Results and Discussion

Analysis of Soils from Polluted Areas Characteristics of the soils used in this study are shown in Table 1. Lugones reached values above 8000 mg Zn kg-1, 900 mg Pb kg-1 and 13 mg Cd kg-1 and so exceeded the threshold established by Kabata-Pendias and Pendias (2001) and Greger (2004) for a non-polluted soil and the intervention levels stated by Dutch legislation for a polluted soil. High concentrations of Hg were detected in L2 sample. At La Granda there were high levels of Zn only in mud...

The Case Study of Poplar Rhizoremediation in the Valle Del Sacco Area Near to Rome

A land of about 8 Kmq in the Rome and Frosinone provinces of South Lazio Region of Italy is contaminated by hexachlorocyclohexane (a, P, y and 5 HCH) isomers with concentrations that are spotty above law soil limits fixed for industrial or green areas (figure 1). The area is 100 m wide along the both sides of the Sacco river and was part of agricultural lands used for growing forage. Sediments of the river were polluted by nearby industrial landfill percolations, probably in the eighties,...

Abstract

Phytoextraction of heavy metals (HMs) is a promising technology that uses plants to remove pollutants from soil. Two high biomass yield crops, maize and sunflower, with their ability to accumulate HMs, have been widely used to remediate contaminated soils. Nine commercial cultivars of maize and three of sunflower were characterized for their Genetic Bio-Diversity (GBD) using two different molecular approaches Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism...

Translocation and Distribution

Once absorbed by roots and or leaves, contaminants are translocated to different plant cells by the transpiration stream and assimilate flow, by the same physiological process used to transport nutrients. The uptake into the hydraulic system of the plant and thus the passage into stem and leaves may be quantified by calculating the transpiration stream concentration factor, TSCF (Burken, 2003 and references therein). This parameter is also considered as a measure of uptake efficiency in rooted...

Experimental Systems

When designing lab experiments for studying phytoremediation related events and mechanisms, it is necessary to clearly understand the applicability context of the results obtained. An experimental system for phytoremediation research in a controlled environment could be dissected into four elements contaminant, plant, microflora and soil. The number of these elements present at the experimental system will determine its complexity. When optimizing the experimental systems, some important...

Phytoremediation Technologies

Phytoremediation is a broad term that has been in use since the early 1990s to refer to a group of technologies that use plants and its associated microorganisms, enzymes and water consumption to remove, retain, immobilize or transform degrade pollutants, primarily of anthropogenic origin, from soil, sludges, sediments, water and wastewater and even the atmosphere (Salt et al., 1998 Macek et al., 2000 USEPA, 2000 Dietz and Schnoor, 2001 Susarla et al., 2002 Pilon-Smits, 2005 Vangronsveld et...

References

Huang, B.-r. Zhang, H.-z. Liu, Y.-g. Zeng, G.-m. Fan, T., Influence factors analysis of removing heavy metals from multiple metal-contaminated soils with different extractants. J. Cent. South Univ. T. 2009, 16, 108111. 2 Evangelou, M. W. H. Ebel, M. Schaeffer, A., Chelate assisted phytoextraction of heavy metals from soil. Effect, mechanism, toxicity, and fate of chelating agents. Chemosphere 2007, 68, 989-1003. 3 Raskin, I. Kumar, P. Dushenkov, S. Salt, D.,...

Use of Enzymes for Phenolic Compounds Removal

In the past years, enzymes have become an attractive remediation alternative technique to conventional ones, since they provide a system simpler than a whole organism (Sutherland et al., 2004). In this context, recent biotechnological advances have allowed the production of cheaper and more readily available enzymes through better isolation and purification procedures (Duran, 1997). The potential advantage of the enzymatic treatment as compared with conventional ones include (1) applicability...

Materials and Methods

Analysis of Soils from Polluted Areas Based on information from the Direcci n General de Calidad Ambiental de la Consejer a de Medio Ambiente del Principado de Asturias, we selected 7 locations in Asturias (northern Spain) contaminated with Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg. Selected sites were 1) Lugones (L), a partial marshy land over 17000 m2 with an artificial lake, near a cuppermill, at 150 m of altitude, taking, having high concentration of Zn, Cd, Cu, As, Cr and Ni. Sampling in this area was made...

Characteristics of Plants Used for Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals

Plants suitable for phytoremediation should possess a series of characteristics (1) ability to accumulate metals preferably in the aboveground parts, (2) tolerance to metal concentration accumulated, (3) fast growth and high biomass, (4) widespread highly branched root system, (5) easy harvestability, and (6) non consumable by humans and animals (Arthur et al., 2005). However, plant species just can partially fulfill these conditions. For example, those few plants that can accumulate metals to...

Salt Marshes and Metal Retention

Salt marshes located in estuaries frequently receive large inputs of nutrients (Ca ador, et al., 1993 Tobias et al., 2001), and also of particulate and dissolved organic matter. Salt marsh plants retain suspended particles and associated anthropogenic metals transported by the tides. This high nutrient input makes salt marsh one of the most productive ecosystems of the planet. In highly industrialized estuaries, along with this nutrient input there is also a large input of heavy metals (Figure...

Differences of Phytextraction Efficiency under Model and under Field Conditions

Several authors reported promising results for the phytoextraction efficiency from pot experiments. The phytoextraction efficiency represents the percentage of an element removed by the plant dry aboveground biomass from the total element content in the soil during one cropping season. Anyhow, these results may not be transferable to field conditions mainly due to the higher plant soil ratio in the field than that commonly occurring in pot experiments. In our own experiment, we had in the first...

Dyes Toxicity and Need for Phytoremediation

Dyes are known to have complex structures that are difficult to degrade (Nilratnisakorn et al, 2007). With the advancement of technologies, enhancement has been made in dye properties so that they provide resistance to fading, provide improved delivery to fabrics and have increased variety of shades. These additional properties make them highly resistant to environmental degradation, thus increasing pollution (Togo et al, 2008). Sulfonated anthraquinones are generally the parent compounds for a...

Heavy Metals Contamination in Taiwan

In Taiwan, HMs soil pollution was produced by the illegal discharges of many electroplating plants. According to the survey of Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) of Taiwan, there are approximately 470 ha of cropped lands been contaminated with HMs till the end of 2008 (Taiwan EPA, 2010). Most of them were located in central Taiwan and contaminated mainly with copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni), followed by Zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd). These contaminated lands resulted from the use of...

Handbook of Phytoremediation

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Introduction

Heavy metals are natural constituent of the lithosphere, but the human action has promoted an increase of these elements in ecosystems (Sebastiani et al., 2004). High concentrations of Cd, Pb and Cr originated from mining (Prasad and Freitas, 2003) or by anthropogenic actions such as discharges of toxic residues in rivers, lakes, maritime coast and in the air, industrial activities, farm use of fertilizers and pesticides, incineration of urban and industrial residues, among others sources, have...

Conclusion and Future Prospects

The complexities of facilitating effective phytoremediation protocols notwithstanding, certain conditions may be employed to optimally facilitate the phytoremediation of organic contaminants. In addition to choosing plants that are most effective for specific soils and contaminants these include selecting or engineering bacteria with the following traits (1) the ability to degrade soil contaminants (2) plant growth-promoting activity that is based on the activity of ACC deaminase and the...

Reclamation Strategy Phyto BioRemediation and Its Management

Basic principles and methods of soil reclamation discussed above are suitable for the reclamation of secondary saline sodic soils, but they maybe are not most scientific and economical. Based on the characteristics of secondary saline sodic soils which generally are affected moderately or slightly by salt Na+, the reclamation strategy using phytoremediation (alive plant) or bioremediation (organic matter) in conjunction with management should be the first choice no matter from the viewpoints of...

Biological Methods

Bioremediation and Biosorption Bioremediation, i.e. the use of living organisms to manage or remediate polluted soils and water, is a well known biotechnological tool to degrade contaminants into non-or less-toxic compounds. Compared with traditional physico-chemical methods, bioremediation is generally the safest and least disruptive treatment. Regarding phenolic microbial remediation, there is a wide variety of pure and mixed cultures of microorganisms capable of degrading these...

Jana Kadukova1 and Jana Kavulicova2

1Technical University of Kosice, Faculty of Metallurgy, Department of Non-Ferrous Metals and Waste Treatment, Letna 9, 04200 Kosice, Slovakia. 2Technical University of Kosice, Faculty of Metallurgy, Department of Chemistry, Letna 9, 04200 Kosice, Slovakia. Phytoremediation advantages are widely known nowadays. It is a method applicable for large areas with low concentration of pollutants treatment or areas where only the finishing step of cleaning is required. Very often these kinds of places...

Soil Pollution and Heavy Metals

Soil pollution has been continuously increasing as a result of industrial activities, and contamination of soil constitutes a severe environmental problem all over the world. Nowadays, people mostly think about the magnitude of the pollution in the soils calls for immediate action. Unfortunately, the enormous costs associated with the removal of pollutants from soils by means of traditional physicochemical methods have been encouraging companies to ignore the problem. The common approaches used...

Dikabo Mogopodi1 Kabo Mosetlha1 Bonang Nkoane1 1 1 Edward Mmatli Nelson Torto and Berhanu Abegaz

1 Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, P Bag 00704, Gaborone, Botswana 2 Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University ,Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa Metallophytes have the ability to tolerate extreme metal concentrations. This unique property commends them to be exploited in technologies such as biogeochemical and biogeobotanical prospecting as well as phytoremediation. Although there are many publications on metallophytes and their potential use in phytoremediation, in Botswana...

Extraction of Silver Nanoparticles from Plants

Plants containing silver nanoparticles are unlikely to be directly useful, rather it is the nanoparticles that are formed that are of most interest. Therefore a method to extract the silver nanoparticles, or to concentrate them, is required. To extract metal nanoparticles from plants, degradation of the plant material is required. Ashing of plants will obviously remove the organic component and leave a residue of metals and other refractory elements or oxides. However, with the high...

Applicability Criteria for a Phytoremediation Process

The complexity of the events occurring during a phytoremediation process makes it a site-specific technology. Before starting a phytoremediation research, there are some major criteria to accomplish, which should be considered case by case. They include the physical-chemical properties of the contaminant, such as water solubility, vapor pressure, octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow), pKa, molecular weight, commercial product formulation soil properties, such as pH, salinity, texture,...

Ecological Partners

While Se is toxic to most microbes, some bacteria and fungi live in the rhizosphere of Se hyperaccumulating plants where Se can be upwards of 100 mg Se kg-1. These microbes appear to have evolved mechanisms to overcome the toxic effects of Se. Some of these rhizosphere microbes may also play a role in plant Se accumulation. It has been shown that the presence of rhizosphere bacteria enhances Se accumulation and volatilization in Indian mustard, a Se accumulating plant de Souza et al. 1999a as...

Chemistry and Mineralogy of Arsenic

Arsenic is an elusive element, with a mysterious ability to change color, behavior, reactivity, and toxicity. The chemical variability of arsenic stems from its electronic structure and bonding properties, which give rise to a variety of forms in the solid, aqueous, and gas states. 16 . It is an element of group VA in the periodic classification with properties that allow it to form alloys with various metals and covalent bonds with carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur 3 . As arsenic is seated...

Constructed Wetlands Systems

Constructed wetlands systems (CWS) are engineered systems designed and constructed to make use of the natural processes involving wetland vegetation, soil and their associated microbial assemblages to assist in wastewater treatment. The concerted action of all these components (support matrix, vegetation and microbial populations), through a variety of chemical, physical and biological processes, is responsible for the depuration of wastewaters achieved in a CWS. These systems take advantage of...

Synergistic Approaches for Dye Degradation

Rhizhosphere remediation constitutes an interesting branch of phytoremediation technologies involving the use of plants along with rhizospheric microorganisms to remediate contaminated soils. In addition to the root zone (rhizosphere), where the microbial biomass can be one order of magnitude or more higher than that in bulk soil, bacteria can colonize the interior of their host plant without causing symptoms of disease (Weyens et al, 2009a). Researchers have shown that plants can be able to...

Bioconcentration of Cadmium by Garden Flowers Grown in the Pot Experiments of CdContaminated Soils

Leafy vegetables can accumulate high concentration of Cd after it was grown in artificially Cd-contaminated soils for 35 days (Chen et al., 2010). There is a linear relationship between Cd concentration in soil and that in the edible parts of Pak-chio, which is a most often consuming vegetable in Taiwan (Figure 1). When Pak-chio was grown in artificially spiked soils with different Cd concentrations, the edible parts of Pak-chio accumulated 1.82-fold more Cd concentration than that of soil...

Contents

Chapter 1 Phytoremediation of Phenolic Compounds Recent Advances and Perspectives Elizabeth Agostini, Melina A. Talano, Paola S. Gonz lez, Ana L. Wevar Oller and Mar a I. Medina Chapter 2 Phytoremediation An Option for Removal of Organic Xenobiotics from Water Ana Dordio and A. J. Palace Carvalho Chapter 3 Phytoremediation of Uranium Contaminated Soils Mirjana D. Stojanovic and Jelena V. Milojkovic Chapter 4 A Decade of Research on Phytoremediation in North-East Italy Lessons Learned and Future...

Preface

Phytoremediation is the use of green plants and their associated microbiota, soil amendments, and agronomic techniques to remove, contain, or render harmless environmental contaminants. It is an emerging technology which offers a potentially cost-effective and environmentally sound alternative to the environmentally destructive physical methods which are currently practiced for the cleanup of contaminated groundwater, terrestrial soil, sediments, and sludge. This handbook presents current...

Standard Energy Dispersive XRay Fluorescence Analysis

There are many types of XRF spectrometers available on the market today, most of which can be separated into two main categories wavelength-dispersive XRF (WDXRF) and energy-dispersive XRF (EDXRF). In WDXRF, the characteristic radiation emitted from the sample is separated into wavelengths using a diffraction device. The energy resolution in the WDXRF spectra is governed by the appropriate use of diffraction crystals in each region of the spectrum. Usually in WDXRF spectrometers, the analysis...

Stress Evaluation

Germination assay is a basic procedure to determine heavy metals toxic effects on plants (An, 2006 Labra et al., 2006 Di Salvatore et al., 2008). It is well documented that germination process is highly disturbed by metal stress however, there are not much explanation on the molecular mechanism of the inhibition of seed germination in the presence of metals (Ahsan et al., 2007). Seed germination and the early seedling growth are more sensitive to metal pollution because some of the defense...

Uptake of Phenol and its Derivatives

Higher plants seem to be organisms with the inherent capacity to absorb contaminants with different chemical structures from soil, water and air. The intensity of the absorption depends on bioavailability which is one of the most limiting factors in phytoremediation of organic pollutants. Pollutant bioavailability is understood as the result of many interacting factors associated with contaminant characteristics (molecular mass, concentration, polarity, etc), soil properties (content of humic...

Transgenic Hairy Root Studies in Phytoremediation

Genetic modification is a potential solution to the inherent kinetic and metabolic limitations of plants applied for environmental clean-up. The creation of new plants with improved degradative or accumulative capabilities is of great commercial interest. Hairy roots are a quick and easy means for testing the effects of genetic transformation on plants. Introduction of foreign genes into A. rhizogenes bacteria allows genetic modifications to be effected at the same time as hairy roots are...

Mechanism of Phytoremediation

Either enhancing (for phytoextraction) or reducing (for phytostabilisation) the bioavailability of metal contaminants in the rhizosphere could significantly improve the efficiency of remediation techniques (Kidd et al., 2009). Phytoremediation efficiency is affected by both soil and plants factors (Hooda, 2007). Soil acidification helps to raise metal accumulation in plants (Clemente et al., 2005) by increasing metal bioavailability and mobilization (Darling and Thomas, 2003). For instance,...

Mechanisms of Constructed Mangrove Wetlands in the

Mangrove wetlands have inherent physical, chemical and biological properties for adsorption and or utilization of nutrients and heavy metals. The sediments, plants and associated high diversity of microbial communities are important components in the retention and transformation of pollutants. The distributions of wastewater-borne pollutants in different mangrove wetland components are different and highly dependent on the types of pollutants. For P and heavy metals, the reduction is more...

Referebces

Soil processes and the behavior of metals. In Alloway B.J., editor. Heavy Metals in Soils. Glasgow, UK Blackie Academic and Professional, p. 11-37. Alloway, B.J. and Steinnes, E. 1999. Anthropogenic additions of cadmium to soils. In AcLaughlin M.J. and Singh B.R., editors. Cadmium in Soils and Plants. Dordrecht, Netherlands Kluwer Academin Publishers, p. 97-123. Baghour, M., Moreno, D.A., Villora, G., Hern ndez, J., Castilla, N. and Romero, L. 2001. Phytoextraction of Cd and...

Phytoremediation

Definition and Classifications Phytoremediation refers to using plants (Yang, 2008) and their associated microorganisms (Schwitzguebel, 2002) to degrade, transform, assimilate, metabolize, or detoxify hazardous pollutants from soil. It is widely viewed as the ecologically responsible alternative to the environmentally destructive physical remediation methods (Meagher, 2000) and can be applied in treating many kinds of soil contaminants including heavy metals, radionuclide, petroleum...

Mangrove Wetlands as Pollutant Sinks

As a transit zone between terrestrial and marine environments, mangrove wetlands receive contaminants from tidal water, rivers and storm runoff (Tam and Wong, 1993, 1995a, 2000b). In addition, mangrove wetlands often suffered from negative anthropogenic impact due to the increased urban and industrial development in the surrounding areas. They have long been used as convenient sites for waste disposal and often inadvertently receive untreated sewage and livestock wastewater (Clough et al.,...

Luca Marchiol Guido Fellet Filip Poscic and Giuseppe Zerbi

Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Ambientali, Universit di Udine, Via delle Scienze 208, I-33100 Udine, Italy The interest in phytoremediation has been rapidly increasing in the last twenty years. A relevant number of scientific papers have investigated several aspects of the matter, first exploring the physiological processes and then the molecular characteristics of the plants to find the genes responsible for the metal (hyper)tolerance. Since 1998, our research group has had a number of...

Initiation Culture and Properties of Hairy Roots

Hairy Root Culture Phytoremediation

Infection of plants with Agrobacterium rhizogenes results in hairy root disease, which is characterized by the production of rapidly growing roots at the sites of bacterial infection. These genetically transformed hairy roots contain part of the bacterial Ri (root-inducing) plasmid. After removal from the infected plant, excised hairy roots will continue to grow in vitro on hormone-free plant tissue culture medium. The size of the Ri plasmid T-DNA (transferred DNA) inserted into plant cell...

Phytoremediation A Potential Tool of Bioremediation

Phytoremediation has been used effectively to remediate inorganic and organic contaminants in soil and groundwater. The idea of using plants to extract metals from contaminated soil was reintroduced and developed by Utsunamyia 100 and Chaney 101. The first field trial on Zn and Cd phytoextraction was conducted by Baker et al. 102 . Phytoremediation is currently divided into the following areas (a) Phytofiltration the use of plants and plant root associated with microorganisms to absorb and...

Common Reclamation Methods and Reclamation Efficiency

Soluble Salt Leaching Methods and Leaching Efficiency Leaching is a vital process for saline soil reclamation. All methods that can remove soluble salt such as continual flooding leaching, intermittent ponding leaching, alternate row (or border) leaching, sprinkling leaching, and surface flushing are available for saline soil reclamation. Leaching efficiency refers to the amount of salt in drainage water removed from root zone at a given friction of leaching water. Leaching method is one of the...

Mechanisms of Silver Nanoparticle Formation

Chelating Agents and Silver Uptake Silver ions may exist as simple hydrated ions in solution or may form complexes with a variety of complexing agents. EDTA is one of the more widely used chelating agents for a variety of metal ions and has been used in an attempt to increase the accumulation of silver in plants (Harris and Bali, 2008). However, although the quantitative results were not disclosed, it was noted that EDTA resulted in a lower uptake of silver than with uncomplexed silver....

Phytoremediation with Genetically Modified Legumes and Symbiotrophic Microorganisms

It is assumed that for successful phytoremediation technologies, plants having high metal tolerance, metal uptake potential, biomass production and growth rate are required. However, no natural metalliferous and hyperaccumulating species neither agricultural crops possess sufficient level of all these characteristics. One promising method of attack and overcome these shortcomings is the creation of genetically modified plants via transgenic techniques and mutagenesis. A number of genetically...

Textile Dyes

For the removal of textile dyes from the environment, the selection of an appropriate plant with certain desirable characteristics is one of the most important preliminary steps in phytoremediation research. Though several plants have shown the ability to remediate contaminated soils non edible plants are generally selected to be applied onto dye contaminated sites. Most of the studies on phytoremediation of textile dyes demonstrate their removal through either degradation of the dye or the...

Application of PGPR for PAHs Degradation

Due to its adverse environmental and health effects, oil pollution possesses a significant hazard to natural ecosystems. Quantitatively, the most important constituents of petroleum pollution are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Because of their toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic properties, PAHs represent serious and chronic environmental contaminants 10-12 . The biodegradation of PAHs in soils is a complex process that depends on their physical and chemical properties, as well as on...

Background

Soil Plant Atmosphere Continuum

It seems impossible to restore metal-contaminated areas without a great amount of financial aid e.g. the Sudbury project in Canada spent C 15 million (ca. 11 million Euro) to restore a polluted area of 3,700 ha during 1978-1993 Winterhalder, 2000 . More than 50,000 metal-contaminated sites await remediation in the U.S. alone Ensley, 2000 . Approximately 80 of the U.S. superfund sites (designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as priority sites for cleanup) contain heavy metals,...

Soil Metals Contamination Risks Source and Control

Metals Contamination in Soil and Its Risks The realistic situation of soil with low background toxic metal level has been sharply broken under types of human activities. As a typical example, around 22,000 t (metric ton) cadmium has been released worldwide over the past five decades (Singh et al., 2003). Metal-contaminated soil has been reported at more than 50,000 sites in the USA (Ensley, 2000), 80,000 in Germany (Franzius 1994), and similar areas in other countries. There were ca....

Microorganisms and Metal Contamination

Microbes can, in principle, solubilize metals, thereby increasing their bioavailability, or immobilize them and reduce their bioavailability. Nonradioactive As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn and radioactive Sr, Cs and U are the most environmentally important metallic pollutants. Although organic molecules can be degraded, toxic metals can only be remediated by removal from soil. Microorganisms can detoxify metals by valence transformation, extracellular chemical precipitation, or volatilization. In...

Application of PGPR Pseudomonas for Arsenic Accumulation

Soils often contain high concentrations of various natural and man-made compounds of arsenic (As). As is considered moderately phytotoxic, because like Se, Cd, Zn, Mn, and Cr ions 62 . Arsenic is a ubiquitous trace metalloid and is found in virtually all environmental media. Arsenites As(III) and arsenates As(V) play the most important role in interaction with soil biota. Arsenites are powerful inhibitors of sulfhydryl groups. They inactivate microbial enzymes and attack plant-cell membranes,...

Reclamation and Management Measures of Typical Irrigation Areas in China

The successful prevention and reclamation of secondary salt Na+-affected soils needs to adopt comprehensive measures. To avoid the occurrence of secondary saline sodic soils is better than its reclamation after occurrence, and this is the basic to develop sustainable irrigation agriculture. The experiences and lessons from the land management and soil reclamation in two typical irrigation areas in China maybe deserve to think about. Renminshengliqu (RMSLQ) Irrigation Area Renminshengliqu...

Promotion of Plant Growth in Polluted Environments Mediated by Bacterial IAA and ACC Deaminase

PGPB colonize the seed or root of a developing plant and, in response to the exudation of tryptophan and other small molecules (Bayliss et al., 1997 Penrose and Glick, 2001), the bacteria synthesize and secrete IAA (Patten and Glick, 1996, 2002) that can influence plant cell and tissue division, extension and differentiation stimulate seed and tuber germination increase the rate of xylem development control processes of vegetative growth initiate the formation of lateral and adventitious roots...

Fabaceae With Conclusion

In the bibliographic survey of the literature regarding experimental research on phytoremediation of HMs done by Vamerali et al. (2010) over the period 1995-2009, it was found that cruciferous (Brassicaceae) and cereals (Poaceae) were the most cited plants, while fewer citations were made for the legumes (Fabaceae). Among the 27 legume species of 18 genera cited in this chapter, many are field crops, while others are wild species. Considering that only few of the 20000 species of Fabaceae are...

The Potential of Some Cultivated Plants in Phytoremediation of Uranium

Picture Corn And Its Parts

Research with the purpose of environmental protection and reduction of ionizing radiation on the regional level (Serbia), was conducted by researchers from the Institute for Technology of Nuclear and Other Mineral Raw Materials , Belgrade. Investigations have lasted for several decades, where it was determinated the degree of accumulation of cultivated plants mostly proposed human nutrition for their application for phytoremediation. Screening plant species had the aim of planting exposed sites...

Persistent Organic Pollutants

The fast growth in chemical and agrochemical industries during the last century have resulted in the release of a large number of new chemical compounds into the environment. In fact, a lot of different organic compounds are now used in the day-to-day life of human beings and many of these are frequently being detected in numerous environmental monitoring studies (Ballschmiter, 1992 Daughton and Ternes, 1999 Jones and de Voogt, 1999 Gavrilescu, 2005 Doble and Kumar, 2005 Fent et al., 2006...

Different Halophytes Different Influences

Two of the most important and abundant species present in Tagus salt marshes are Halimione portulacoides (Chenopodiaceae family) and Spartina maritima (Poaceae family). Previous studies (Ca ador et al., 2000 Padinha et al., 2000) showed that the major pool of metals in the salt marsh is the sediment and the major living pool is the root tissue of the halophytes. Although this general compartimentation, there are important differences among the halophytes. Given the effect of biomass, pools of...

The Role of AMF in Phytoextraction

Phytoextraction is a technology with high performance for clean up HMs from soils with low or moderate contamination. In this method, hyperaccumulator plants with high root-to-shoot transfer accumulating high amounts of HM in above-ground parts and plants producing high biomass with normal concentrations of HM are great promise. Normally hyperaccumulator plants can accumulate HM without displaying toxicity symptoms. Finally, cultured plants in the polluted areas can be harvested, dried and...

Metal Sequestration with Plants

Plants naturally uptake metals, such as Cu, Fe, Mo, Mn, Ni, and Zn, as essential mineral nutrients for their growth and survival. Plants also accumulate some other metals e.g., Cd, Cr, Pb, Co, Ag, Se, and Hg which have no known biological function 3, 19, 20 . This innate ability to absorb wide range of metals makes plants amenable to be used for metal sequestration from contaminated medium. The technique is popularly known as 'phytoremediation' where plants are used for the removal of...

Biodiversity and Phytoremediation

Biodiversity is the core of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution (Darwin, 1859). The term biodiversity comprises the wealth of forms of life present on Earth, with their billions of plants, animals and micro-organisms, the genes that they contain, and the complex ecosystems that they form in the biosphere. The importance of biodiversity for mankind was ratified in the Earth Summit of Rio de Janeiro in 1992. Biodiversity can be observed and estimated at several levels biomes, ecology, taxonomy,...

Compounds

Several organic compounds present in industrial effluents are major environmental hazards because of their carcinogenicity and recalcitrance to degradation. Contamination of soil with toxic xenobiotics is also of concern because of the possibility that these compounds will enter the food chain. Plants are capable of removing organic chemicals from the environment and can enzymatically transform many toxic organic substrates either within the plant tissues or externally in conjunction with...

Phytomining

Heavy metals from various sources such as sewage sludge, fertilizers, fossil fuel combustion, mining tailings, and manufacturing waste are significant contributors to environmental pollution. Unlike organic compounds that can be metabolically degraded, remediation of heavy metals requires their removal from the environment or conversion into biologically inert forms. Plants have a remarkable ability to accumulate and concentrate metals. However, the mechanisms involved are complex and still...

Advantages snd Disadvantages of the Use of XRay Fluorescence Based Techniques in Phytoremediation Studies and Their

X-ray fluorescence techniques are not only suitable for laboratory analyses but with the development of various portable analysers (Kalnicki and Singhvi, 2001) there is also the possibility to analyse soil and vegetal samples directly at one site, which is especially convenient in phytoremediation studies and their application. Though portable analysers are generally less sensitive than laboratory XRF systems, the results are still sufficient in most of cases to meet the site action level...

The Use of Hydroponics and Plant Tissue Culture Technologies for Dye Degradation

The cultivation of plants and their further experiments with dye degradation can be carried out using hydroponic solutions. These solutions provide a nutrient status which is close to that of the soil in which the plant usually grows. Thus, such solutions are enriched with various macro and micro nutrients and can be used for the cultivation and or maintenance of plants for phytoremediation. The use of hydroponics provides a cost effective method for phytoremediation of dyes. Aubert and...

Flyash Induced Oxidative Stress And Tolerance In Prosopis Juliflora Grown

Ahmad, I Hayat, S Ahmad, A Inam, A Samiullah. Metal and antibiotic resistance traits in Bradyrhizobium sp. (cajanus) isolated from soil receiving oil refinery wastewater. World J. Microbiol, 2001, 17, 379-384. Allen, ON Allen, EK. The Leguminosae a source book of characteristics, uses, and nodulation. Madison The University of Wisconsin Press 1981, 812 pp. Andrade, SAL Abreu, CA de Abreu, MF Silveira, APD. Influence of lead additions on arbuscular mycorrhiza and Rhizobium symbioses under...

Safronova G Piluzza S Bullitta and A A Belimov

'All-Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology, Podbelskogo Sh., 3, Pushkin-8, 196608, St.-Petersburg, Russian Federation. 2ISPAAM-CNR u.o.s. Sassari, Traversa La Crucca 3, Localita Baldinca, 07100 Li Punti-Sassari, Italy There is evidence that many legume species of the flowering plant family Fabaceae may be efficiently used in phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils, particularly for revegetation and phytostabilization of mine soils. For such purposes, a number of legume...

Metabolism of Hazardous Phenolic Compounds in Plants

Phyto Degradation

Phenolic Compounds Metabolism and the Green Liver Model It has generally been accepted that several enzyme systems, not necessarily physiologically connected, form a metabolic cascade for the detoxification, breakdown and final storage of organic xenobiotics Schr der et al., 2008 . Detoxification mechanisms described for phenolic compounds, resemble more the reactions in the animal liver than the bacterial metabolism, following the green liver model proposed for the metabolism of other...

Degradation

Most of the research involving the degradation of different pollutants is limited to laboratory conditions and very few of it is actually applied in the field. The use of constructed wetlands can take us a step closer to the application of potent plant species on the actual sites of contamination. Experiments performed in the laboratory are performed under controlled conditions and the behavior and efficiency of the system when applied at the actual site of contamination remains a question....

Richard G Haverkamp

That deposits which are at such low levels that traditional extraction methods may not be economic may instead be amenable to this technique. Whereas traditional extraction might require the whole volume of the soil to be dug up and chemically processed, extraction with hyperaccumulating plants would require a crop or successive crops to be sown on the area and later harvested. The harvested crop, which is effectively a higher concentration ore, is then processed to extract the metal....

Plant Mechanisms for the Removal of Dyes

A Mechanisms Involving Adsorption and or Accumulation of Textile Dyes Plant mechanisms behind the removal of textile dyes, which are a group of organic pollutants, may be diverse. Though phytodegradation or phytotransformation are the most predominantly observed mechanisms adopted by plants for the degradation of organic compounds, the removal of textile dyes by plants also utilizes the mechanisms of adsorption and accumulation on plant surfaces. It has been established that the binding of...

Metals and Plant Metabolism

Among the heavy metals, cadmium Cd is a major environmental pollutant due to its high water solubility, and high toxicity to animals and plants Zacchini et al., 2009 . Cause significant disorders in the organisms even at low concentrations, because it is a non-essential element Pinto et al., 2004 . In some species, it can promote decreases up to 50 in dry matter production, with cases of decreases in root dry mass by around 80 Pietrini et al, 2010 . Furthermore, it is easily absorbed and...

Constructed Mangrove Wetlands in Phytoremediation and Remediation Capacity

Mangrove wetlands are highly efficient in adsorbing and absorbing wastewater-borne pollutants, including nitrogen, phosphorus, heavy metals and toxic organic pollutants Clough et al., 1983 Gale et al., 1993 Corredor and Morell, 1994 Tam and Wong, 1995b, 1996 Yang et al., 2008 . Clough et al. 1983 estimated that mangrove plants, through incorporation into the plant tissues, could annually immobilize around 150 to 250 kg N ha-1 and 10 to 20 kg P ha-1. The removal efficiencies of nutrients and...

Julian Alps Italy

Phytostabilization consists in using metallicolous plants to establish a persistent plant cover in order to prevent pollution from spreading by erosion, water percolation, leaching and from toxic dust dispersal by wind Ernst, 1996 . A typical scenario in which phytostabilization could be considered is represented by the anthropogenic metalliferous sites e.g. abandoned mining sites, smelter sites where the presence of mine tailings and wastes results in severe pollution and poses aesthetic...

Application of PGPR Pseudomonas for Nickel Removal

Restoration of the heavy metal polluted soils is a priority direction in many countries. Soil phytoremediation and protection of agricultural crops from heavy metals are actual problems of modern biotechnology. Bacteria are actively involved in global cycles of metals circulation in biosphere. Heavy metal contamination in soil leads to dynamic instability of certain groups of microorganisms in soil 42 , and predominance of phytopathogens decreases the efficiency of metabolism in plants and...

Maize and Sunflower Gentic Bio Diversity

Several studies have been conducted with wild and cultivated sunflower, and with maize accessions using different molecular markers, such as RAPDs Berry et al., 1994 Iqbal et al., 2008 Leal et al., 2010 , AFLPs Ronicke et al., 2005 Dong et al., 2007 , SSRs Yu et al., 2002 Chen et al., 2006 Leal et al., 2010 Eschholz et al., 2010 , SNPs Liu and Burke, 2006 , and TRAPs Yue et al., 2009 . The present study, RAPD or AFLP markers were used to investigate GBD in several sunflower and maize cultivars...

Plants to Pollutants

Some morphological, physiological and anatomical adaptations developed by mangrove plants to cope with environmental extremes such as fluctuated flooding, oligotrophic conditions and high salinity, may have additional merit in tolerating environmental toxicants. Progress in mechanistic research on the tolerance of mangrove species, as well as their physiological responses, to inorganic and organic toxicants has been made in the past few decades. It has become evident that exposure of plants to...

Transgenic Plants for Remediation of Phenolic Compounds

There are several approaches that may lead to enhance phytoremediation of phenol and similar small organic contaminants such as screening studies to identify the most suitable plant species or varieties and optimization of agronomic practices to maximize biomass production and, consequently, phenol degradation. Agronomic practices like fertilization may also affect this process by influencing microbial density and composition in the rhizosphere Pilon-Smits, 2005 . However, it is clear that the...

Maize and Sunflower Phytoextraction

Pot experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the phytoextraction capability of 3 out of the 9 maize cultivars assayed for their GBD cultivars for the pot experiments are identified by in Table 1 , and of the 3 sunflower cultivars Table 1 . Three seeds per cultivar were sown in pots filled with soil collected, at a depth of about 10-20 cm, from an area cultivated with chestnut and hazel in the surroundings of the campus of the University of Salerno Fisciano, SA-Italy . Pot filling soil...

Impact and Toxicity

Example Fertility Diet

Phenol and its halogenated derivatives are considered as high priority pollutants because of their toxicity and possible accumulation in the environment. The generic terms phenols and phenolics are frequently used to describe those alcohol derivatives of benzene. They are mainly of anthropogenic origin, due to their wide utilization in several industries. The basic information concerning some physical and chemical properties of phenol, which was selected as a representative phenolic...