Table 3.1. Principal uses of copper in the world, in 1990 (Joseph, 1999, Graedel et al., 2002).

Table 3.2. Example of stock buildup and decline for copper building wire (see text).

Table 3.3. Solid waste generation and copper content in the waste for STAF-Europe, in 1994 (after Bertram et al., 2002).

Table 3.4. Origins of the immission of copper and zinc in surface waters in the Netherlands. S.S. stands for a steady-state scenario. After van der Voet and van Oers, 2000.

Table 3.5. Origins of the immision of copper and zinc in agricultural soils in the Netherlands. S.S. stands for a steady-state scenario. After van der Voet and van Oers, 2000.

Table 3.6. Origins of copper and zinc in the waste management system in the Netherlands. S.S. stands for a steady-state scenario. After van der Voet and van Oers, 2000.

Table 3.7. Total emissions of metals to the Dutch environment in 1990 and at a steady-state scenario, as well as the main receiving compartment, according to data in van der Voet, Guinée and de Haes, 2000.

Table 3.8. Stock of metals (ktonnes) in the city of Stockholm, the annual amounts of metals in inflows and outflows - with solid waste and via other routes (ktonnes/y) - and the percentages of metals in stock that are protected and exposed to soil, water and air, respectively. After Bergbäck et al., 2001; Sörme et al., 2001a.

Table 3.9. Calculated metal emissions (kg/y) from the major goods emission sources in Stockholm, 1995. After Bergbäck et al., 2001 and Sörme et al., 2001b.

Table 3.10. Flows of metals in Stockholm: the influx of metals to the STPs, the effluxes via sludge and treated sewage, including storm water and groundwater (emitted to surface waters, A), fluxes through the Stockholm Stream (B) and calculated fractions of metals emitted compared to total transports in the recipient and compared to total emissions from the metal stock in Stockholm, respectively. (Data from Bergback et al., 2001).

Table 3.11. Contribution of metals from different sources (%) to the STP of Henriksdal in 1999. After Sorme and Lagerkvist, 2002.

Table 3.12. Average emissions in the year 1999 (kg/year) of the four metals, copper, chromium, nickel and zinc, from various sources in Stockholm, within the catchment area of the STP of Henriksdal. Estimated according to methods described by Sorme and Lagerkvist, 2002.

Table 3.13. Chromium, copper, nickel and zinc in the groundwater of Stockholm. Median and mean concentrations, degrees of elevation above the levels in groundwater in forest ecosystems (nation-wide), total amounts stored in the groundwater, estimates of total fluxes and direct contributions to Lake Malaren and the Baltic Sea, the latter expressed both as percent of total transport from Lake Malaren to the Baltic Sea and as percent of the total discharge to water from the city of Stockholm. After Aastrup and Thunholm, 2001.

Table 3.14. Concentrations of chromium, copper, nickel and zinc (as mean values of total metal in mg/kg dry weight) in various soil types in the city of Stockholm and in arable soils in the Stockholm region. After Linde et al., 2001 and Eriksson et al., 1997 and 1999.

Table 3.15. Calculated average pools of copper, lead and zinc (g/m2) in the top 30 cm of soils in the city centre of Stockholm as well as in parks outside the city centre. Data are also given on total pools, together with estimates of amounts of metals accumulated due to local emissions (given in tonnes). After Linde et al., 2001.

Table 3.16. Estimates of total metal deposition to sediments in Lake Malaren and in the Baltic Sea archipelago close to the city of Stockholm, and of the sediment metal loads originating from Stockholm (max and min), as well as the average metal flux from Lake Malaren to the Baltic Sea in the period 1995-1997. All fluxes in t/y. After Lindstrom et al., 2001.

Table 4.1. Annual zinc runoff rates from five major groups of zinc-containing commercial building materials used in Sweden, as well as individual values for each material, annual rates given in g/m2. After Karlen et al., 2001.

Table 4.2. Annual release rates (mg/m2) of chromium and nickel from 304 and 316 stainless steels, exposed for four years to the urban atmosphere in Stockholm. After Odnevall Wallinder et al. (2003).

Table 4.3. Total concentrations of metals (^g/l) in the surface layer of water in Lake Malaren, in Saltsjon and in two smaller lakes in Stockholm during the fall of 2001. After Lithner et al., 2003.

Table 4.4. Concentrations of some metals (^g/g DM )in soft tissues of Dreissena polymorpha after exposure for 6 weeks on stones in baskets placed at 8 different sites in Lake Malaren and one site in Saltsjon during the fall (August-October) of 2001. Figures in the table are ranges of mean values for different sites. After Lithner et al., 2003.

Table 4.5. Concentrations of some metals (^g/g DM )in soft tissues of Dreissena polymorpha after exposure for 6 weeks in central Stockholm compared to metal concentration in mussels caught in some other lakes and rivers. Ref. data compiled by Lithner et al., 2003.

Table 4.6. Permitted trace metal loads (kg/ha per year) in the EU - at present and proposed for the future - as well as in some EU Member States and in some other countries. After Landner et al., 2000; Delbeke and Landner, 2000.

Table 4.7. Limit values for some trace metals in sewage sludge (mg/kg DM, or when indicated, expressed as g/kg P) for use in agriculture. Values are from the EU - at present and proposed for the future - as well as from some EU Member States and from some other countries. After Landner et al., 2000; Delbeke and Landner, 2000.

Table 4.8. Experimental scheme for studies of the long-term consequences of sewage sludge applications on agricultural land in southern Sweden. After Andersson, 2000.

Table 4.9. Ranges of metal concentrations (mg/kg DM) in the sewage sludges used in the field experiments at Igelosa and Petersborg. After Andersson, 2000.

Table 4.10. Trace metal total concentrations (mg/kg DM) in the topsoil at Igelosa (IG) and Pertersborg(PE) in 1981 and at later stages just before a new sludge application. After Andersson and Nilsson, 1999; Andersson, 2000.

Table 4.11. Trace metal total concentrations (mg/kg DM) in the sub-soil (30-60 cm) at Igelosa (IG) and Pertersborg(PE) in 1999. After Andersson, 2000.

Table 4.12. Metal contents (mg/kg DM) in the crops harvested in 1998 and 1999 at the two farms Igelosa and Petersborg, after several years of sewage sludge application. After Andersson, 2000.

Table 4.13. Metal concentrations in the mine water pumped from the Falun Copper Mine and in the receiving rivers and lakes prior to 1978 and averages for the 1990s. All concentrations are total concentrations in the water, expressed as ^g/l. After Lindestrom, 2003.

Table 4.14. Concentrations of some metals in superficial sediments in Lakes Tisken and Runn immediately downstream of the Falun Copper Mine and median value for small lakes in the catchment of River Dalalven. Concentrations in ^g/g DM. After Lindestrom, 2003.

Table 4.15. Macroscopic benthic fauna in Lake Runn and similar oligotrophic lakes in the region investigated in 1996. Results are shown separately for shallow and deep bottoms (above and below the thermocline). After Lindestrom, 2003.

Table 4.16. Overview of copper and zinc concentrations in sediments collected in sediment traps and in superficial bottom sediment from three sites in the inner waterways of Stockholm. The table also displays calculated concentrations of copper and zinc in freshly settling material. For comparison, estimated regional background concentrations in sediments and copper and zinc levels in transplanted zebra mussels are given. All concentrations expressed as ^g/g DM. After Broman et al., 2001; Ostlund et al., 1998; Lithner et al., 2003.

Table 5.1. Overview of currently used speciation approaches (modified after Turner and Whitfield, 1982)

Table 5.2. Percentage of Swedish and Norwegian lakes below the lowest biological risk levels given as total concentrations in ^g/l according to Norwegian and Swedish criteria (from Lydersen et al., 2002)

Table 5.3. Aqueous and surface complexation reactions relevant for chromium speciation (from Nikoloaidis et al., 1999)

Table 5.4. First-order oxidation rate constants and resulting half-lives for metal sulfides in natural river water (from Rozan et al., 1999)

Table 5.5. Examples of sequential extraction procedures for trace metals in sediments (from Reuther, 1999).

