3-22.

Chartier, M., Mercier, G. and Blais, J.F. (2001) Partitioning of trace metals before and after biological removal of metals from sediments. Water Res., 35(6): 1435-1444.

Chen, Z. and Mayer, L.M. (1998) Digestive proteases of the lugworm, Arenicola marina, inhibited by Cu from contaminated sediments. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 17: 433-438.

Chen Z. and Mayer, L.M. (1999) Assessment of sedimentary Cu availability: A comparison of biomimetic and AVS approaches. Environ. Sci. Technol., 33(4): 650-652.

Chen, Z., Mayer, L.M., Weston, D.P., Bock, M.J. and Jumars, P.A. (2002) Inhibition of digestive enzyme activities by copper in the guts of various marine benthic invertebrates. Environ. Toxicol.Chem., 21(6): 1243-1248.

Chen Y.X., G.W. Zhu, G.M. Tian, G.D. Zhou, Y.M. Luo and S.C. Wu (2002) Phytotoxicity of dredged sediment from urban canal as land application. Environ. Pollut., 117 (2): 233-241.

Christensen, J.B. and Christensen, T.H. (2000) The effect of pH on the complexation of Cd, Ni and Zn by dissolved organic carbon from leachate-polluted groundwater. Water Res., 34(15): 3743-3754.

Christensen, T.H., Astrup, T., Boddum, J.K., Hansen, B.O and Redemann, S. (2000) Copper and zinc distribution coefficients for sandy aquifer materials. Water Res., 34(3): 709-712.

Ciba, J., Zolotajkin, M. and Cebula J. (1997) Changes of chemical forms of zinc and zinc sulfide during the composting process of municipal solid waste. Water, Air, Soil Pollut., 93: 167-173.

Ciutat, A. and Boudou, A.(2003) Bioturbation effects on cadmium and zinc transfers from contaminated sediment and on metal bioavailability to benthic bivalves. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 22(7) : 1574-1581.

Clark, M.W., Davies-McConchie, F., McConchie, D. and Birch, G.F. (2000) Selective chemical extraction and grainsize normalisation for environmental assessment of anoxic sediments: validation of an integrated procedure. Sci. Total Environ., 258(3): 149-170.

Comber, S.D.W. and Gunn, A.M. (1996) Heavy metals entering sewage treatment works from domestic sources. J. Inst. of Water, Environ. Managern., 10: 137-143.

Conder, J.M. and Lanno, R.P. (2000) Evaluation of surrogate measures of cadmium, lead, and zinc bioavailability to Eisenia fetida. Chemosphere, 41(10): 1659-1668.

Cooper, D.C. and Morse, J.W. (1998) Extractability of metal sulfide minerals in acidic solutions: Application to environmental studies of trace metal contamination within anoxic sediments. Environ. Sci. Technol., 32: 1076-1078.

Corbisier, P. (1997) Bacterial metal-lux biosensors for the rapid determination of the heavy metal bioavailability and toxicity in solid samples. Res. Microbiol., 148(6): 534-536.

Cornwell, J.C. and Morse, J.W. (1987) The characterisation of iron sulphide minerals in anoxic marine sediments. Mar. Chem., 22: 193-206.

Davidsson, C.F. (1978) Mass balances for pollutants in urban regions. A methodology with applications to lead, zinc, cadmium and arsenic. EPA-600/4-78-046. Washington D.C.

Davis, J.A., Coston, J.A., Kent, D.B. and Fuller, C.C. (1998) Application of the surface complexation concept to complex mineral assemblages. Environ. Sci. Technol., 32(19): 2820-2828.

Davies, C.M., Apte, S.C. and Johnstone, A.L. (1998) A bacterial bioassay for the assessment of copper bioavailability in freshwaters. Environ. Toxicol. Water Qual., 13(3): 263-271.

Delbeke, K., Schoeters, I. and Van Sprang, P. (2003) Advances in ecological risk assessment of copper. In: Lagos, G.E., Warner, A.E.M. and Sánchez, M (Eds.) Health, Environment and Sustainable Development, Vol. II. Proc. Internat. Conf. on Copper 2003 - Cobre 2003, Santiago, Chile. pp. 479-492.

De Schamphelaere, K. (2003) Bioavailability models for predicting copper toxicity to freshwater organisms. PhD Thesis, Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium. June 2003.

De Schamphelaere, K.A.C. and Janssen, C.R. (2002) A biotic ligand model predicting acute copper toxicity for Daphnia magna: The effects of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and pH. Environ. Sci. Technol., 36: 48-54.

De Schamphelaere, K.A.C. and Janssen, C.R. (2003) Development and field validation of a biotic ligand model predicting chronic copper toxicity to Daphnia magna. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 23 ?? (Accepted).

De Schamphelaere, K.A.C., Heijerick, D.G. and Janssen, C.R. (2002) Refinement and field validation of a biotic ligand model predicting acute copper toxicity to Daphnia magna. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 133C: 243258.

De Schamphelaere, K.A.C., Heijerick, D.G. and Janssen, C.R. (2003a) Development and validation of biotic ligand models for predicting chronic zinc toxicity to fish, daphnids and algae. Final Report ZEH-WA-01 to the ILZRO, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium.

De Schamphelaere, K.A.C., Vasconcelos, F.M., Heijerick, D.G., Tack, F.M.G., Delbeke, K., Allen, H.E. and Janssen, C.R. (2003b) Development and field validation of a predictive copper toxicity model for the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 22(10) : 24542465.

Delbeke, K. (2002) The challenges of setting Water Quality Criteria for essential metals and importance of bioavailability. ECI. Oral presentation at Stockholm Workshop on Bioavailability of Metals, April 24, 2002. MITF.

Delbeke, K. and Landner, L. (2000) Assessment of the mpact of copper in sewage sludge. ECI-CEOCOR Paper, presented on 26 Sept., 2000. European Copper Institute (ECI), Brussels.

Depledge, M.H. and Rainbow, P.S. (1990) Models of regulation and accumulation of trace metals in marine invertebrates. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., C 97: 1-7.

Di Toro, D.M., Mahony, J.D., Hansen, D.J., Scott, K.J., Hicks, M.B., Mayr, S.M. and Redmond, M.S. (1990) Toxicity of cadmium in sediments: The role of acid volatile sulfide. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 9: 1487-1502.

Di Toro, D.M., Mahony, J.D., Hansen, D.J., Scott, K.J., Calrson, A.R. and Ankley, G.T. (1992) Acid volatile sulphide predicts the acute toxicity of cadmium and nickel in sediments. Environ. Sci. Technol., 26: 96-101.

