N

N- and O-containing ligands 269 nantokite 76

natural attenuation capacity 161 natural AVS minima 196 natural background concentrations

12-13, 17-18, 69, 272 natural organic colloids 269 natural organic matter 101, 104, 277, 282, 294, 298, 301-302, 367

natural selection 335 natural trace metal levels in soils 109

natural, background (bioavailable)

concentrations 333 Neanthes arenaceodentata 186, 365

neurotransmitter function 336 new metals 96 N-fixation in soils 260 nickel exposure 291, 302 nickel runoff 85 nickel use 22

NiS 171, 188-192, 204, 208, 210 nitrification 54, 118, 259-261,

264, 322, 330-331, 346 nitrification inhibition 261 nitrogen cycling 331 nitrogenase activity 260 NOEC 286, 288, 290, 295-297,

301-302, 381 non-electrostatic model' (NEM) 220

non-equilibrium conditions 161 normal copper concentrations in soils 326

normal levels of zinc in most crops and pastures 328 normalised LC50 values 295 normalization of the ^-values 236

nutrients 88, 105-106, 109, 119, 128, 151, 165, 258-259

O2-respiration 194 O-containing ligands 269 ocurrence of toxicity 184 oligochaetes 178, 180, 211, 226 oligotrophic lakes 127-128 operational drawbacks of SEM/AVS-based approaches 187

operationally defined geochemical phases 178, 227 optimal range of trace metal concentrations 333 oral bioavailability of metals from soils 267 ore grass 127

organic carbon 10, 99, 159, 169170, 173-174, 176-177, 180, 183-186, 189-191, 222-224, 250, 254, 264, 270, 281, 290, 307, 309, 312, 318, 330, 331, 347, 350, 354, 360 organic carbon normalisation 183 organic carbon normalized excess

SEM 185-186, 312 organic complexes 98, 145, 146,

242, 246, 248-249, 323 organic copper complexes 294 organic ligands 7, 9, 105, 146149, 157-158, 167, 203, 207, 216, 232, 234, 237, 248, 259, 263, 290, 294, 299, 301

organic matter 10-11, 100, 105106, 117, 144-147, 158-159, 163, 167-169, 175, 197-200, 206, 211, 215-216, 224-225, 228-236, 246-248, 254-255, 258, 262-266, 269-270, 279, 282, 291, 309, 314-316, 325330, 353, 361, 365, 377 organic matter binding sites 159 organic matter decomposition

258, 263 organic substances commonly found in sludge 264 organism-water interface 9, 275,

278, 280 outflows 52, 53 oxic sediments 172, 176, 224226, 230 oxidation capacity 191 oxidation gradients 194 oxidation kinetics of these metal sulphides 155 oxidation of sulphide precipitates 213

oxidation of sulphides 316 oxidative dissolution 193 oxidised marine or freshwater sediments 177 oxidized sediments 222, 230,

309, 363 oxygen conditions in metal-polluted sediments 319

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