Table 5.6. Effect of surface area on extraction efficiency (from Cooper and Morse, 1998)

Table 5.7. Extraction efficiency (from Cooper and Morse, 1998)

Table 5.8. Local structure of Zn in reference compounds, determined by multishell fit of Zn K-edge EXAFS analysis (from Scheinost et al., 2002)

Table 5.9. Reactivity of added solid phase metal constituents (M) in Iron Cove sedimenta and final metal sulphide formation upon sediment resuspension in seawater (from Simpson et al., 2000a)

Table 5.10. Free metal ion activities as percentage of total dissolved concentration at equilibrium, and 7 and 21 days after introducing test organisms (Limnodrillus spp.) (from Vink, 2002)

Table 5.11. Example of Cu released by 1 N HCl, gut fluids inArenicola marina, Parastichopus californicus, Cucumaria frondosa and sea water from harbour (BBH and PLH) and estuarine sediments (BIW), in comparison to total sedimentary Cu and acid-volatile sulphide" (AVS) (from Chen and Mayer, 1999)

Table 5.12. Total and soluble Cu and Zn contents (Mg/g dw) in two Swiss soils treated with manure, a Zn-containing fungicide (Propineb with 22.6% of Zn) and Cu salt (50% Cu) (from Aldrich et al., 2002)

Table 5.13. Multiple and single regression equations between plant concentrations (alfalfa, wheat) of Co, Cu, Pb and Ni and metal concentrations in particular soil fractions (from Qian et al., 1996)

Table 5.14. Influence of water depth and redox status on Zn speciation in wetland soils (from Bostick et al., 2001)

Table 5.15. Comparison of metal concentrations in soils of two field experiments in Braunschweig/Germany that received 100 or 300 m3 year-1 of metal-contaminated sewage sludge for about 9 years (Germany), with metal concentrations in soils from them Woburn Market Garden Experiment/UK giving 50% inhibition of nitrogenase activity by cyanobacteria, in relation to German, UK and CEC metal limits for soils receiving sewage sludge (mg/kg dw) (after McGrath, 1994)

Table 5.16. Possible regional background concentrations of some trace metals in uncontaminated sediment layers from 15 sediment cores, collected in the Stockholm area. Concentrations are based on digestion of samples in 7 N nitric acid (Swedish Standard) and are expressed as ^g/g dw (from Landner, 2002).

Table 7.1. LC50 values (96 h) for dissolved copper (^g Cu/l) measured with larval rainbow trout (body weight <5 g) at different levels of water hardness. Compiled from older studies by Hansen et al., 2002.

Table 7.2. Examples of acute and chronic toxicity data regarding dissolved copper (^g/l), normalised to a water hardness of 50 mg/l, for freshwater animals belonging to different taxonomic groups. After Brix et al., 2001.

Table 7.3. Variation in toxic response (EC50) in Daphnia magna, expressed as ^g/l of total dissolved copper, when each of six chemical activities (in mM) in the test solution was changed. After De Schamphelaere and Janssen, 2002.

Table 7.4. BL binding constants, log KMeBL (M-1), site densities in gills (nmol/g ww) and critical BL concentrations or LA50 values (nmol/g ww), and fraction of binding sites occupied by metal to produce 50% mortality for copper, silver and nickel in various organisms. Sources: Di Toro et al., 2001; De Schamphelaere and Janssen, 2002 ; De Schamphelaere, 2003.

Table 7.5. Importance of zinc bioavailability modifying factors for toxicity variation: number of times the lowest and highest toxicity differed in a series of univariate chronic toxicity tests with zinc for rainbow trout (RT), D. magna (DM) and the green alga P. subcapitata (PS). After De Schamphelaere et al., 2003a.

Table 7.6. Chronic toxicity data for Zn, estimated by means of BLMs for rainbow trout (RT), D. magna (DM) and the green alga P. subcapitata (PS). After De Schamphelaere et al., 2003a.

Table 7.7. Total, dry weight-normalised concentrations (mg/kg dry matter) of some trace metals in the sediment surface (0-0.5 cm) at the three sites, investigated by Sundelin and Eriksson (2001) (mean value of three replicates).

Table 7.8. Ranges of "No Observed Effect Concentrations" (NOECs) for Zn in 15 spiked soils. Data obtained from 6 different soil toxicity tests. After Smolders, 2003.

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