Di Toro, D.M., Allen, H.E., Bergman, H.L., Meyer, J.S., Santore, R.C. and Paquin, P. (2000) The Biotic Ligand Model: A computational approach for assessing the ecological effects of copper anbd other metals in aquatic systems. International Copper Associaton Publ., August 2000. ISBN 0943642-12-9.

Di Toro, D.M., McGrath, J. and Paquin, P.R. (2001) An overview of sediment metal and acid volatile sulfide relationships: A summary of discussions at the December 2000 meeting in Netherlands. Draft copy.

Di Toro, D.M., Allen, H.E., Bergman, H.L., Meyer, J.S., Paquin, P.R. and Santore, R.C. (2001) Biotic ligand model of the acute toxicity of metals. 1. Technical basis. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 20(10): 2383-2396.

Di Toro, D.M., McGrath, J.A., Hansen, D.J. and Berry, W.J (2002) Predicting the acute and chronic toxicity of metals in sediments using organic carbon normalized SEM and AVS. HydroQual, Inc., USA

Dodd J., Large, D.J., Fortey, N.J., Milodowski, A.E. and Kemp, S. (2000) A petrographic investigation of two sequential extraction techniques applied to anaerobic canal bed mud. Environ. Geochem. Health, 22(4): 281-296

Dollar, N.I., Souch, C.J., Filippelli, G.M. and Mastalerz, M. (2001) Chemical fractionation of metals in wetland sediments: Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Environ. Sci. Technol., 35: 3608-3615.

Donahoe, R.J., and Liu, C. (1998) Pore water geochemistry near the sediment-water interface of a zoned, freshwater wetland in the southeastern United States. Environmental Geology, 33 2/3: 143-153.

Dumestre, A., Sauvé, S., McBride, M., Baveye, P. and Berthelin, J. (1999) Copper speciation and microbial activity in long-term contaminated soils. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 36: 124-131.

Eimers, M.C., Evans, R.D. and Welbourn, P.M. (2002) Partitioning and bioaccumulation of cadmium in artificial sediment systems: application of a stable isotope tracer technique. Chemosphere, 46 (4): 543-551.

Ekstrand, S., Ostlund, P. and Hansen, C. (2001) Digital air photo processing for mapping of copper roof distribution and estimation of related copper pollution. Water, Air, Soil Pollut.: Focus 1: 267-278.

Ekvall, A. (1995) Metal speciation and toxicity in sewage sludge. School of Civil Engineering, Department of Sanitary Engineering.

Erickson, R.J., Benoit, D.A., Mattson, V.R., Nelson, H.P. Jr. and Leonard, E.N. (1996) The effects of water chemistry on the toxicity of copper to fathead minnows. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 15: 181-193.

Eriksson, J., Andersson, A. and Andersson, R. (1997) Current status of Swedish arable soil. Naturvârdsverket Rapport 4778.

Eriksson, J., Andersson, A. and Andersson, R. (1999) Texture of agricultural topsoils in Sweden. Naturvârdsverket Rapport 4955.

Eriksson Wiklund, A.-K. and Sundelin, B. (2002) Bioavailability of metals to the amphipod Monoporeia affinis: Interactions with authigenic sulfides in urban brackish-water and freshwater sediments. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 21(6): 1219-1228.

Eurométaux (2003) Major progress in acceptance of bioavailability concepts for metals. "Industry Flash", Issue 05/2003, June 2003, Brussels.

European Commission (1999) Construction and demolition waste management practices, and their economic impacts. Report to DG XI, EC, Brussels.

Frei, M., Küng, A. and Schuler, B. (1993) Kupfer-Flüsse in der Automobilbranche. Vertiefungsblock-Arbeit ETHZ, Zürich.

FAMEST (Fundamental Aspects of Metal Speciation and Transport in Metal-Contaminated Soils and Aquifers) (2000) EU FP4 project reference ENV4-CT97-0554

Fan Wenhong, Wen-Xiong Wang, and Jingsheng Chen. (2002) Geochemistry of Cd, Cr, and Zn in highly contaminated sediments and its influences on assimilation by marine bivalves. Environ. Sci. Technol., 36(23): 5164-5171.

Flynn, H.C., McMahon, V., Diaz, G.C., Demergasso, C.S., Corbisier, P., Meharg, A.A. and Paton, G.I. (2002) Assessment of bioavailable arsenic and copper in soils and sediments from the Antofagasta region of northern Chile. Sci. Total Environ., 286(1-3): 51-59.

Fortin, D., Rioux, J.-P. and Roy, M. (2002) Geochemistry of iron and sulfur in the zone of microbial sulfate reduction in mine tailings. Water, Air, Soil Pollut.: Focus, 2(3): 37-56.

Frise, L. (1994) Zink: förekomst, problem och förslag till handlingslinjer. PM frán Stockholms Miljöförvaltning, Miljöskydd.

Fujikawa Yoko, Masami Fukui and Akira Kudo (2000) Vertical distributions of trace metals in natural soil horizons from Japan. Part 1. Effect of soil types. Water, Air, Soil Pollut., 124(1-2): 1-21.

Gartiser, S., Reuther, R. and Gensch, C.-O. (2003) Feasibility study for the formulation of requirements for a new eco-label for de-icing agents for roads and ways following DIN EN ISO 14024. German Environmental Protection Agency, Report No. FKZ 200 95 308/04, 121 pp. (in German)

Ge, Y., Murray, P., Sauvé, S. and Hendershot, W. (2002) Low metal bioavailability in a contaminated urban site. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 21(5): 954-961.

Geffard, O., Budzinski, H. and His E. (2002) The effects of elutriates from PAH and heavy metal polluted sediments on Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) embryogenesis, larval growth and bio-accumulation by the larvae of pollutants from sedimentary origin. Ecotoxicol., 11(6): 403-416.

Giordani, G., Azzoni, R., Bartoli, M. and Viaroli, P. (1997) Seasonal variations of sulphate reduction rates, sulphur pools and iron availability in the sediment of a dystrophic lagoon (Sacca di Goro, Italy). Water, Air, Soil Pollut., 99(1-4): 363-371.

Gómez, A.J.L., Giráldez, I., Sánchez-Rodas, D. and Morales, E. (2000) Comparison of the feasibility of three extraction procedures for trace metal partitioning in sediments from south-west Spain. Sci. Total Environ., 246(2-3): 271-283.

Graedel, T.E. (2002) The contemporary European copper cycle: introduction. Ecol.Econ., 42: 5-7.

Graedel, T.E., Bertram, M., Fuse, K., Gordon, R.B., Lifset, R., Rechberger, H. and Spatari, S. (2002) The contemporary European copper cycle: The characterization of technological copper cycles. Ecol.Econ., 42: 9-26.

Gray, B.R., Hill, W.R. and Stewart, A.J. (2001) Effects of development time, biomass and ferromanganese oxides on nickel sorption by stream periphyton. Environ. Pollut., 112(1): 61-71.

Green, A.S., Chandler, G.T. and Blood, E.R. (1993) Aqueous-, pore-water-, and sediment-phase cadmium: Toxicity relationships for a meiobenthic copepod. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 12: 1497-1506.

Griscom, S.B., Fisher, N.S. and Luoma, S.N. (2000) Geochemical influences on assimilation of sediment-bound metals in clams and mussels. Environ. Sci. Technol., 34(1): 91-99.

Grosell, M., Nielsen, C. and Bianchini, A. (2002) Sodium turnover rate determines sensitivity to acute copper and silver exposure in freshwater animals. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 133C : 287-303.

Gundacker C. (2000) Comparison of heavy metal bioaccumulation in freshwater molluscs of urban river habitats in Vienna. Environ. Pollut., 110 (1): 61-71.

Guo, L., Hunt, B.I., Santschi, P.H. and Ray, S.M. (2001) Effect of dissolved organic matter on the uptake of trace metals by American oysters. Environ. Sci. Technol., 35: 885-893.

Hancock, B.A. and Pons, M.R.L. (Eds.) (1999) Copper 99, Vol. II. Mineral Processing. Environment, health and safety. TMS, Warrendale, PA.

Hansen, D.J., Berry, W.J., Mahony, J.D., Boothman, W.S., Di Toro, D.M., Robson, D.L., Ankley, G.T., Ma, D., Yan, Q. and Pesch, C.E. (1996) Predicting the toxicity of metal-contaminated field sediments using interstitial concentrations of metals and acid-volatile sulfide normalizations. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 15(12): 2080-2094.

Hansen, J.A., Lipton, J. and Welsh, P.G. (2002) Relative sensitivity of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to acute copper toxicity. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 21(3): 633-639.

He, W. (2000) Corrosion rates and runoff rates of copper and zinc as roofing materials - A combined field and laboratory study. Licentiate Thesis. Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Div. of Corrosion Science, KTH, Stockholm.

He, W. (2002) Atmospheric corrosion and runoff processes on opper and zinc as roofing materials. Doctoral Thesis. Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Div. of Corrosion Science, KTH, Stockholm.

He, W., Odnevall Wallinder, I. and Leygraf, C. (2001) A comparison between corrosion rates and runoff rates from new and aged copper and zinc as roofing material. Water, Air, Soil Pollut.: Focus 1: 67-82.

He, W., Odnevall Wallinder, I. and Leygraf, C. (2002) Runoff rates of zinc -a four-year field and laboratory study. In: Townsend, H.E. (Ed.) Outdoor and Indoor Atmospheric Corrosion. ASTM STP 1421. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, 2002.

Heijerick, D.G., De Schamphelaere, K.A.C. and Janssen, C.R. (2002a) Predicting acute zinc toxicity for Daphnia magna as a function of key water chemistry characteristics: Development and validation of a Biotic Ligand Model. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 21(6): 1309-1315.

Heijerick, D.G., De Schamphelaere, K.A.C. and Janssen, C.R. (2002b) Biotic ligand model development predicting Zn toxicity to the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata: possibilities and limitations. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 133C: 207-218.

Heijerick, D.G., Janssen, C.R. and De Coen, W.M. (2003) The combined effects of hardness, pH and dissolved organic carbon on the chronic toxicity of Zn to D. magna. Develop-ment of a surface response model. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 44 : 210-217.

Heikens, A., Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M. and Hendriks, A.J. (2001) Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in terrestrial invertebrates. Environ. Pollut., 113(3): 385-393.

Hesslein, R.H. (1976) An in situ sampler for close interval pore water studies. Limnol. Oceanogr., 21: 912-914.

Heumann, K.G., Marx, G., Rädlinger, G. and Vogl J. (2002) Heavy metal and halogen interactions with fractions of refractory organic substances separated by size-exclusion chromatography. In: Frimmel, F.H., Abbt-Braun, G., Heumann, K. G., Hock, B., Lüdemann, H.-D. and Spiteller, M. : Refractory organic substances in the environment, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim 2002, 55-72.

Hirner, A.V., Rehage, H. and Sulkowski M. (2000) Umweltgeochemie: Herkunft, Mobilität und Analyse von Schadstoffen in der Pedosphäre, 836 pp., Springer Verlag.

Ho, M.D. and Evans, G.J. (2000) Sequential extraction of metal contaminated soils with radiochemical assessment of readsorption effects. Environ. Sci. Technol., 34(6): 1030-1035.

Hoang, T.C., Tomasso, J.R. and Klaine, S.J. (2004) Influence of water quality and age on nickel toxicity to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 23(1) : 86-92.

Horning, W.B. and Neiheisel, T.W. (1979) Chronic effect of copper on the bluntnose minnow, Pimephales notatus (Rafinesque). Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 8: 545-552.

Hseu Z.-Y., Chen Z.-S., Tsai C.-C., Tsui C.-C., Cheng S.-F.,Liu C.-L. and Lin H.-T. (2002) Digestion methods for total heavy metals in sediments and soils. Water, Air, Soil Pollut., 141(1-4): 189-205.

Hsu Jenn-Hung and Shang-Lien Lo (2001) Effect of composting on characterization and leaching of copper, manganese, and zinc from swine manure. Environ. Pollut., 114(1): 119-127.

Hunt, J.W., Anderson, B.S., Phillips, B.M., Tjeerdema, R.S., Puckell, H.M., Stephenson, M., Tucker, D.W. and Watson, D. (2002) Acute and chronic toxicity of nickel to marine organisms: implications for water quality criteria. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 21(11): 2423-2430.

Hunter, K.A., Kim, J.P. and Croot, P.L. (1997) Biological roles of trace metals in natural waters. Environ. Monit. Assess., 44(1-3): 103-147.

ICSG (1999) Copper Bulletin, 6(11). International Copper Study Group, Lisbon, Portugal.

Impellitteri, C.A., Saxe, J.K., Cochran, M., Janssen, G.M.C.M. and Allen, H.E. (2003) Predicting the bioavailability of copper and zinc in soils: Modelling the partitioning of potentially bioavailable copper and zinc from soil solid to soil solution. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 22(6): 1380-1386.

IPCS (1991) Environmental Health Criteria 108: Nickel. World Health Organization, Geneva.

IPCS (1998) Environmental Health Criteria 200: Copper. World Health Organization, Geneva.

IPCS (2001) Environmental Health Criteria 221: Zinc. World Health Organization, Geneva.

IZA (2003) EU Risk Assessment for Zinc : Main outcomes TMIII, Arona, 15-17 Sept., 2003. Environment Briefing Note 14/03, IZA/IZA Europe, International Zinc Assoc.

Jackson, M.L. (1958) Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ., 498 pp.

