Figures

Figure 2.1. Development of global production and consumption of refined nickel (in Mt/year) in the period 1999-2003. Figures for 2003 projected. After SGU, 2002; 2003.

Figure 2.2. Development of global production and consumption of refined zinc (in Mt/year) in the period 1998-2003. Figures for 2003 projected. After SGU, 2002; 2003.

Figure 3.1 The copper cycle for Europe in 1994. All units measured in kt/year. Reprinted from Spatari et al., 2002, with permission from Elsevier

Figure 4.1 Results of equilibrium calculations for dissolved copper species, when all the thermodynamically stable solids are considered. Reprinted with permission from Linder and Taxen, 2002

Figure 4.2. Map showing the main water courses in the Falun area, especially the receiving waters of the mine waste: the Gruvbacken Creek, River Faluan, Lake Tisken and Lake Runn, which empties into the great River Dalalven. Personal Communication, Lindestrom, 2002

Figure 4.3. Average biomass of phytoplankton in August in several lakes in the River Dalalven catchments area in the period 1990-2000 as a function of the nutrient (phosphorus) status of the lakes. Biomasses expressed in mm3/l. Reprinted with permission from Lindestrom, 2003.

Figure 4.4. Concentrations of copper and zinc in water (curve) and in liver tissue of perch (bars) in several lakes in the River Dalalven drainage basin. Concentrations in water are expressed as ^g/l and in liver tissue as ^g/g DM. Reprinted with permission from Lindestrom, 2003.

Figure 5.1. Schematic representation of the role of complexation reactions in the medium of a metal-uptaking organism. Reprinted with permission from Leuuwen, 1999 (American Chemical Society)

Figure 5.2. Cross section through a DGT device deployed in a pot of soil. For illustrative purposes, the DGT device is shown proportionally larger than the pot. Reprinted with permission from Zhang et al., 2001 (American Chemical Society)

Figure 5.3. Schematic representation of the dynamic interactions between free, labile and nonlabile metal pools in soil solution and their uptake by plant roots. Reprinted with permission from McBride and Martinez, 2000 (American Chemical Society)

Figure 6.1. Conceptual diagram of the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) showing inorganic and organic complexation in the water and interaction of metals and cations on the biotic ligand (BL). DOC = dissolved organic carbon. Modified after Pagenkopfs (1983) original GSIM model.

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