Info

I I.I.I (nat) 11.5.1 (waste) 11.6.1 (trade) 11.7.1 (sew)

Pyrol/sis gas High- HPLC-mass Ion-exchange Column coupled chromato- performance spectrometry chromato- ¡sot echography liquid chromato- graphy electrophoresis graphy

9.6.1.4 (nat) 9.6.3.1 (trade) 9.6.4.1 (sew) 9.7.1.3 (nat)

Organ oarsenic Organolead Orga no-mercury

Organotin

Organoboron

Organosilicon Total halogen Organic phosphorus Total organic carbon

12.4.1.2 (nat) 12.4.1.3 (nat) 12.4.2.1 (rain) 12.4.3.1 (sea) 12.4.4.1 (pot)

Table 1.13(d) Liquid chromatographic, superfluid chromatographic and thin-layer chromatographic methods for the determination of organic compounds in waters'

Ion Conventional Superfluid Thin-layer chromatography chromatography chromatography chromatography

Aliphatic hydrocarbons Aromatic hydrocarbons Poly aromatic hydrocarbons Mineral oils and petroleum spills

Aldehydes Esters

Carbohydrates Lactams Qui non es

Phenols

Anionic detergents Non-ionic detergents Saturated aliphatic halogen compounds Haloforms Haloaromatics

Polychlorobipheny I s Chlorophenols 5.8.1.5 (nat) Aliphatic amines

Nitrophenols Amides

Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid Nitriloacetic acid Clorinated insecticides Mixtures of chlorinated insecticides and poly ch I o robi phe ny I s

Rationale, analysis of water samples 103

Table 1.13(a) Continued

Table 1.13(a) Continued

Note a Nat = natural waters, pot = potable waters, rain = rain/snow, sew = sewage effluents, trade = trade effluents.

Note a Nat = natural waters, pot = potable waters, rain = rain/snow, sew = sewage effluents, trade = trade effluents.

analysis are gas chromatography (77 types of organics) and highperformance and conventional liquid chromatography techniques (40 types HPLC, 26 types conventional column chromatography).

In a well-equipped laboratory it is mandatory that these techniques be coupled with a mass spectrometric detector in order to achieve a combination of resolution of mixtures, positive identification of separated organics and the high sensitivity that is essential when dealing with environmental water samples. The penetration of mass spectrometers in recent years is indicated by the fact that of the 77 types of organic compounds that have been determined by gas chromatography, in 19 cases mass spectrometric detection is discussed. This trend will, without doubt, continue into the future.

Another growing technique is supercritical fluid chromatography. Although recent references discuss only polychloroinsecticides, polychlorobiphenyl mixtures and mixtures of other types of organic compounds, there is no doubt that these applications will multiply in the future and that the range of supercritical fluids used (carbon dioxide, and methanol modified carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, fluorohydrocarbons) will increase as will the combination of this technique with mass spectrometric identification of separated compounds. For more volatile organic compounds such as aliphatic hydrocarbons, haloforms and saturated and unsaturated low-boiling aliphatic halogen compounds headspace gas chromatography and purge and trap gas chromatography are methods of choice.

A technique involving pyrolysis of the organic compound followed by gas chromatography of the pyrolysis products has, to date, found very limited application in the water laboratory (chlorolignosulphonic acids, chlorocarboxylic acids). It is, nevertheless the basis of a well-established method for determining total organic carbon in water.

Similarly, the technique of ion chromatography which has extensive application in the determination of anions and cations has very limited application in the determination of organics in water. The substances that have been determined include carboxylic acids, chlorophenols and sulphur-containing organic compounds.

Thin-layer chromatography has been applied extensively but is really only of value in preliminary scouting experiments or with types of samples such as sewage and trade effluents where the concentrations of organics present are relatively high, usually in the high milligram per litre range.