Janssen, C. and Muyssen, B. (2001) Essentiality of metals: Consequences for environmental risk assessments. Fact Sheet on Environmental Risk Assessment, No. 5, Sept. 2001. ICME, Ottawa, Ontario.

Janssen, C. et al. (2003) EU Zinc Risk Assessment conclusion (i) Programme: Summary of Part: Water. OH-slides presented at the "Zinc Conclusion (i) Info Session", Brussels, 26 March 2003.

Jenne, E.A. and Luoma, S.N. (1977) Forms of trace elements in soils, sediments and associated waters: an overview of their determination and biological availability. In: Proc. 5th Ann. Hanford Life Sciences Prgr., Ritchland, VA.

Jensen, D.L., Ledin, A. and Christensen, T.H. (1999) Speciation of heavy metals in landfill-leachate polluted groundwater. Water Res., 33(11): 26422650.

Johansson, M. (2000) Silver i avloppsslam - ingen akut fara för markens mikroorganismer, SLU Fakta Jordbruk 1.

Joseph, G. (1999) Copper, its trade, manufacture, use and environmental status. ASM International, Materials Park, OH.

Kabala, C. and Szerszen, L. (2002) Profile distributions of lead, zinc, and copper in dystric cambisols developed from granite and gneiss of the Sudetes Mountains, Poland. Water, Air, Soil Pollut., 138(1-4): 307-317.

Karlen C. (2001) Atmospheric corrosion of copper and zinc-based materials: Runoff rates, chemical speciation and ecotoxicity. Licentiate Thesis. Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Div. of Corrosion Science, KTH, Stockholm.

Karlen, C., Odnevall Wallinder, I., Heijerick, D., Leygraf, C. and Janssen, C.R. (2001) Runoff rates and ecotoxicity of zinc induced by atmospheric corrosion. Sci. Total Environ., 277: 169-180.

Karlen, C., Odnevall Wallinder, I., Heijerick, D. and Leygraf, C. (2002) Runoff rates, chemical speciation and bioavailability of copper released from naturally patinated copper. Environ. Pollut., 120: 691-700.

Kemble, N.E., Brumbaugh, W.G., Brunson, E.L., Dwyer, F.J., Ingersoll, C.G., Monda, D.P. and Woodward, D.F. (1994) Toxicity of metal-contaminated sediments from the upper Clark Fork River, Montana, to aquatic invertebrates and fish in laboratory exposures. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 13(12): 1985-1997.

Kemp, P.F. and Swartz, R.C. (1986) Acute toxicity of interstitial and particle-bound cadmium to a marine infaunal amphipod. Mar. Environ. Res., 26:135-153.

Klerks, P.L. and Fraleigh, P.C. (1997) Uptake of nickel and zinc by the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 32:191197.

Kolok, A.S., Hartman, M.M. and Sershan, J. (2002) The physiology of copper tolerance in fathead minnows: insight from an intraspecific, correlative analysis. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 21(8): 1730-1735.

LaBreche, T.M.C., Dietrich, A.M., Gallagher, D.L. and Shepherd, N. (2002) Copper toxicity to larval Mercenaria mercenaria (hard clam). Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 21(4): 760-766.

Ladd, S.C., Marcus, W.A. and Cherry, S. (1998) Differences in trace metal concentrations among fluvial morphologic units and implications for sampling. Environ. Geology, 36(3/4): 259-270.

Laing, G.D., Bogaert, N., Tack, F.M.G., Verloo, M.G. and Hendrickx, F. (2002) Heavy metal contents (Cd, Cu, Zn) in spiders (Pirata piraticus) living in intertidal sediments of the river Scheldt estuary (Belgium) as affected by substrate characteristics. Sci. Total Environ., 289(1-3): 71-81.

Landner, L. (2002) Copper and zinc in lake and sea sediments: A critical survey of recent, scientific information on the possibilities to predict bioavailability and toxicity of trace metals in sediments, AF-MFG Technical Report 40 pp.

Landner, L., Walterson, E. and Hellstrand, S. (2000) Copper in sewage and soil: A literature review and critical discussion of disposal of copper-containing sludges to agricultural land. International Copper Association Publ., July 2002. 143 pp.

Langer, B.E. (1994) Recycling von Elektronikschrott. Metall, 48(11): 880885.

Lead, J.R., Hamilton-Taylor, J. and Davison, W. (1998) The effect of sequential extractions of suspended particulate matter on trace metal sorption and microbial cell stability. Sci. Total Environ., 209(2-3): 193-199.

Lee B.-G., Lee, J.-S., Luoma, S.N., Heeseon Jeon Choi, and Chul-Hwan Koh (2000a) Influence of acid volatile sulfide and metal concentrations on metal bioavailability to marine invertebrates in contaminated sediments. Environ. Sci. Technol., 34(21): 4517-4523.

Lee J.-S., Lee, B.-G., Luoma, S.N., Heeseon Jeon Choi, Chul-Hwan Koh and Brown, C.L. (2000b) Influence of acid volatile sulfides and metal concentrations on metal partitioning in contaminated sediments. Environ. Sci. Technol., 34(21): 4511-4516.

Lee, J.-S., Lee, B.-G., Luoma, S.N. and Yoo, H. (2004) Importance of equilibration time in the partitioning and toxicity of zinc in spiked sediment bioassays. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 23(1) : 65-71.

Lee P.-K., Baillif, P. and Touray, J.-C. (1997) Geochemical behaviour and relative mobility of metals (Mn, Cd, Zn and Pb) in recent sediments of a retention pond along the A-71 motorway in Sologne, France. Environ. Geology, 32(2): 142-152.

Leygraf, C. (1995) Corrosion mechanisms in theory and practice. In: Marcus, P. and Oudar, J. (Eds.) Atmospheric Corrosion. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.

Liber, K., Call, D.J., Markee, T.P., Schmude, K.L., Balcer, M.D., Whiteman, F.W. and Ankley, G.T. (1996) Effects of acid-volatile sulfide on zinc bioavailability and toxicity to benthic macroinvertebrates: a spiked-sediment field experiment. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 15(12): 2113-2125.

Liess, M., Champeau, O., Riddle, M., Sahulz, R. and Duquesne, S. (2001) Combined effects of ultraviolet-B radiation and food shortage on the sensitivity of the Antarctic amphipod Paramoera walkeri to copper. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 20(9): 2088-2092.

Linde, M., Bengtsson, H. and Öborn, I. (2001) Concentrations and pools of heavy metals in urban soils in Stockholm, Sweden. Water, Air, Soil Pollut.: Focus 1: 83-101.

Linder, M. and Taxen, C. (2002) Copper in tap waters. Literature research and equilibrium calculation. Swedish Corrosion Inst., KI Report 2002:1E, May 2002.

Lindeström, L. (1999) Metaller i Dalälven: Förekomst & ursprung, trender & samband, naturligt & antropogent. Report for Dalälven Water Conservation Association. County Administrative Board, Dalarna, Report 1999:16.

Lindeström, L. (2003) The Environmental History of the Falun Mine. Stiftelsen Stora Kopparberget & ÄF-Miljöforskargruppen AB. ISBN 91631-3536-1. 110 pp.

Lindström, M. (2001) Urban land-use influences on heavy metal fluxes and surface sediment concentrations of small lakes. Water, Air, Soil Pollut., 126: 363-383.

Lindström, M., Jonsson, A., Brolin, A.A. and Hakansson, L. (2001) Heavy metal sediment load from the city of Stockholm. Water, Air, Soil Pollut.: Focus 1: 103-118.

Lithner, G., Holm, K. and Ekström, C. (2003) Metaller och organiska miljögifter i vattenlevande organismer och deras miljö i Stockholm 2001. Inst. för Tillämpad Miljöforskning (ITM), Stockholms universitet, Stockholms Miljöförvaltning och Stockholm Vatten AB. ISBN 91-6313785-5. 57 pp.

Lock, K. and Janssen, C.R. (2001) Ecotoxicity of zinc in spiked artificial soils versus contaminated field soils. Environ. Sci. Technol., 35(21): 42954300.

Lock, K. and Janssen, C.R. (2002a) The effect of ageing on the toxicity of zinc for the potworm Enchytraeus albidus. Environ. Pollut., 116(2): 289292.

Lock, K. and Janssen, C.R. (2002b) Multi-generation toxicity of zinc cadmium, copper and lead to the potworm Enchytraeus albidus. Environ. Pollut., 117(1): 89-92.

Lofts, S. and Tipping, E. (2000) Solid-solution metal partitioning in the Humber rivers: application of WHAM and SCAMP. Sci. Total Environ., 251-252: 381-399.

Lohm, U., Bergbäck, B., Hedbrant, J., Jonsson, A., Sviden, J. Sörme, L. and Östlund, C. (1997) Databasen Stockhome. Flöden och ackumulation av metaller i Stockholms teknosfär. Tema V rapport 25, Linköpings Univ., Tema Vatten i natur och samhälle.

Lu Yuefeng and Allen, H.E. (2001) Partitioning of copper onto suspended particulate matter in river waters. Sci. Total Environ., 277(1-3): 119-132.

Luoma, S.N. and Bryan, W. (1981) A statistical assessment of the form of trace metals in oxidised sediments employing chemical extractants. Sci. Total Environ., 17: 165-196.

Lydersen, E. and Löfgren S. (2001) Potential effects of metals in reacidified limed water bodies in Norway and Sweden. Environ. Monit. Assess., 73: 155-178.

MacFarlane, G.R. and Booth, D.J. (2001) Estuarine Macrobenthic Community Structure in the Hawkesbury River, Australia: Relationships with Sediment Physicochemical and Anthropogenic Parameters. Environ. Monit. Assess., 72(1): 51-78.

MacRae, R.K., Smith, D.E., Swoboda-Colberg, N., Meyer, J.S. and Bergman, H.L. (1999) The copper binding affinity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) gills: implications for assessing bioavailable metal. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 18: 1180-1189.

Madoni, P. (2000) The acute toxicity of nickel to freshwater ciliates. Environ. Pollut., 109(1): 53-59.

Mahony, J.D., Di Toro, D.M., Gonzales, A.M., Curto, M., Dilg, M., De Rosa, L.D. and Sparrow, L.A. (1996) Partitioning of metals to sediment organic carbon. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 15: 2187-2197

Malmqvist, P.A. (1983) Urban stormwater pollutant sources. Dept. of Sanitary Engineering, Chalmers Univ. Technol., Göteborg.

Martinez, C.E. and McBride, M.B. (1998) Solubility of Cd2+, Cu2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ in aged coprecipitates with amorphous iron hydroxides. Environ. Sci. Technol., 32(6): 743-748.

Martínez, C.E. and McBride, M.B. (1999) Dissolved and labile concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in aged ferrihydrite-organic matter systems. Environ. Sci. Technol., 33(5): 745-750.

Mattsson, E. (1980) Corrosion of copper in fresh water. Paper pres. at Australasian Corr. Assoc. Conf., Adelaide, Australia, Nov. 1980.

Marx, G. and Heumann, K.G. (1999) Mass spectrometric investigations of the kinetic stability of chromium and copper complexes with humic substances by isotope-labelling experiments. Fresenius J. Anal. Chem, 364: 489-494.

Maxam G., Rila J.-P., Dott W. and Eisentraeger A. (2000) Use of bioassays for assessment of water-extractable ecotoxic potential of soils. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safety, 45: 240-246.

McBride, M.B. and Martinez, C.E. (2000) Copper phytotoxicity in a contaminated soil: remediation tests with adsorptive materials. Environ. Sci. Technol., 34(20): 4386-4391.

McGeer, J.C., Playle, R.C., Wood, C.M. and Galvez, F. (2000) A physiologically based biotic ligand model for predicting the acute toxicity of waterborne silver to rainbow trout in freshwaters. Environ. Sci. Technol., 34: 4199-4207.

McGrath, S.P. (1994) Effects of heavy metals from sewage sludge on soil microbes in agricultural ecosystems. In: Ross, S.M. (ed.) Toxic Metals in Soil-Plant Systems. John Wiley & Sons, 247-274.

McGrath, S.P. (2001) How organisms live with heavy metals in the environment. Fact Sheet on Environmental Risk Assessment, No. 2, March 2001. ICME, Ottawa, Ontario.

McGrath, S. P. (2002) Bioavailability of Metals to Soil Microbes. In: Allen, H.E. (ed.) Bioavailability of Metals in Terrestrial Ecosystems, SETA, 158 pp.

McLaughlin, M.J. (2001) Ageing of metals in soils changes bioavailability. Fact Sheet on Environmental Risk Assessment, No. 4, Sept. 2001. ICME, Ottawa, Ontario.

McLaughlin, M. J. (2002) Bioavailability of metals to terrestrial plants. In: Allen, H. E. (ed.) Bioavailability of Metals in Terrestrial Ecosystems. SETAC, 158 pp

McLaughlin, M.J. and Smolders, E. (2001) Background zinc concentrations in soil affect the zinc sensitivity of soil microbial processes - A rationale for a metalloregion approach to risk assessments. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 20(11): 2639-2643.

McLaughlin, M.J., Smolders, E. and Oliver, I. (2002) Ageing of copper in soils - evidence for effects of time on availability and toxicity. CRIRO Land and Water, Final Report to the European Copper Institute, August 2002

Mebane C.A. (2001) Testing bioassessment metrics: Macroinvertebrate, sculpin, and salmonid responses to stream habitat, sediment, and metals. Environ. Monit. Assess., 67(3): 293-322

Meili, M., Jonsson, P., Lindström, M. and Holmberg, P. (2000) Accumulation of Chernobyl 137Cs in coastal archipelagos of the Baltic Sea. In: Nielsen, S.P. (Ed.) The radiological exposure of the population in the European Community to radioactivity in the Baltic Sea - Marina Balt Project. European Commission, Luxembourg. EUR 19200, Radiation Protection 110. pp. 415-420.

Meyer, J.S., Santore, R.C., Bobbitt, J.P., Paquin, P.R., Allen, H.E., Bergman, H.L. and DiToro, D.M. (1999) Binding of nickel and copper to fish gills predicts toxicity when water hardness varies, but free-ion activity does not. Environ. Sci. Technol., 33: 913-916.

Mikac, N., Niessen, S., Ouddane, B. and Fischer, J.-C. (2000) Effects of acid volatile sulfides on the use of hydrochloric acid for determining solid-phase associations of mercury in sediments. Environ. Sci. Technol., 34(9): 18711876.

Milani, D., Reynoldson, T.B., Borgmann, U. and Kolassa, J. (2003) The relative sensitivity of four benthic invertebrates to metals in spiked-sediment exposures and application to contaminated field sediments. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 22(4) : 845-854.

Morel, F.M. (1983) Principles of Aquatic Chemistry. New York, Wiley Interscience.

Morton, J.D., Hayes, K.F. and Semrau, J.D. (2000) Bioavailability of chelated and soil-adsorbed copper to Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. Environ. Sci. Technol., 34(23): 4917-4922.

Mowat, F.S. and Bundy, K.J. (2002) A mathematical algorithm to identify toxicity and prioritize pollutants in field sediments. Chemosphere, 49(5): 499-513.

Murray, P., Ge, Y. and Hendershot, W.H. (2000) Evaluating three trace metal contaminated sites: a field and laboratory investigation. Environ. Pollut., 107(1): 127-135.

Muyssen, B.T.A. and Janssen, C.R. (2001) Multi-generation zinc acclimation in Daphnia magna: implications for water quality guidelines and ecological risk assessment. Environ. Toxicol. Chem.., 20: 2053-2060.

Ngiam Li-Siok and Poh-Eng Lim (2001) Speciation patterns of heavy metals in tropical estuarine anoxic and oxidized sediments by different sequential extraction schemes. Sci. Total Environ., 275(1-3): 53-61.

Nikolaidis, N.P., Hellerich, L.A. and Lackovic, J.A. (1999) Methodology for site-specific, mobility-based cleanup standards for heavy metals in glaciated soils. Environ. Sci. Technol., 33(17): 2910-2916.

NIVA (2001) Chemistry of lakes in the Nordic region - Denmark, Finland with Aland, Iceland, Norway with Svalbard and Bear Island, and Sweden. Report SNO 4391 - 2001. Norsk Institutt for Vannforskning.

Obbard, J.P. and Jones, K.C. (2001) Measurement of symbiotic nitrogen-fixation in leguminous host-plants grown in heavy metal-contaminated soils amended with sewage sludge. Environ. Pollut., 111(2): 311-320.

O'Day, P.A., Carroll, S.A., Randall, S., Martinelli, R.E., Anderson, S.L., Jelinski, J. and Knezovich, J.P. (2000) Metal speciation and bioavailability in contaminated estuary sediments, Alameda Naval Air Station, California. Environ. Sci. Technol., 34(17): 3665-3673.

Odnevall, I. and Leygraf, C. (1995) Reaction sequences in atmospheric corrosion of zinc. In: Kirk, W.W. and Lawson, H.H. (Eds.) Outdoor and

Indoor Atmospheric Corrosion, ASTM STP 1239. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA. pp. 215-229.

Odnevall, I. and Leygraf, C. (1997) A study of copper runoff in an urban atmosphere. Corroson Sci., 39(12): 2039

Odnevall Wallinder, I. and Leygraf, C. (2001) Seasonal variations in corrosion rate and runoff rate of copper roofs in an urban and a rural atmospheric environment. Corrosion Sci., 43(12): 2379-2396.

Odnevall Wallinder, I. and Leygraf, C. (2002) Environmental effects of metals induced by atmospheric corrosion. In: Townsend, H.E. (Ed.) Outdoor and Indoor Atmospheric Corrosion. ASTM STP 1421. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, 2002.

Odnevall Wallinder, I., Verbiest, W., He, W. and Leygraf, C. (1998) The influence of patina age and pollutant levels on the runoff rate of zinc from roofing materials. Corrosion Sci., 40(11): 1977.

Odnevall Wallinder, I., Verbiest, P., Janssen, C.R. and Leygraf, C. (1999) Environmental effects of zinc runoff from roofing materials of different age as a result of atmospheric corrosion. Proc. 14th Internat. Corrosion Congr., 16 Sept.-1 Oct. 1999, Cape Town, South Africa.

Odnevall Wallinder, I., Korpinen, T., Sundberg, R. and Leygraf, C. (2002a) Atmospheric corrosion of naturally and pre-patinated copper roofs in Singapore and Stockholm - Runoff rates and corrosion product formation. In: Townsend, H.E. (Ed.) Outdoor and Indoor Atmospheric Corrosion. ASTM STP 1421. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, 2002.

Odnevall Wallinder, I., Lu, J., Bertling, S. and Leygraf, C. (2002b) Release rates of chromium and nickel from 304 and 316 stainless steel during urban atmospheric exposure - a combined field and laboratory study. Corrosion Sci., 44: 2303-2319.

Odnevall Wallinder, I., Bertling, S., Herting, G., Leygraf, C., Heijerick, D. and Berggren, D. (2003) Metal release of chromium, nickel and iron from stainless steel induced by atmospheric corrosion and its environmental interaction. - A combined field and laboratory investigation. Report from Div. of Corrosion Science, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, April 2003.

Odzak Niksa, Kistler, D., Hanbin Xue and Sigg, L. (2002) In situ trace metal speciation in a eutrophic lake using the technique of diffusion gradients in thin films (DGT). Aquatic Sci., 64(3): 292-299.

Olivie-Lauquet, G., Gruau, G., Dia, A., Riou, C., Jaffrezic, A. and Henin, O. (2001) Release of trace elements in wetlands: role of seasonal variability. Water Res., 35(4): 943-952.

Ostlund, P., Sternbeck, J. and Brorstrom-Lunden, E. (1998) Metaller, PAH, PCB och totalkvave i sediment runt Stockholm - floden och halter. IVL-Rapport B 1297.

Otero, X.L. and Macias, F. (2002a) Variation with depth and season in metal sulfides in salt marsh soils. Biogeochemistry, 61(3): 247-268.

Otero, X.L. and Macias, F. (2002b) Spatial and seasonal variation in heavy metals in interstitial water of salt marsh soils. Environ. Pollut., 120: 183-190.

Oudeh, M., Khan, M. and Scullion, J. (2002) Plant accumulation of potentially toxic elements in sewage sludge as affected by soil organic matter level and mycorrhizal fungi. Environ. Pollut., 116(2): 293-300.

Pagenkopf, G.K. (1983) Gill surface interaction model for trace metal toxicity to fishes: Role of complexation, pH, and water hardness. Environ. Sci. Technol., 17: 342-347.

Persaud, D., Jaagumagi, R. and Hayton, A. (1989) Development of provincial sediment quality guidelines. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

Pesch, C.E., Hansen, D.J., Boothman, W.S., Berry, W.J. and Mahony, J.D. (1995) The role of acid volatile sulphide and interstitial water metals concentrations in determining bioavailability of cadmium and nickel from contaminated sediments to the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 14: 129-141.

Persson, D. and Kucera, V. (2001) Release of metals from buildings, constructions and products during atmospheric exposure in Stockholm. Water, Air, Soil Pollut.: Focus 1: 133-150.

Phillips, D.J.H. and Rainbow, P.S. (1989) Strategies of trace metal sequestration in aquatic organisms. Mar. Environ. Res., 28: 207-210.

Playle, R.C. (1998) Modelling metal interactions at fish gills. Sci. Total Environ., 219: 147-163.

Playle, R.C., Gensemer, R.W. and Dixon, G.D. (1992) Copper accumulation on gills of fathead minnows: Influence of water hardness, complexation, and pH of the gill microenvironment. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 11: 381-391.

Playle, R.C., Dixon, D.G. and Burnison, K. (1993) Copper and cadmium binding to fish gills: Estimates of metal-gill stability constants and modelling of metal accumulation. Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci., 50: 2678-2687.

Priggemeyer, St., Priggemeyer, S., Meyer, E., Sauler, W, Breu, M, Schüz, G, Arens, P. and Baukloh, A. (2001) Copper release of copper tubes in contact with hard drinking waters. Gesellschaft für Korrosionsschutz, eV Jahrestagung 2001, Dechema 2001.

Qian J., Wang Z.-J., Shan X., Tu Q., Wen B. and B. Chen (1996) Evaluation of plant availability of soil trace metals by chemical fractionation and multiple regression analysis. Environ. Pollut., 91(3): 309-315.

Quantin, C., Becquer, T., Rouiller, J.H. and Berthelin, J. (2001) Oxide weathering and trace metal release by bacterial reduction in a New Caledonia Ferralsol. Biogeochemistry 53(3): 323-340.

Radovanovic, H. and Koelmans, A.A. (1998) Prediction of In Situ Trace Metal Distribution Coefficients for Suspended Solids in Natural Waters. Environ. Sci. Technol., 32(6): 753-759.

Rai U.N., R.D. Tripathi, P. Vajpayee, Vidyanath Jha and M.B. Ali (2002) Bioaccumulation of toxic metals (Cr, Cd, Pb and Cu) by seeds of Euryale ferox Salisb. (Makhana). Chemosphere, 46(2): 267-272.

Rainbow, P.S. (2002) Trace metal concentrations in aquatic invertebrates: why and so what ? Environ. Pollut., 120(3): 497-507.

Rainbow, P.S. and White, S.L. (1989) Comparative strategies of heavy metal accumulation by crustaceans : Zinc, copper and cadmium in a decapod, an amphipod and a barnacle. Hydrobiologia, 174: 245-262.

Rechberger, H. and Graedel, T.E. (2002) The contemporary European copper cycle: statistical entropy analysis. Ecol.Econ., 42: 59-72.

Regoli, L. (2003) Critical analysis of abiotic factors in Nordic waters/lakes. (Draft) IZA-Europe, Brussels.

Reid, B.J., Jones, K.C. and Semple, K.T. (2000) Bioavailability of persistent organic pollutants in soils and sediments: a perspective on mechanisms, consequences and assessment. Environ. Pollut., 108(1): 103-112.

Renner, R. (1997) Rethinking Water Quality Standards for metals toxicity. Environ. Sci. Technol., 31: 466-468.

Reuther, R. (1999) Trace metal speciation in aquatic sediments: methods, benefits and limitations. In: Manual of Bioassessment of Aquatic Sediment Quality (chapter 1); Mudroch, A., Azcue, J.M. and Mudroch, P. (Eds.), Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL., 1-54.

Reuther, R. (2001) Übersicht über bestehende Elutionstests, Technical Report, enas Environmental Assessments, 11 pp. (unpublished manuscript).

Richards, B.K., Steenhuis, T.S., Peverly, J.H. and McBride, M.B. (2000) Effect of sludge-processing mode, soil texture and soil pH on metal mobility in undisturbed soil columns under accelerated loading. Environ. Pollut., 109(2): 327-346.

Richards, J.G., Curtis, P.J., Burnison, B.K. and Playle, R.C. (2001) Effects of natural organic matter source on reducing metal toxicity to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and on metal binding to their gills. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 20(6): 1159-1166.

RIVM (1999) Risk Assessment on Zinc Metal, part I: Environment. Prepared for the EU under Regulation 93/793. Netherlands Inst. of Publ. Health and the Environ. (RIVM), Bilthoven, Netherlands.

Rognerud, S., Hongve,D., Fjeld, E. and Ottesen, R.T. (2000) Trace metal concentrations in lake and overbank sediments in southern Norway. Environ. Geology, 39(7): 723-732.

Rozan, T.F., Benoit, G. and Luther III, G.W. (1999) Measuring metal sulfide complexes in oxic river waters with square wave voltammetry. Environ. Sci. Technol., 33(17): 3021-3026.

Ruby, M.V., Schoof, R., Brattin, W., Goldade, M., Post, G., Harnois, M., Mosby, D.E., Casteel, S.W., Berti, W., Carpenter, M., Edwards, D., Cragin,

D. and Chappell, W. (1999) Advances in evaluating the oral bioavailability of inorganics in soil for use in human health risk assessment. Environ. Sci. Technol., 33(21): 3697-3705.

Russo, P., Birat, J.P., Aboussouan, L., Geoffroy, X., Quelier, M. and Backert, S. (1999) Upgrading scrap quality by improving shredder operation. 4th ASM Internat. Congress on Recycling of Metal, 17-18 June 1999, Vienna..

Salomons, W. and Förstner, U. (1980) Trace metal analysis of polluted sediments. II: Evaluation of environmental impact. Environ. Technol. Lett., 1: 506.

Santore, R.C. and Driscoll, C.T. (1995) The CHESS model for calculating chemical equilibria in soils and solutions. In: Loeppert, R. et al. (Eds.) Chemical Equilibrium and Reaction Models. Soil Science Society of America Special Publ. 42. Amer. Soc. Agronomy, Madison, WI. pp. 357375.

Santore, R.C., Di Toro, D.M., Paquin, P.R., Allen, H.E. and Meyer, J.S. (2001) Biotic ligand model of the acute toxicity of metals. 2. Application to acute copper toxicity in freshwater fish and Daphnia. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 20(10): 2397-2402.

Santore, R.C., Mathew, R., Paquin, P.R. and Di Toro, D. (2002) Application of the biotic ligand model to predicting zinc toxicity to rainbow trout, fathead minnow and Daphnia magna. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 133C: 271285.

Santos, A., Alonso, E., Callejón, M. and Jiménez, J.C. (2002) Heavy metal content and speciation in groundwater of the Guadiamar river basin. Chemosphere, 48 (3): 279-285.

Sarret, G., Manceau, A., Spadini, L., Roux, J.-C., Hazemann, J.-L., Soldo, Y., Eybert-Bérard, L. and Menthonnex, J.-J. (1998) Structural determination of Zn and Pb binding sites in Penicillium chrysogenum cell walls by EXAFS spectroscopy. Environ. Sci. Technol., 32(11): 1648-1655.

Sasson-Brickson, G. and Burton, G.A.Jr. (1991) In situ and laboratory sediment toxicity testing with Ceriodaphnia dubia. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 10: 201-207.

Sauvé, S.F. (1999) Chemical speciation, solubility and bioavailability of lead, copper and cadmium in contaminated soils. PhD Dissertation, Faculty of the Graduate School of Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, N.Y. Jan., 1999.

Sauvé, S., Dumestre, A., McBride, M and Hendershot, W. (1998) Derivation of soil quality criteria using predicted chemical speciation of Pb2+ and Cu2+. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 17(8): 1481-1489.

Sauvé, S., Hendershot, W. and Allen, H.E. (2000) Solid-Solution Partitioning of Metals in Contaminated Soils: Dependence on pH, Total Metal Burden, and Organic Matter. Environ. Sci. Technol., 34(7): 11251131.

Schaaf, W., Gast , M., Wilden, R., Scherzer, J., Blechschmidt, R. and Hüttl, R.F. (1999) Temporal and spatial development of soil solution chemistry and element budgets in different mine soils of the Lusatian lignite mining area. Plant and Soil, 213(1-2): 169-179.

Scheinost, A.C., Kretzschmar, R., Pfister, S. and Roberts, D.R. (2002) Combining selective sequential extractions, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and principal component analysis for quantitative zinc speciation in soil. Environ. Sci. Technol., 36(23) : 5021-5028.

Schramel, O., Michalke, B. and Kettrup, A. (2000) Study of the copper distribution in contaminated soils of hop fields by single and sequential extraction procedures. Sci. Total Environ., 263(1-3): 11-22.

Segner, H. (1987) Response of fed and starved roach, Rutilus rutilus, to sublethal copper contamination. J.Fish Biol., 30: 423-437.

SEPA (1994) Metals in the urban and forest environment. Ecocycles and critical loads. Research programme 1994/95 - 1998/99. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Report 4435.

SGU (2002) Mineralmarknaden, Tema: Järnmalm. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning, SGU Program Mineralpolitiska utredningar, Per.publ. 2002:1. ISSN 0283-2038.

SGU (2003) Mineralmarknaden, Tema: Indium, gallium & germanium. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning, SGU Program Mineralpolitiska utredningar, Per.publ. 2003:2. ISSN 0283-2038.

Shin P.K.S. and Lam, W.K.C. (2001) Development of a marine sediment pollution index. Environ. Pollut., 113(3): 281-291

Shine, J.P., Trapp, C.J. and Coull B.A., (2003). Use of Receiver Operating Characateristic curves to evaluate sediment quality guidelines for metals. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 22 (7), 1642-1648.

Shorrocks, V.M. and Alloway, B.J. (1985) Copper in plant, animal and human nutrition. Copper Develop. Assoc., Report TN 35, Orchard House, Potters Bar, Herts., U.K.

Shull, K.E. et al. (1960) Cold water corrosion of copper tubing. J. Amer. Water Works Assoc., 52 (Aug.): 1033-1040. (Ref. by Linder and Taxen).

Sibley, P.K., Ankley, G.T., Cotter, A.M. and Leonard, E.N. (1996) Predicting chronic toxicity of sediments spiked with zinc: An evaluation of the acid-volatile sulfide model using a life-cycle test with the midge Chironomus tentans. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 15(12): 2102-2112.

Sillanpaa, M. (1990) Micronutrient assessment at the country level : an international study. FAO Soils Bulletin No. 63. Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome.

Simada, M., Katagiri, N. and Maeda, S. (1999) Supply and consumption of copper in Japan. Internat. Copper Study Group, Lisbon, Portugal, Nov. 24, 1999.

Simpson, S.L., Apte, S.C. and Batley, G.E. (1998) Effect of short-term resuspension events on trace metal speciation in polluted anoxic sediments. Environ. Sci. Technol., 32(5): 620-625.

Simpson, S.L., Apte, S.C. and Batley, G.E. (2000) Effect of short-term resuspension events on the oxidation of cadmium, lead, and zinc sulfide phases in anoxic estuarine sediments. Environ. Sci. Technol., 34: 4533-4537.

Singh, A.K., Hasnain, S.I. and Banerjee, D.K. (1999) Grain size and geochemical partitioning of heavy metals in sediments of the Damodar River - a tributary of the lower Ganga, India. Environ. Geology, 39(1): 90-98.

Sloman, K.A., Baker, D.W., Wood, C.M. and McDonald, G. (2002) Social interactions affect physiological consequences of sublethal copper exposure in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus my kiss. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 21(6): 1255-1263.

Smit, C.E., Schouten, A.J., Van den Brink, P.J., van Esbroek, M.L.P. and Posthuma, L. (2002) Effects of zinc contamination on a natural nematode community in outdoor soil mesocosms. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 42: 205-216.

Smolders, E. and Degryse, F. (2002) Fate and effect of zinc from tire debris in soil. Environ. Sci. Technol., 36: 3706-3710.

Smolders, E. (2003) EU Zinc Risk Assessment conclusion (i) Programme: Zinc toxicity in soil - summary of conclusion (i) research.. OH-slides presented at the "Zinc Conclusion (i

Organic Gardeners Composting

Organic Gardeners Composting

Have you always wanted to grow your own vegetables but didn't know what to do? Here are the best tips on how to become a true and envied organic gardner.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment