References

Barois I, Lavelle P (1986) Changes in respiration rate and some physicochemical properties of a tropical soil during transit through Pontoscolex corethrurus (Glossoscolecidae, Oligochaeta). Soil Biol Biochem 18:539-541 Barrow NJ (1985) Reactions of anions and cations with variable charged soils. Adv Agron 38: 183-230

Beckett PHT (1988) The use of extractants in studies on the trace metals in soils, sewage sludges and sludge-treated soils. Adv Soil Sci 9:144-175 Bengtsson G, Gunnarson T, Rundgren S (1986) Effects of metal pollution on the earthworm

Dendrobuena rubidu (Sav.) in acidified soils. Water Air Soil Pollut 28:361-383 Bernier N, Ponge JF (1994) Humus form dynamics during the sylvogenetic cycle in a mountain spruce forest. Soil Biol Biochem 26:183-220 Beyer WN, Hensler G, Moore I (1987) Relation of pH and other soil variables to concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd and Se in earthworms. Pedobiologia 30:167-172

Binet F, Fayolle L, Pussard M (1998) Significance of earthworms in stimulating soil microbial activity. Biol Fertil Soils 27:79-84 Blaylock MJ, Salt DE, Dushenkov S, Zakharova O, Gussman C, Ensley BD, Raskin I (1997) Enhanced accumulation of Pb in Indian mustard by soil-applied chelating agents. Environ Sci Technol 31:860-865

Bouché MB (1977) Strategies lombriciemnnes. Ecol Bull (Stockholm) 25:122-132

Buck C, Langmaack M, Schrader S (1999) Nutrient content of earthworm casts influenced by different mulch types. Eur Soil Biol 35:23-30 Butt KR (1991) The effects of temperature on the intensive production of Lumbricus terrestris

(Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae). Pedobiologia 35:257-264 Butt KR (1993) Reproduction and growth of three deepburrowing earthworms (Lumbricidae) in laboratory culture in order to assess production for soil restoration. Biol Fertil Soils 16:135-138 Cao X, Chen Y, Wang X, Deng X (2001) Effects of redox potential and pH value on the release of rare earth elements from soil. Chemosphere 44:655-661 Cemek B, Kizilkaya R (2006) Spatial variability and monitoring of Pb contamination of farming soils affected by industry. Environ Monit Assess 117:357-375 Chan KY (2003) Using Earthworms to Incorporate Lime into Subsoil to Ameliorate Acidity.

Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 34:985-997 Chang LW, Meier JR, Smith MK (1997) Application of plant and earthworm bioassays to evaluate remediation of a lead-contaminated soil. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 32:166-171 Cheng J, Wong MH (2002) Effects of earthworms on Zn fractionation in soils. Biol Fertil Soils 36:72-78

Clapperton JM, Miller JJ, Larney FJ (1997) Earthworm populations as affected by longterm tillage practices in southern Alberta, Canada. Soil Biol Biochem 29:631-633 Cortez J, Harneed R, Bouché MB (1989) C and N transfer in soil with or without earthworms fed with 14C and 15N-labelled wheat straw. Soil Biol Biochem 21:491-497 Cotton DCF, Curry JP (1980) The effects of cattele and pig slurry fertilizers on earthworm (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) in grassland managed for silage production. Pedobiologia 20:189-196

Crommentuijn T, Doornekamp A, Van Gestel CAM (1997) Bioavailability and ecological effects of cadmium on Folsomia candida (Willem) in an artificial soil substrate as influenced by pH and organic matter. Appl Soil Ecol 5:261-271 Curry JP (1994) Grassland invertebrates. Chapman and Hall, London