Regarding routine analysis, which in many cases is amenable to automation, a variety of techniques are available but, as always, in applying these methods the questions of interference effects and sensitivity must be borne in mind. These methods include:

1 Visible spectrophotometry (32 types of organic compounds), flow injection analysis (six types of organic compounds).

2 Ultraviolet spectroscopy (10 types of organic compounds): unsaturated hydrocarbons, PCBs, phenols, detergents, nitriloacetic acid; humic and fulvic acids, organolead, arsenic and antimony compounds, total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon.

3 Fluorescence spectrometry (eight types of organic compounds): polyaromatic hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids, phenols, amino acids, carbamate herbicides, humic and fulvic acids, chlorophyll and organoantimony, tin and boron compounds.

4 Polarographic methods (15 types of organic compounds): polyaromatic hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, esters, cations, PCBs, quinones, detergents, chlorophenols, amides, humic and fulvic acids, phosphorus-containing insecticides, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid and nitriloacetic acid.

5 Titration methods (13 types of organic compounds): detergents, mercaptans, humic and fulvic acids and chlorine, iodine and organic nitrogen.

Other miscellaneous techniques which have found very limited application in water analysis include the following:

1 Infrared spectroscopy (seven types of organic compounds): hydrocarbons, cationic detergents, humic and fulvic acids, mixtures of organics, total organic carbon.

2 Raman spectroscopy (five types of organic compounds): polyaromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, lignosulphonates, phosphoruscontaining insecticides, mixtures of organics.

3 Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (four types of organic compounds): nitrosamines, chlorine-containing insecticides, humic and fulvic acids, mixtures of organic compounds.

4 Neutron activaton analysis (four types of organic compounds): organomercury compounds, chlorine, bromine and iodine.

5 X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy: alkyl and aryl phosphates.

6 Isotope dilution analysis (four types of organic compounds): chlorocarboxylic acids, cobalamin, organic nitrogen and phosphorus.

7 Enzymic assay methods (eight types of organic compounds): carbohydrates, phenols, polychlorobiphenyls, adenosine triphosphate, chlorine and phosphorus-containing insecticides, carbamate herbicides and triazine herbicides.

8 Atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry (13 types of organic compounds): detergents, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, nitriloacetic acid, organic compounds of arsenic, lead, mercury, tin, germanium, silica and sulphur.

