T

tailings 30

technosphere 26, 28, 64 tellurium 30

terrestrial toxicity 324, 329 Tessier method 165, 198, 226, 239

theoretical approaches to metal speciation 167 thermodynamic and kinetic stability of metal-ROS complexes 153 thermodynamic stability 149,

152,154 threshold level for chronic effects 186

threshold level for copper toxicity to plants 326 time scales of the ligand exchange rate for kinetically stable metal-ROS complexes 153 tin 89, 96 tire debris 54 tissue body burden 223 TOC 82, 105, 118, 144-145, 147148, 177, 222-226, 307, 383 Tolerable Daily Intake 41, 382 tolerance 3, 17, 131, 142, 279,

294, 333-338, 357 tolerance of Daphnia to dissolved copper 294 total binding site density of the biotic ligand 300 total metal concentration 91, 141,

166, 173, 179, 200, 206, 264 total metal pool in soils 239 total reducible sulphide (TRS) 208

toxic effects 78, 109, 118, 133, 171, 173, 178, 186, 213, 241, 263, 275, 278, 284, 288-289,

toxic unit approach 241 toxicity index 200 toxicity of Cu to maize shoots 245

toxicity of the CuCO3 complex 285

toxicity of zinc 304 toxicity predictor 185, 310 toxicity threshold 186 toxicity threshold values for copper (and other trace metals) 326

toxicity variation 305-306 toxicity-modifying factors 290 traffic emissions 87 traffic sector 4, 53, 58, 71, 86, 134

transboundary inflow 43-44 Transmission Electron

Microscopy (TEM) 198, 201, 205, 256, 382 transport ligands 266, 270 transport-controlled kinetics 267 triple layer model 218, 221 tungsten carbide 89 two-site models 214

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