Dai J, Becquer T, Rouiller JH, Reversat G, Bernhard-Reversat F, Nahmani J, Lavelle P (2004) Heavy metal accumulation by two earthworm species and its relationship to total and DTPA-extractable metals in soils. Soil Biol Biochem 36:91-98 Dalva M, Moore TR (1992) Sources and sinks of dissolved organic carbon in forested swamp catchment. Biogeochemistry 15:1-19 Daniel O, Anderson JM (1992) Microbial biomass and activity in contrasting soil material after passage through the gut of earthworm Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister. Soil Biol Biochem 24:465-470 Devliegher W, Verstraete W (1996) Lumbricus terrestris in a soil core experiment: effects of nutrient-enrichment processes (NEP) and gut-associated processes (GAP) on the availability of plant nutrients and heavy metals. Soil Biol Biochem 28:489-486 Donald RG, Anderson DW, Stewart JWB (1993) Potential role of dissolved organic carbon in phosphorous transport in forested soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 57:1611-1618 Dudley LM, McNeal BL, Baham JE (1986) Time-dependent changes in soluble organic, copper, nickel and zinc from sludge amended soils. J Environ Qual 15:188-192 Dunger W (1983) Tiere im Boden. A. Ziemsen-Verlag, Wittenberg

Edwards CA (1983) Earthworm ecology in cultivated systems. In: Satchell JE (ed) Earthworm ecology: from Darwin to vermiculture. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 123-137 Edwards CA, Bohlen PJ (1992) The effects of toxic chemicals on earthworms. Rev Environ

Contam Toxicol 125:23-99 Edwards CA, Bohlen PJ (1996) Biology of Earthworms, 3rd edn. Chapman and Hall, London Edwards CA, Lofty R (1977) The biology of earthworms, 2nd edn. Chapman and Hall, London

Ehlers W (1975) Observations on earthworm channels and infiltration on tilled and untilled loess soil. Soil Sci 119:242-249 Fischer E, Molnar L (1993) Environmental aspects of the chlorogogenous tissue of earthworms.

Soil Biol Biochem 24:1723-1727 Fragoso C, Lavelle P (1992) Earthworm communities of tropical rainforests. Soil Biol Biochem 24:1397-1408

Fragoso C, Lavelle P, Blanchart E, Senapati BK, Jimenez JJ, Martinez M, Decaens T, Tondoh J (1999) Earthworm communities of tropical agroecosystems: origin, structure and influence of management practices. In: Lavelle P, Brussaard L, Hendrix P (eds) Earthworm management in tropical agroecosystems. CAB International, Wallingford Haines PJ, Uren NC (1990) Effects of conservation tillage farming on soil microbial biomass, organic matter and earthworm populations, in North-eastern Victoria. Aust J Exp Agric 30:365-371

Hamilton WE, Sillman DY (1989) Influence of earthworm middens on the distribution of soil microarthropods. Biol Fertil Soils 8:279-284 Haynes R, Fraser P (1998) A comparison of aggregate stability and biological activity of the earthworms Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea giardi and consequences on C transfer in soil. Eur J Soil Biol 36:27-34 Hendrix PF, Crossley Jr DA, Coleman, DC, Parmelee RW, Beare MH (1987) Carbon dynamics in soil microbes and fauna in conventional and no-tillage agroecosystems. INTECOL Bull, 15:59-63

Herms U, Brumner G (1984) Solubility and retention of heavy metals in soils. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 147:400-424

Hopkin SP (1995) Deficiency and excess of essential and nonessential metals in terrestrial insects. In: Harrington R, Stork NE (eds) Insects in a changing environment. Academic Press, London, pp 251-270

House GJ, Parmelee RW (1985) Comparison of soil aerhropods and earthworms from conventional and no-tillage agroecosystems. Soil Tillage Res 5:351-360 Howard JL, Vandenbrink WJ (1999) Sequential extraction analysis of heavy metals in sediments of variable composition using nitrilotriacetic acid to counteract resorption. Environ Pollut 106:285-292

Ismail SA (1997) Vermicology: the biology of earthworms. Chennai, Orient Longman Kabala C, Singh BR (2001) Fractination and mobility of copper, lead, and zinc in soil profiles in the vicinity of a copper smelter. J environ Qual 30:485-492 Karaca A, Naseby D, Lynch J (2002) Effect of cadmium-contamination with sewage sludge and phosphate fertiliser amendments on soil enzyme activities, microbial structure and available cadmium. Biol Fertil Soil 35:435-440 Kenette D, Hendershot W, Tomlin A, Sauvé S (2002) Uptake of trace metals by the earthworm

Lumbricus terrestris L. in urban contaminated soils. Appl Soil Ecol 19:191-198 Ketterings QM, Blair JM, Marinissen JCY (1997) The effects of earthworms on soil aggregate stability and carbon and nitrogen storage in a legume cover crop agro-ecosystem. Soil Biol Biochem 29:401-408

Kiewiet AT, Ma WC (1991) Effect of pH and calcium on lead and cadmium uptake by earthworms in water. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 21:32-37 Kim ND, Fergusson JE (1991) Effectiveness of a commonly used sequential extraction technique in determining the speciation of cadmium in soils. Sci Total Environ 105:191-209 Kizilkaya R, Askin T (2002) Influence of cadmium fractions on microbiological properties in

Bafra plain soils. Arch Agro Soil Sci 48:263-272 Kizilkaya R, Askin T, Bayrakli B, Saglam M (2004) Microbiological characteristics of soils contaminated with heavy metals. Eur J Soil Biol 40:95-102 Kizilkaya R, Hepçen Ç (2004) Effect of biosolid amendment on enzyme activities in earthworm

(Lumbricus terrestris) casts. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 167:202-208 Kizilkaya R (2004) Cu and Zn accumulation in earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. in sewage sludge amended soil and fractions of Cu and Zn in casts and surrounding soil. Ecol Eng 22:141-151

Kizilkaya R (2005) The role of different organic wastes on zinc bioaccumulation by earthworm

Lumbricus terrestris L. (Oligochaeta) in successive Zn added soil. Ecol Eng 25:322-331 Kizilkaya R, Bayrakli B (2005) Effects of N-enriched sewage sludge on soil enzyme activities.

Appl Soil Ecol 30:192-202 Kizilkaya R, Hep^en § (2007) Microbiological properties in earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. Cast and surrounding soil amended with various organic wastes. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 38:2861-2876

Kizilkaya R (2008) Dehydrogenase activity in Lumbricus terrestris casts and surrounding soil affected by addition of different organic wastes and Zn. Bioresour Technol 99:946-953 Kristufek V, Tajovsky K, Pizl V (1994) Ultrastructural analysis of the intestinal content of earthworm Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm. (Annelida, Lumbricidae). Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 41:283-290

Lake DL, Kirk PWW, Lester JN (1984) Fractionation, characterization, and speciation of heavy metals in sewage sludge and sludge-amended soils: a review. J Environ Qual 13:175-183 Lavelle P (1981) Strategies de reproduction cez les vers de tere. Acta Oecol. Oecol Gen 2:117-133

Lavelle P, Spain AV (2001) Soil ecology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Hardbound Lee KE (1985) Earthworms: their ecology and relationships with soils and land use. Academic Press, Sydney

Lee KE, Foster RC (1991) Soil fauna and soil structure. Aust J Soil Res 29:745-775

Lestan D, Grcman H, Zupan M, Bacac N (2003) Relationship of soil properties to fractionation of Pb and Zn in soil and their uptake into Plantago lanceolata. Soil Sediment Contam 12:507-522 Li BC, Huang SB, Wang WH, Peng A (2001) Study on the kinetics of cerium (III) adsorption-

desorption on different soils of China. Chemosphere 44:663-669 Lock K, Janssen CR (2001) Effect of clay and organic matter type on the ecotoxicity of zinc and cadmium to the potworm Enchytraeus albidus. Chemosphere 44:1699-1672 Lopez-Hernandez D, Lavelle P, Fardeau JC, Nino M (1993) Phosphorous transformations in two P-sorption contrasting tropical soils during transit through Pontoscolex corethrurus (Glossoscolecidae: Oligochaeta). Soil Biol Biochem 25:789-792 Ma W (1982) The influence of soil properties and worm related factors on the concentration of heavy metals in earthworms. Pedobiologia 24:109-119 Ma W, Th E, Van Beersum I, Th J (1983) Uptake of cadmium, zinc, lead and copper by earthworms near a zinc smelting complex: influence of soil pH and organic matter. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 30:424-427 Ma LQ, Rao GN (1997) Chemical fractionation of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc in contaminated soils. J environ Qual 26:259-264 Ma WC (2004) Estimating heavy metal accumulation in oligochaete earthworms: a meta-analysis of field data. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 72:663-670 Ma WC (2005) Critical body residues (CBRs) for ecotoxicological soil quality assessment: copper in earthworms. Soil Biol Biochem 37:561-568 Mackay AD, Springgett JA, Syers JK, Gregg PEH (1983) Origin of the effect of earthworms on the availability of phosphorus in a phosphate rock. Soil Biol Biochem 15:63-73 Mackay AD, Kladivko EJ (1985) Earthworms and the rate of breakdown of soybean and maize residues in soil. Soil Biol Biochem 17:851-857 Marinissen JCY, Hillenaar SI (1996) Earthworm induced distribution of organic matter in macro-

aggregates from differently managed arable fields. Soil Biol Biochem 29:391-395 Marinussen MPJC, van der Zee SEATM (1997) Cu accumulation by Lumbricus rubellus as affected by total amount of Cu in soil, soil moisture and soil heterogeneity. Soil Biol Biochem 29:641-647

Martin A (1991) Short and long term effects of the endogenic earthworm Millsonia anomalia (Megascolecidae, Oligochaeta) of tropical savannas, on soil organic matter. Biol Fertil Soils 11:234-238

Materechera SA (2000) Nutrient availability and maize growth in a soil amended with earthworm casts from a South African indigenous species. Bioresour Tecnol 84:197-201

McCarthy JF, Williams TM, Liang L, Jardine PM, Jolley LW, Taylor DL, Palumbo AV, Cooper LW (1993) Mobility of natural organic matter in a sandy aquifer. Environ Sci Technol 27:667-676 Misirlioglu M (2008) Some earthworm records from Anatolia (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae). Turk J Zool 32:1-3

Moore TR (1989) Dynamics of dissolved organic carbon in forested and disturbed catchments,

Westland, New Zealand I. Miamai. Water Resour Res 25:1321-1330 Moore TR, De Souza W, Koprivnjak JF (1992) Controls on the sorption of dissolved organic carbon by soils. Soil Sci 154:120-129 Morgan AJ, Morgan JE, Turner M, Winters C, Yarwood A (1993) Metal relationships of earthworms. In: Dallinger R, Rainbow PS (eds) Ecotoxicology of metals in invertebrates. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, pp 333-358 Morgan JE (1985) The interactions of exogenous and endogenous factors on the uptake of heavy metals by the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. In: Lekkas TD (ed) Proceedings of the International conference of heavy metals in the environment, vol 1. Edinburg, CEP Consultants Ltd, pp 736-738

Morgan JE, Morgan AJ (1988) Calcium-lead interactions involving earthworms. Part 2. The effects of accumulated lead on endogenous calcium in Lumbricus rubellus. Environ Pollut 55:41-54 Morgan JE, Morgan AJ (1991) Differences in the accumulated metal concentrations in two epigeic earthworm species (L. rubellus and D. rubidus) living in contaminated soils. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 47:296-301 Morgan JE, Morgan AJ (1992) Heavy metal concentrations in the tissues, ingesta and faeces of ecophysiologically different earthworm species. Soil Biol Biochem 24:1691-1697 Morgan JE, Norey CG, Morgan AJ, Kay J (1989) A comparison of the cadmium-binding proteins isolated from the posterior alimentary canal of the earthworm Dendrodrilus rubidus and Lumbricus rubellus. Comp Biochem Physiol 92:15-21 Neilands JB, Leong SA (1986) Siderophores in relation to plant growth and disease. Annu Rev

Plant Physiol 37:187-208 Neuhauser EF, Hartenstein R, Connors WJ (1978) Soil invertebrates and the degradation of vani-

lin, cinnamic acid, and lignins. Soil Biol Biochem 10:431-435 Neuhauser EF, Loehr RC, Milligan DL, Malecki MR (1985) Toxicity of metals to the earthworm

Eisenia fetida. Biol Fertil Soils 1:149-152 Nielsen GA, Hole FD (1964) Earthworms and the development of coprogenous A1 horizons in forest soils of Wisconsin. Soil Sci Soc Am Proceedings 28:426-430 Norvell WA (1972) Equilibria of metal chelates in soil solution. In: Mortvedt JJ, Giordano PM, Lindsay WL (eds) Micronutrients in agriculture. Soil science society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, pp 115-138

Ozdemir N, Kizilkaya R, Hepsen , Yakupo lu T (2007) Sequential micronutrients extraction from toposequences of pasture soils. Asian J Chem 19:4025-4034 Pallant E, Hilster LM (1996) Earthworm response to 10 weeks of incubation in a pot with acid mine spoil, sewage sludge and lime. Biol Fertil Soils 22:355-358 Paoletti MG (1985) Soil invertebrates in cultivated and uncultivated soils in northeast Italy. Redia 71:501-563

Paoletti MG, Sommaggio D, Favretto MR, Petruzzelli G, Pezzarossa B, Barbafieri M (1998) Earthworms as useful bioindicators of agrosystem sustainability in orchards and vineyards with different inputs. Appl Soil Ecol 10:137-150 Paoletti MG (1999) The role of earthworms for assessment of sustainability and as bioindicators.

Agric Ecosyst Environ 74:137-155 Parfitt RL, Russell JD (1977) Adsorption on hydrous oxides IV. Mechanisms of adsorption of various ions on goethite. J Soil Sci 28:297-305 Parkin TB, Berry EC (1994) Nitrogen transformations associated with earthworm casts. Soil Biol Biochem 26:1233-1238

Parkin TB, Berry EC (1999) Microbial nitrogen transformations in earthworm burrows. Soil Biol

Biochem 31:1765-1771 Parle JN (1963) A microbiological study of earthworm casts. J Gen Microbiol 31:13-22

Parmelee RW, Beare MH, Cheng W, Hendrix PF, Rider SJ, DA C Jr, Coleman DC (1990) Earthworms and enchytraeids in conventional and no-tillage agroecosystems: a biocide approach to assess their role in organic matter breakdown. Biol Fertil Soils 10:1-10 Pavlicek T, Csuzdi C (2006) Species richness and zoogeographic affinities of earthworms in

Cyprus. Eur J Soil Biol 42:111-116 Pickering WF (1986) Metal ion speciation-soils and sediments (a review). Ore Geol Rev 1:83-146 Ponder F Jr, Li F, Jordan D, Berry EG (2000) Assessing the impact of Diplocardia ornata on physical and chemical properties of compacted forest soil in microcosms. Biol Fertil Soils 32:166-172 Prasad B, Sinha MK, Randhawa NS (1976) Effect of mobile chelating agents on difusion on zinc in soils. Soil Sci 122:260-266 Salmon S (2001) Earthworm excreta (mucus and urine) affect the distribution of springtails in forest soils. Biol Fertil Soils 34:304-310 Scheu S, Parkinson D (1994) Effects of earthworms on nutrient dynamics, carbon turnover and microoganisms in soils from cool temperate forests of the Canadian rocky mountains: laboratory studies. Appl Soil Ecol 1:113-125 Shan XQ, Lian J, Wen B (2002) Effect of organic acids on adsorption and desorption of rare earth elements. Chemosphere 47:701-710 Sharma S, Pradhan K, Staya S, Vasudevan P (2005) Potentially of earthworms for waste management and in other uses- a review. J Am Sci 1:4-16 Shuman LM (1985) Fractionation method for soil microelements. Soil Sci 140:11-22 Shuman LM (1999) Organic waste amendments effect on zinc fractions of two soils. J Environ Qual 28:1442-1447

Spurgeon DJ, Hopkin SP (1999) Comparisons of metal accumulation and excretion kinetics in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to contaminated field and laboratory soils. Appl Soil Ecol 11:227-243