References

1 Schalz, L. and Attman, H.J. Z. Analytische Chemie 240 81 (1968)

2 Schwarz, F.P. and Wasik, S.P. Analytical Chemistry 48 524 (1976)

3 Muel, B. and Lacrux, G. Bulletin Chemical Society (London) 2139 (1960)

4 Jager, J. and Fassovitzova, B. Chem. Listy. 62 216 (1968)

5 Khesina, A-Y. and Petrova, J. Spectroscopy U.S.S.R. 18 622 (1973)

6 Monarca, S. Causey, B.S. and Kirkbright, G.F Water Research 13, 503 (1974)

7 Stepanova, M.I., Il'ina, R.H. and Shaposhnikov, Y.K. Journal of Analytical Chemistry U.S.S.R. 27 1075 (1972)

8 World Health Organization. International Standards for Drinking Water, 3rd edn, Geneva, p. 37(1971)

9 Cathrone, B. and Fielding, M. Proc. Anal. Proceedings Chemical Society (London) 15 155 (1978)

10 Ogan, K., Katz, E. and Slavin, W. Journal of Chromatographic Science 16 517 (1978)

11 Dunn, B.P. and Stich, H.F. Journal of Fisheries Board (Canada) 33 2040 (1976)

13 Ruzicka, J. and Hansen, E.A. Anal. Chim. Acta. 78 145 (1975)

14 Greenfield, S., Jones, I.L. and Berry, C.T. Analyst (London) 89 713 (1964)

15 Wendt, R.H. and Fassel, U.A. Analytical Chemistry 37 920 (1965)

16 Scott, R.H. Analytical Chemistry 46, 75 (1974)

17 Suddendorf, R.F. and Boyer, K.W. Analytical Chemistry 50 1769 (1978)

18 Sharp, B.L. The Conespray Nebulizer, British Technology Group, Patent assignment No. 8 432 338 (1984)

19 Gunn, A.M., Millard, D.L. and Kirkbright, G.F. Analyst (London) 103 1066 (1978)

20 Martusiewicz, H. and Barnes, R.M. Applied Spectroscopy 38 745 (1984)

21 Tikkanen, M.W. and Niemczyk, T.M. Analytical Chemistry 56 1997 (1984)

22 Salin, E.D. and Harlick, G. Analytical Chemistry 51 2284 (1979)

23 Salin, E.D. and Szung, R.L.A. Analytical Chemistry 56 2596 (1984)

24 Thompson, M. and Walsh, J.N. In Handbook of Reductivity Coupled Plasma Spectrometry, Blackie, London and Glasgow, p. 55(1983)

25 Stathan, P.J. Analytical Chemistry 49 2149 (1977)

26 Yaneda, Y. and Horiuchi, T. Dev. Sci. Instr. 42 1069 (1971)

27 Aiginger, H. and Wodbrauschek, P. Nucl. Instruments and Methods 114 157 (1974)

28 Knoth, J., Schwenke, H. and Fresenius, Z. Für Analytisch Chemie 291 200 (1978)

29 Knoth, J., Schwenke, H. and Fresenius, Z. Für Analytisch Chemie 201 7 (1980)

30 Schwenke, H. and Knoth, J. Nuclear Methods 193 239 (1982)

31 Pella, P.A. and Dobbyn, R.C. Analytical Chemistry 60 684 (1988)

32 Shackleford, W.M. and McGuire, J.M. Spectra 10 17 (1986)

34 Federal Register 44 69466 3 December (1979)

35 Federal Register 45 33066 19 May (1980)

36 Federal Register Method 624 49 43234 26 October (1984)

38 Fish, J.F., Haeberer, A.M. and Kovell, S.P. Spectra 10 22 (1986)

39 Friedman, D. Spectra 10 40 (1986)

40 Warburton, G. and Millard, B. International Labmate xii(7) 87 (1984)

41 Kelly. P.E. Ion trap detection, literature reference list. IDT21. Finnigan, MAT

42 Kelly, P.E. New advances in the operation of the ion trap mass spectrometer. IDT10. Finnigan, MAT

43 Cambell, C. The ion -trap detection for gas chromatography, technology and application. IDT15. Finnigan, MAT

44 Stafford, G.C. Recent improvements in and analytical applications of advanced ion-trap technology. IDT16. Finnigan, MAT

45 Stafford, G.C. Advanced ion -trap technology in an economical detector for GC . IDT20. Finnigan, MAT

46 Stafford, G.C. The Finnigan MAT ion-trap mass spectrometer (IT.MS) - new development with ion-trap technology . IDT24. Finnigan, MAT

47 Rordorf, B.F. Comparison of quantitative results for one analysis of 2, 3, 7, 8 TCDD by 4500 Quadrupole MS and 705 ion-trap detector . IDT14. Finnigan, MAT

48 Syka, J.E.P. Positive ion chemical ionization with an ion-trap mass spectrometer . IDT19. Finnigan, MAT

49 Yost, R.A., McClennan, W. and Meuzzelar, H.L.C. Enhanced full scan sensitivity and dynamic range in Finnigan MAT ion-trap detection with new automatic gain control software . IDT22. Finnigan, MAT

50 Camp, C. Ion-trap advancements, higher sensitivity and greater dynamic range with automatic gain control software. IDT23 . Finnigan, MAT

51 Richards, J.M. and Bradford, D.C. Development of a Curie Point Pyrolysis inlet for the Finnigan MAT ion-trap detector. IDT25 . Finnigan, MAT

52 Bishop, P. The ion-trap detector, universal and specific detection in one detector . IDT28. Finnigan, MAT

53 Bishop, P. The use of an ADT50 GLC ion-trap detection combination . IDT36. Finnigan, MAT

54 Bishop, P. Low cost mass spectrometer for GC . IDT42. Finnigan, MAT

55 Campbell, C. and Evans, S. The ion-trap detector - the techniques and its application . IDT29. Finnigan, MAT

56 Olsen, E. Serially interfaced gas chromatography/fourier transform infrared spectrometer/ion-trap spectrometer . IDT35. Finnigan, MAT

57 Allison, J. The hows and whys of ion-trapping . IDT41. Finnigan, MAT

58 Todd, J., Mylechreest, I., Berry, T. and Gaumres, D. Supercritical chromatography mass spectrometry with an ion-trap detector . IDT46. Finnigan, MAT

59 Eichelberg, J.W. and Budd, W.L. Studies in mass spectrometry with an iontrap detector . IDT47. Finnigan, MAT

60 Eichelberg, J.W. and Stivon, L.E. Existence of self chemical ionizaton in the ion-trap detector . IDT48. Finnigan, MAT

61 Genin, E. Le-detecteur a'plegeage d'iou sde chinatogiaphie en phase gaseuse. Technologie et Applications . IDT53. Finnigan, MAT

62 Lebair, M. The use of the IDT51, a low cost GC/MS system for the identification of trace compounds . IDT51. Finnigan, MAT

63 Richards, J.M., McClennan, W.H., Burger, J.A. and Menza, H.H.C. Pyrolysis short column GC/MS using the ITD and ITMS . IDT56. Finnigan, MAT

64 Westendorf, R.G. Tekiman Company P.O. Box. 371856, Cincinnati, OH. 45223-11856, USA. Presented at the 1986 Water Quality Technology Conference of the American Water Works Association, Portland, Oregon, November (1986)

65 Vaughan, C.G., Wheats, B.B. and Whitehouse M.J.J. Journal of Chromatography 28 203 (1973)

66 Lewis, W.M. Water Treatment and Examination 24 243 (1975)

67 Sorrell, R.K. and Reding, R. Journal of Chromatography 185 655 (1975)

68 Sorrell, R.K., Dressman, R. L. and McFerrer, E.F. American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Kansas City, MO, December 5 to 7. American Water Works Association, Denver, Colorado , P 3A-3 (1978)

69 Das, B.S. and Thomas, G.H. Analytical Chemistry 50 967 (1978)

70 Schonmann, M. and Kern, H. Varian Instrument Applications 15 6 (1981)

71 Hewlett Packard. Peak, Autumn 10 (1988)

72 Rivera, J., Carxash, S., Ventura, F., Fraisse, A. and Des Salees, G. FAB-CAD-MIKES . Analysis of non ionic surfactants in river and drinking water. Proceedings of 10th International Mass Spectrometry Conference, Swansea , 9-13 September (J.F.F. Todd Editor), John Wiley, Basingstoke (1985)

73 Righton, M.J.G. and Watts, C.D. Water Research Centre , Report ER1194-M. Identification of surfactants in water samples using sublation extraction and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry . December (1986)

74 Small, H., Stevens, T.S. and Bauman, W.C. Analytical Chemistry 47 1801 (1975)

75 Klesper, E., Corwin, A. and Turner, D. Journal of Organic Chemistry 27 700 (1962)

76 Novotny, M., Springston, P.J. and Lee, M. Analytical Chemistry 53 407A (1981)

77 Wall, R.J. Chromatography and Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester (1988)

78 Later, D., Bornhof, D., Lee, E., Henion, J. and Wiedholt, R. Liquid Chromatography-Gas Chromatography 1 804 (1987)

79 Kennedy, S. and Wall, R. Liquid Chromatography-Gas Chromatography 2 10 (1988)

80 Sim, P. Elson, C. and Quillaim, M. Journal of Chromatography 445 239 (1988)

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Healthy Chemistry For Optimal Health

Healthy Chemistry For Optimal Health

Thousands Have Used Chemicals To Improve Their Medical Condition. This Book Is one Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Chemicals. Not All Chemicals Are Harmful For Your Body – Find Out Those That Helps To Maintain Your Health.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment