R

radioisotope tracers 241 radiotracer pulse-chase feeding technique 226 rainbow trout 9, 178, 275-277, 283, 286-287, 290-293, 298306, 353, 360-361, 367-368, 371, 376 ransfer rates of contaminants from soils and sediments to biota 266

rate-determining step in uptake processes 156-157 rates of sludge application 111 ratio of reactive Fe to AVS 193 reactive Fe pool 232 reactive sulphide 188, 190, 210 reactive specific surface area 219 readsorption 197 readsorption in the gut of the initially desorbed metal ions 225

Receiver Operating

Characteristics Curves (ROC) 186

receptor sites on the organism 280

recycling 3-5, 25-29, 32, 36-37, 41, 43, 51, 53, 105-106, 117, 119, 258-259 recycling of copper 36 redistribution effects 241 redox buffering capacity 232 redox conditions 196, 229, 231,

252, 309 redox potential 10-11, 164, 167, 177, 211, 230-232, 250-254, 308-309, 312, 314, 318, 321, 380

redox stable metals 251 redox-active trace metals 251 reference material 62, 97 reference values 41, 50, 65 refined copper usage 28 refractory (less degradable)

organic substances (ROS) 152 regional background level 274 rehabilitation of metal-

contaminated sites 161 relative affinity of metals for AVS 176

relative bioavailability 234, 236,

266, 267 relative mobilities of metals 68, 232

remobilization 143, 198, 377 reproducibility 141, 150, 163 reproduction 116, 180, 288, 302, 305, 317, 320, 328-331, 334, 338, 344, 375 reproduction and growth of earthworms 116 reproduction of amphipods 317 resistance to oxidation 210

respiration 118, 253, 278, 322,

327, 330-331, 336 respiratory membranes 186, 223, 310

restoration 198 resuspension 86, 97, 170-171, 190, 206-210, 213, 271-272, 311, 321, 341, 370-371 retention via sorption, precipitation/coprecipitation processes, occlusion and incorporation into reservoir minerals 255 rhizosphere 241-243, 326, 376 risk assessment of metal-

contaminated soils 329 River Dalalven 120-130 rivers Rhine and Meuse 43 road pavements 49 road sediments 199 road traffic 53-54, 62, 76, 87-89,

91-93, 96-97, 132-134 roadside soils 54, 62 root microenvironments 242 routes of exposure 172, 194, 330 runoff from roofs 7, 54, 133 runoff rate 7, 72-77, 80-85, 364 runoff rates of chromium and nickel from abraded metal surfaces 85 rutile 219

ryegrass (Lolium perenne) 262 S

salinity 149, 160, 268 salt marsh soils 252 Scanning Force Microscopy 256 S-containing ligands 269 scrap 30-38, 53, 368 seasonal and spatial variations 8, 160,183, 252, 254

seasonal and vertical variability in

AVS 311 seasonal variability of the flux of total dissolved Cu from the sediment 192 secondary minerals 163, 218, 255 sedentary suspension-feeding organisms 231 sediment cores 138, 181, 273, 308, 311-316, 320-321, 371 sediment deposition rates 65 sediment dweller 211 sediment elutriates 213 sediment ingestion 227 Sediment Or Fauna Incubation Experimental system' (SOFIE) 211

sediment oxidation 171, 191, 231 sediment partitioning phases 174 sediment quality 16, 139, 171, 173, 177-178, 187, 195, 201, 204, 269, 272, 309, 323, 342, 365, 370 sediment surface coatings 221 sediment TOC 224 sediment traps 135, 136, 137 sediment treatment techniques 200

sedimentary mesopores 225 sedimentation traps 92 selectivity 141, 146, 150, 163,

165, 171, 187-188, 197, 237 selenium 30

SEM/AVS concept 172, 187, 204-205, 289, 307-310, 318 SEM/AVS//oc model 313 SEM-to-AVS molar ratio 179 sensitivity of freshwater fish to nickel 291 sequential extraction 163, 165,

226, 237-240, 263, 350, 363, 369, 375 service lifetimes 32 seston 225

sewage sludge 4-8, 33, 52, 55, 59, 71, 87, 98-101, 105-120, 245, 248, 258-265, 349-350, 361, 363, 365, 373 sewage treatment effluents 43 sewage treatment plants 4, 6, 4950, 54-55, 66, 71, 98-99, 132, 294

shortcomings of the AVS concept 189

silica 205, 218

silver 9, 89, 96, 121, 129, 174275, 279-280, 283-286, 300303, 353, 361 silver toxicity 283 Simultaneously Extracted Metals

(SEM) 175, 187, 382 single-step extraction 168 site-specific differences in water quality 278 site-specific WQCs 280 size normalization 200 size-exclusion chromatography

153 slag 28, 30

sludge addition 112, 115-117,

258, 262 sludge application 110-119, 248,

255, 258, 261-265 sludge ash 263 sludge limit values 100 sludge-amended soils 19, 113 smelting 4-5, 25, 28-30, 35, 38,

122,148 snails 178

SO4-reducing bacteria 252-253 social interactions in a population 292

sodium homeostasis 278

soil (CaCl2) extractions 262

soil ameliorating substances in the sludge 265 soil and sediment quality guidelines 323 soil characteristics 62, 235, 251, 254, 258, 261, 265, 268, 324, 329, 332 soil conditioner 98, 101, 106 soil extraction procedures 233 soil factors 259, 333 soil flooding 250-251 soil invertebrates 323-327 soil metal retention capacity 257 soil microbiology 117, 263, 265,

soil micropores 262 soil properties 12, 236-238, 242245, 322, 328, 331-332 soil respiration 330 soil sensitivity factors 12, 322, 332

soil solution 11-12, 233-238, 242-246, 250, 254-263, 321, 323, 326-327, 330-355, 369, 377

soil solution free Cu2+ activitiy

soil types 62-63, 99, 118-119,

326, 351 soil-plant barrier 264 soil-plant transfer coefficients

(Tc) 262 soil-pollutant contact time 255 solid waste 6, 33, 49, 51-53, 263, 347

solid waste generation in Europe and copper content 35 solubility of their sulphides 176, 182

solubility product constants 175

sorption experiments 249, 257 sorption models 235 sorption rates on cell walls 247 spaelerite 189 Spartina maritima 252-253 speciation of Fe 192 speciation techniques 139-140, 202

speciaton of dissolved nickel 159 species sensitivity distribution

294, 297, 324, 328, 345 species-specific tolerances 328 spectroscopic analysis 164, 201202, 206, 247, 249 spectroscopic data 204 sphalerite 203 spider Piratapiraticus 268 spiked sediments 174, 178, 180, 186, 196, 308, 311-312, 321, 344

springtail Folsomia candida 329 square wave voltametric procedure 154 stability constants 9, 13, 149, 153, 156-159, 167, 219, 275, 280-286, 291, 206, 366 stainless scrap 23 stainless steel 2, 7, 15, 22-23, 51,

72-75, 84-85, 364-365 standard method of assessing metal bioavailability for regulatory purposes 239 stock of copper 32 Stockholm 4-7, 19, 25, 27, 48-97, 100, 126, 132-138, 271-274, 314-319, 341-345, 349, 353, 356, 359, 364-366, 372, 375, 381

stocks and fluxes 1, 6, 48 stoichiometrically different Cu sulphides 209 storm-waters 88

strong complexes 157 structural information 204 substance flow analysis 26, 41 substance risk assessments 279 sulfidization 190, 193, 209, 211 sulphate-reducing bacteria 10,

170, 174 sulphide coatings 190, 209, 211 sulphide oxidation 191, 207, 213,

231, 253 sulphide partitioning 174, 177 sulphide stability 155 supply of free metals 214, 216 surface area effects 188 surface binding sites 214 surface characteristics 76, 201 surface charge of minerals in natural waters 220 surface complexation 151, 158, 164, 214, 218, 247, 256-257, 348

surface complexation constants 257

surface complexation models

158, 164, 214, 218, 247, 257 surface hydroxyls 220, 247 surface reaction-controlled kinetics 267 surface sediments 138, 163, 181,

194, 196, 200 surface site density 214, 219-220 surface species 214, 218 surface-related mechanisms 247248

suspension feeders 223, 310, 319 sustainability indicators 41 sustainable loading rate 119 synergistic biological-

geochemical approach 202 synergistic effects 264

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