Sterckeman T, Douay F, Proix N, Fourrier H (2000) Vertical distribution of Cd, Pb and Zn in soils near smelters in the North of France. Environ Pollut 107:377-389 Stürzenbaum SR, Kille P, Morgan AJ (1996) Heavy metal pollution: the earthworm response. In: Curry JP, Bolger T, Kaye B, Purvis B (eds) Abstracts of the XII Int colloq soil zoology. University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland Suzuki KT, Yamamura M, Mori T (1980) Cadmium-binding proteins induced in the earthworm.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 9:415-424 Tamlin AD, Shipitalo MJ, Edwards WM, Protz R (1995) Earthworms and their influence on soil structure and inflitration. In: Hendrix PF (ed) Earthworm ecology and biogeography in North America. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, pp 159-183 Tarakcioglu C, Askin T, Kizilkaya R (2006) Heavy metal distribution: A survey from Ordu

Province in the Black Sea region. Am Eurasian J Agri Environ Sci 1:282-287 Tessier A, Campbell PGC, Bisson M (1979) Sequential extraction procedure for speciation of particulate trace metals. Anal Chem 51:844-851 Tessier L, Vaillancourt G, Pazdernik L (1994) Temperature effects on cadmium and mercury kinetics in freshwater mollusks under laboratory conditions. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 26:179-184

Tiunov AV, Scheu S (2000) Microfungal communities in soil, litter and casts of Lumbricus ter-

restris L. (Lumbricidae): a laboratory experiment. Appl Soil Ecol 14:17-26 Toyota K, Kimura M (2000) Microbial community indigenous to the earthworm Eisenia foetida.

Biol Fertil Soils 31:187-190 Trigo D, Lavelle P (1993) Changes in respiration rate and some physicochemical properties of soil during gut transit through Allolobophora molleri terrestris (Lumbricidae, Oligochaeta). Biol Fertil Soils 15:185-188

Udovic M, Lestan D (2007) The effect of earthworms on the fractionation and bioavailability of heavy metals before and after soil remediation. Environ Pollut 148:663-668 Ure A, Quevaullier PH, Muntau H, Griepink B (1993) Speciation of heavy metals in soils and sediments. An account of the improvement and harmonization of extraction techniques undertaken under the auspices of the BCR of the CEC. Int J Environ Anal Chem 51:135-151

Wang Z, Zhang Y, Guo Y, Xia W, Li Z (1998) Monitoring of soil heavy metal pollution by earthworm. J Environ Sci 10:437-444 Wang ZW, Shan XQ, Zhang SZ (2002) Comparison of speciation and bioavailability of rare earth elements between wet rhizosphere soil and air-dried bulk soil. Anal Chem Acta 441:147-156 Wen B, Hu X, Liu Y, Wang W, Feng M, Shan X (2004) The role of earthworms (Eisenia fetida)

in influencing bioavailability of heavy metals in soils. Biol Fertil Soils 40:181-187 Wen B, Liu Y, Hu X, Shan X (2006) Effect of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) on the fractionation and bioavailability of rare earth elements in nine Chinese soils. Chemosphere 63:1179-1186 Whiting SN, De Souza MP, Terry N (2001) Rhizosphere bacteria mobilize Zn for hyperaccumula-

tion by Thlaspi caerulescens. Environ Sci Technol 35:3144-3150 Willoughby GL, Kladivko EJ (2002) Water infiltration rates following reintroduction of Lumbricus terrestris into no-till fields. J Soil Water Conser 57:82-88 Wright MA (1972) Factors governing ingestion by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris with special reference to apple leaves. Ann Appl Biol 70:175-188 Zhang B, Li G, Shen T, Wang J, Sun Z (2000) Changes in microbial biomass C, N and P and enzyme activities in soil incubated with the earthworms Metaphire guilelmi or Eisenia fetida. Soil Biol Biochem 32:2055-2062 Zhang SZ, Shan XQ (1998) Speciation of rare earth elements in soil and accumulation by wheat with rare earth fertilizer application. Environ Pollut 112:395-405 Zhu B, Alva AK (1993) Trace metal and cation transport in a sandy soil with various amendments. Soil Sci Soc Am J 57:723-727

Organic Gardeners Composting

Organic Gardeners Composting

Have you always wanted to grow your own vegetables but didn't know what to do? Here are the best tips on how to become a true and envied organic gardner.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment